You Have Done Your Part Nobly~July 1864~23rd to 25th

You Have Done Your Part Nobly ~ Senator John Sherman

Senator Sherman praises his brother’s efforts in Georgia yet worries about General Grant’s failure to take Richmond. More and more of Georgia is laid waste. Confederate forces in northern Virginia have success. Whitman heals.

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July 23– Saturday– Atlanta, Georgia– “It really made me sad to witness the ruin and destruction of the place. The soldiers have broke open many stores and scattered things over the streets promiscuously. There is the same noise and bustle on Whitehall [Street] but instead of thrift and industry and prosperity, it is hurried scramble to get away, fleeing from the wrath to come. If Sodom deserved the fate that befell it, Atlanta will not be unjustly punished, for since this war commenced it has grown to be the great capital place of corruption in official and private circles. While I regret the loss of Atlanta on account of its great value to the country as a military base and its incalculable value on account of its arsenals, foundries, manufacturies and railroad connections, I can scarcely regret that the nest of speculators and thieves, &c. is broken up. The constant and glorious patriotism and self-sacrificing devotion to our cause displayed by the women of Atlanta is the only redeeming virtue of the place.” ~ Letter from a Confederate soldier to his mother.

July 23– Saturday– Burge Plantation near Covington, Georgia– “I have been left in my home all day with no one but Sadai. Have seen nothing of the raiders, though this morning they burned the buildings around the depot at the Circle [Social Circle, a near-by town]. I have sat here in the porch nearly all day, and hailed every one that passed for news. Just as the sun set here Major Ansley and family came back. They heard of the enemy all about and concluded they were as safe here as anywhere. Just before bedtime John, our [slave] boy, came from Covington with word that the Yankees had left. Wheeler’s men were in Covington and going in pursuit. We slept sweetly and felt safe.” ~ Diary of Dolly Sumner Lunt Burge.

July 23– Saturday– Tanauan, Batengas, the Phillippines– Birth of Apolinario Mabini, lawyer, political theoretician and revolutionary, who will serves as Prime Minister from January to May, 1899. [Dies May 13, 1903.]

Apolinaria Mabini

Apolinario Mabini

July 24– Sunday– Brooklyn, New York– “Since I last wrote to you my illness has been gradually alleviated, until now I go about pretty much the same as usual. I keep pretty old-fashioned hours, rise early, dine at 1, & go to bed before 10. My head feels clear & comfortable, & my strength has returned almost, but not quite up to what it was. . . . I am trying to make arrangements to publish my volume [Drum Taps]. I shall probably try to bring [it] out myself, stereotype it, & print an edition of 500. I could sell that number by my own exertions in Brooklyn & New York in three weeks. . . . Mother’s age I think begins to just show– in a few weeks, she will commence her 70th year– still she does most of her light housework. My sister & her children are well. . . . Well, William, about the war I have to inform you that I remain hopeful & confident yet. I still think Grant will go into Richmond. My brother [George] describes the spirit of the troops as confident & sanguine under all their trials.” ~ Letter from Walt Whitman to his friend William D. O’Connor.

Louisa Whitman, Walt's mother

Louisa Whitman, Walt’s mother

July 24– Sunday– Mansfield, Ohio– “We all feel that upon Grant and you, and the armies under your command, the fate of this country depends. If you are successful, it is ardently hoped that peace may soon follow with a restored union. If you fail, the wisest can hope for nothing but a long train of disasters and the strife of factious. All our people cling to the hope of success, and seem perfectly willing to submit to taxation, bad administration, and every ill short of disunion. Whether it is the result of education, the constant warnings of the early Southern statesman, or the reason of the thing, everybody here dreads the breaking up of the union as the beginning of anarchy. The very thing they fight for in the South is for them, and for us, the worst calamity. What can be more terrible than the fate of Kentucky and Missouri. A man cannot go to bed at night, except in fear of the knife and torch. This lawlessness will extend all over the country if we do not have military success. . . . Bad precedents in time of war will easily be corrected by peace. But the anarchy of unsuccessful war will reduce us to a pitiable state, in which we shall easily fall victims to demagogism or tyranny. Every one feels that you have done your part nobly. Grant has not had such success. No doubt he has done as well as any one could with his resources and such adversaries. Still he has not taken Richmond, and I fear will not this campaign.” ~ Letter from Senator John Sherman to his brother General William Tecumseh Sherman.

July 24– Sunday– Kernstown, Virginia– Confederate troops defeat the Union forces and drive the Federals back across the Potomac River. Total Confederate losses– killed, wounded and missing– are approximately 600 and Federal losses total approximately 1200.

July 24– Sunday– Cobb County, Georgia– “I feel very lonely this pleasant, bright, cool day, no company and hearing constantly this morning the heavy cannonading at the South East which I am informed was kept up the most of last night – man killing his brother man, like beast of prey, without even the excuse of hunger or passion towards each other and I am in ignorance if one of my poor children may not be among the slain; this sad war, this war brought on by the corruption of politicians– how often are my feelings painfully excited toward that class of human demons, for whose corrupt occupation I have all my life felt the bitterest contempt, the most of them would willingly despoil Heaven for an office.” ~ Diary of William King.

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July 24– Sunday– Union lines outside Atlanta, Georgia– “Our battery kept up a fire on the city all night. We could plainly see the burning fuse of the shell as it sped on its way. At one time there was a fire in the city, probably caused by our shell. The tall kind sergeant, you remember, was wounded in the breast last Sunday, I fear fatally. Few that were not with us will ever appreciate the fierceness of our struggle that afternoon; besides a strong enemy in front and on the left, we were exposed to the sun, which was literally scorching. After we had won the field and were at last relieved, the men were so exhausted that they could hardly move, and some had to be carried back though not wounded; among these was my Adjutant, who seemed to be in hysterias, and for a time I almost feared that he was dying. One Captain and Lieutenant, who had worked splendidly, were in about the same condition. I had not strength to speak above a whisper, but soon recovered. Our guns were so hot from rapid firing that the men could not touch the barrels.” ~ Letter from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife.

July 24– Sunday– Burge Plantation near Covington, Georgia– “No church. Our preacher’s horse stolen by the Yankees. This raid is headed by Guerrard and is for the purpose of destroying our railroads. They cruelly shot a George Daniel and a Mr. Jones of Covington, destroyed a great deal of private property, and took many citizens prisoners.” ~ Diary of Dolly Sumner Lunt Burge.

July 24– Sunday– Hanover, Germany– Birth of Frank Wedekind, playwright. [Dies March 9, 1918.]

Frank Wedekind~1883

Frank Wedekind~1883

July 25– Monday– Washington, D.C.– “The cane you did me the honor to present through Governor Curtin was duly placed in my hand by him. Please accept my thanks; and, at the same time, pardon me for not having sooner found time to tender them.” ~ Letter from President Lincoln to William O. Snider of Philadelphia.

July 25– Monday– Petersburg, Virginia– “I am getting very uneasy & exceeding anxious to hear how and when Father, Yourself, Harris & all of Roswell are. Major Minturn tells me he hears regularly from his wife. It was through her we have heard of the destruction of our little village. The factory & every home in the place being burnt. It is impossible for me to realize it, and I want to hear all about it from some of the family. Oh how fiercely I could drive the scoundrels from my home that their presence might no longer pollute my native state. In all my engagements with the enemy when I come in sight of their blue Yankee uniforms a feeling more like that of a fiend than human takes possession of me and I only feel an intense desire to kill, to strike to the earth all that come in my reach. I rejoice that Johnston has been superceded by Hood. We have heard of the fighting there & are anxiously looking for further news. Atlanta, I expect, is now safe & I pray God we may have such a victory then as will have to [lead to] an early termination or cessation of hostilities but what will Father and yourself do for a home. Dear old Roswell I am afraid we will never meet in a home there again. Oh what a war, a cruel war, & how little the Yankees feel it.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Barrington S King to his mother.

July 25– Monday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Another day of trial and anxiety has come, all nature seems cheerful, the skies bright and clear and the weather very cool for the season, and after Breakfast as I could not go to town I walked to the Picket station near the Graveyard, gave one of them [Federal soldiers] a letter to take to the P.O. for me and asked him to inquire for letters there for me . . . . I learnt that the report of the Federal Army having entered Atlanta some days ago was untrue, and that they were still out of it up to yesterday evening, that the fighting on Thursday and Saturday was very severe and the loss large on both sides, that on Thursday General McPherson (one of the best of the Federal Generals) was killed and . . . a large number of other officers on both sides, and the sacrifice of men great on both sides, how this needless war is spreading mourning and distress throughout our once prosperous and almost perfectly happy county– if the politicians were out of the way, how soon could the afflicted people reconcile their differences, and terminate this appalling and wicked sacrifice of Life and happiness.” ~ Diary of William King.

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July 25– Monday– outside Atlanta, Georgia– “We are very near Atlanta, actually besieging it, only I doubt whether we have troops enough wholly to encompass it; still we are bound to take it, there can be little doubt of it. Our batteries throw shot and shell into the city and the forts around the city, and the rebels reply from their forts at times quite lustily. My regiment is in a very good position and, though one or two shells have struck within the camp, we are unhurt. Do you want my old hat? I have put it up and will send it off by mail. You can see the mark that bullet left on the 22nd of June. I have been through so many battles; nearly two hundred officers and men of my regiment have been killed and wounded in this campaign; I have been with them always, exposed as much as any, and have come out unscathed. I have faith that I will in the future and finally come home. The papers have doubtless told you how disastrously to the rebels the battles of the 20th and the 22nd resulted, and also that General McPherson . . . was killed. . . . There has been considerable fighting along the lines today. Our lines are moving from the left to the right with the view, I suppose, of meeting at the Mobile Railroad. Two of my men have been slightly bruised by a shell, otherwise we are all well.” ~ Letter from union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife.

War Is A Calamity~July 1864~22nd to 23rd

War Is a Calamity ~ William King

Welles criticizes Greeley’s peace efforts. George Templeton Strong forces himself to remain optimistic. The sound of canon and muskets fills the air in Virginia and Georgia.

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July 22– Friday– Washington, D.C.– “At the Cabinet-meeting the President read his correspondence with Horace Greeley on the subject of peace propositions from George Saunders and others at Niagara Falls. The President has acquitted himself very well– if he was to engage in the matter at all– but I am sorry that he permits himself, in this irregular way, to be induced to engage in correspondence with irresponsible parties like Saunders and Clay or scheming busybodies like Greeley. There is no doubt that the President and the whole Administration are misrepresented and misunderstood on the subject of peace, and Greeley is one of those who has done and is doing great harm and injustice in this matter. In this instance he was evidently anxious to thrust himself forward as an actor, and yet when once engaged he began to be alarmed; he failed to honestly and frankly communicate the President’s first letters, as was his duty, but sent a letter of his own, which was not true and correct, and found himself involved in the meshes of his own frail net.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

July 22– Friday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Not feeling very well last night from a cold and some feverish feeling, I went to bed early, but had rather a restless night; this morning I feel pretty well again, my cold has pretty much passed off. May God in his goodness deliver me from sickness this summer, to be even unwell with my wife away from me and I so lonely would be sad suffering to me, but I must put my trust in God and be resigned. . . . I have written another letter to my wife [sent to safety in Savannah, Georgia] hoping I may have an opportunity of getting it off. I will continue to write regularly to her, although I fear but few of my letters will ever reach her– it is painful to be so separated without the means of communicating with each other how much more happiness were we permitted to enjoy, before this cruel, stupid politicians’ war was inaugurated!. . . . war is a calamity to beast as well as Man; yet ambition and bad men will often involve a happy country in war with but little provocation. So God deals with his creatures for the sins of a few. . . . How many fearful forebodings of evil will force themselves on my depressed heart, in God will I place my trust, he is wise and good, he will overrule all things well, whatever man in his wickedness and weakness may try to do, God will overrule all for the good of His children, could we only feel with true confidence that we were of the Household of faith how cheerfully resigned would we be to the many trials of life and be ready to depart and be at peace in Heaven, how blessed are the dead, who have died in the Lord– this sad, cruel war, upon whom rest the great sin of having involved this happy, peaceful prosperous country in it? May God deal with his accustomed mercy in punishing His weak and sinful creatures.” ~ Diary of William King.

July 22– Friday– outside Atlanta, Georgia– Determined to take the offensive Confederate General John Bell Hood launches a direct attack against General Sherman’s left flank but suffers a severe repulse, sustaining a total of 8,499 killed, wounded and missing. Federal losses amount to 3,641. The popular Union General James B. McPherson is killed and his soldiers swear take vengeance on the rebels.

July 22– Friday– Columbus, Georgia– “Since the last entry I made in December, 1863, I have been in feeble health, and overcome with troubles, so much so that I have quit going to my office and stay at home. On the 15th of May, a battle was going on at Resaca on the state railroad. Our men were ordered to lie down in the trenches while the enemy was shelling them. A shell fell near my dear Eugene . . . and exploded, killing him so dead that he was not known to speak or breathe afterwards. The night following, Willis [another son] had the sad duty to perform of burying him in the night, which was near where he was killed in a garden. Had no coffin but put him in a grave and covered him with the dirt and hurried off, the enemy not far off. This was the earthly end of dear Eugene, about twenty-five years of age. He was a good, dutiful son, of fine person, near or quite six feet high, of pleasing manners and very popular. . . . He loved his home but was denied the enjoyment of it. I had given him some land in Stewart County, built him a house (all new) . . . and eighteen Negroes. Thus ends dear Eugene, which has caused many tears to be shed. Even to this day I often cry to think and speak of him.” ~ Diary of John Banks.

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July 22– Friday– Burge Plantation near Covington, Georgia– “We have heard the loud booming of cannon all day. Mr. Ward [the overseer] went over to the burial of Thomas Harwell, whose death I witnessed yesterday. They had but just gone when the Reverend A. Turner, wife, and daughter drove up with their wagons, desiring to rest awhile. They went into the ell [a large back room] and lay down, I following them, wishing to enjoy their company. Suddenly I saw the servants [slaves] running to the palings, and I walked to the door, when I saw such a stampede as I never witnessed before. The road was full of carriages, wagons, men on horseback, all riding at full speed. Judge Floyd stopped, saying: ‘Mrs. Burge, the Yankees are coming. They have got my family, and here is all I have upon earth. Hide your mules and carriages and whatever valuables you have.’ . . . Sadai [nine year old daughter] was taking down and picking up our clothes, which she was giving to the servants [slaves] to hide in their cabins; silk dresses, challis, muslins, and merinos, linens, and hosiery, all found their way into the chests of the women and under their beds; china and silver were buried underground, and Sadai bid Mary [a slave] hide a bit of soap under some bricks, that mama might have a little left. Then she came to me with a part of a loaf of bread, asking if she had not better put it in her pocket, that we might have something to eat that night. And, verily, we had cause to fear that we might be homeless, for on every side we could see smoke arising from burning buildings and bridges. Major Ansley, who was wounded in the hip in the battle of Missionary Ridge, and has not recovered, came with his wife, sister, two little ones, and servants [slaves]. He was traveling in a bed in a small wagon. They had thought to get to Eatonton, but he was so wearied that they stopped with me for the night. I am glad to have them. I shall sleep none to-night. The woods are full of refugees.” ~ Diary of Dolly Sumner Lunt Burge.

July 22– Friday– Pine Bluff Arkansas; Wright County, Missouri; Coldwater River, Mississippi; Clifton, Tennessee; Vidalia, Louisiana; Condordia, Louisiana; Newtown Virginia; Berryville, Virginia– Incursions, sorties and assaults.

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July 23– Saturday– New York City– “I will not let myself doubt the final issue. What further humiliation and disaster, public and private, we must suffer before we reach the end, God only knows; but this shabbiest and basest of rebellions cannot be destined to triumph.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

July 23– Saturday– Wheeling, West Virginia– “Fifty barrels of vegetables were shipped from this city last evening by the Soldiers’ Aid Society, for West Virginia boys at Martinsburg. This gift will be greatly relished by the boys after their many privations. They must be heavily tired of flitch and hard tack.” ~ Wheeling Daily Intelligencer.

July 23– Saturday– Wheeling, West Virginia– “The bronze statue of Washington captured by General Hunter’s command, having served its purpose at the Sanitary Fair has been removed to the yard of the Lindsley Institute, the temporary capital of the State, where it attracts considerable interest.” ~ Wheeling Daily Intelligencer.

July 23– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “This morning we crossed Chain Bridge and are once more in the District of Columbia. We are under orders to move and I expect we shall take transports back to Petersburg. Our campaign has been brief but successful.” ~ Diary of Union officer Elisha Hunt Rhodes.

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July 23– Saturday– Cobb County, Georgia– “The greater part of this morning we have heard heavy firing of cannon toward the South East. I learnt last evening that the Federal forces had gone into Atlanta the previous afternoon, but have heard none of the particulars. I hope the citizens did not abandon their homes as they did here, as painful as it is to be restricted as we are here, it is a duty to remain at home and give personal attention to one’s interests, the path of duty is the path of safety, running away from Home even before an enemy is cowardice and weakness– my stay here though subjecting me to many inconveniences, has been and still is a source of much gratification in affording me an opportunity of knowing the character of the Federal Army, and understanding their feelings and plans and so far none, even among privates in their intercourse with me have manifested any other feelings than those which are kind and gentlemanly. I have had nothing to pain me in my free intercourse with them, but everything has tended to allay any unkind feelings which I may have previously entertained and I truly wish all our ultra disunion men of the South could have enjoyed the same privilege I have for the past 3 weeks– both in sorrows and in joys. . . . The heavy firing has continued all day and still continues at dark.” ~ Diary of William King.

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July 23– Saturday– Union lines outside Atlanta, Georgia– “I wrote you last on the field of battle, on the field of victory, when we had accomplished what seldom falls to the fortune of one little regiment of two hundred and sixty muskets to achieve. It was a proud day for us. The boys are in good spirits; they are ready for the most desperate deeds. . . . Our pickets found early yesterday morning that the strong line of [Confederate] outer works about three-quarters of a mile in length in our front ha! been evacuated by the enemy. We fell in at once and marched forward and passed through them and took position on hills within easy cannon reach of the principal fortifications, to which the enemy had retired. We have thrown up works to protect us from artillery fire. We are only two and a half miles from the city; it is partly screened by high wooded hills. We have a large number of batteries in position. There has been a good deal of exchange of fire between them and the rebel artillery. . . . Our lines were very much extended; as we crowded nearer the city, they would become closer and stronger, and compel them to evacuate or stand a siege; to attack then was the best thing they could do. They have been badly beaten. I am very confident now that Atlanta will soon be ours. Johnston has been superseded by Hood in the command of the rebel army.” ~ Letter from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife.

Exposed to a Most Terrific Fire~July 1864~20th to 21st

Exposed to a Most Terrific Fire ~ a Confederate soldier

In Virginia and Georgia there is hard fighting and plenty of skirmishing in other parts of the Confederacy. Citizens complain of the devastation. Soldiers worry about their families. Scotland Yard chases a killer to New York City. A future First Lady is born.

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July 20– Wednesday– Richmond, Virginia– “A very pretty girl, named Althea F. Harris, was received here yesterday from Columbia, South Carolina, where she was arrested as a spy. She was committed to Castle Thunder.” ~ Richmond Whig.

July 20– Wednesday– Richmond, Virginia– “I shall leave tonight for my Regiment. My health is very good, but I do not believe that I would ever fully regain my strength in a hospital. I think marching and the excitement of change will be an advantage to me. We have some pretty weather now which is a rarity to us. I hope it will continue till I get hardened to Camp life again. Our prospects are not so bright as they were a few weeks past and I expect the people in Georgia are pretty low spirited. This should be avoided as much as possible. It just fires me up to fight the harder, and I am told by those just from the army that the soldiers are in fine spirits and ready for another fight.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier Marion Hill Fitzpatrick to his wife Amanda.

sharpshooters at Petersburg

sharpshooters at Petersburg

July 20– Wednesday– Petersburg, Virginia–”I am feeling very uneasy about Father & yourself & little Haddie. It has been so long since I have heard from you & the date of the letter was the 14th of June & now the Danville R R is finished & mails have come through & yet I can hear nothing from yourself or Father. Members of the Regiment lately from Atlanta returning to duty bring such conflicting rumors too that I feel doubly anxious to hear. One man says they have not only destroyed the factories but that most of the buildings in the village has been burnt. Another says they have only burnt the Wool Mill & are running the Cotton Mill on their own account & have burnt more of the buildings in the village. I don’t know what to believe but know this, that if it is not already burnt it will if Sherman is ever forced to retreat be destroyed without a doubt. It was reported to that Johnston had decided to give up Atlanta. But now he has been superceded by Hood who will fight Sherman where he is.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Barrington King to his mother.

July 20– Wednesday– Cleveland, Tennessee– “The brass band belonging to the 2nd Ohio Heavy Artillery plays every evening at the Raught (Raht) House on the hill. I like to hear it, yet it makes me very, very sad. I hear it now playing in the distance. After Rhoda and I go to bed in our snug little domicile, we hear them beat the tattoo, after that dies way the sound of the bugle pierces our ears, when the last blast [is] heard all is still for the night, and we sink to rest with a heavy heart amid fortifications and cannon ready to deal deadly missiles among our hearts’ idols who are banished and exiled from their homes.” ~ Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman.

July 20– Wednesday– Peachtree Creek, Georgia–While trying to protect Atlanta, Confederate forces are beaten back, sustaining heavy losses. Confederate causalities–dead, wounded and missing– amount to 4,796; Union causalities total 1,779.

Peachtree Creek battlefield

Peachtree Creek battlefield

July 20– Wednesday– Cobb County, Georgia– “I called to see Mrs McClatchy this morning, found her son better and all in more cheerful spirits. I heard nothing new but the rumor that some of our Cavalry in small bodies were about east and west of us, and some apprehension of their making raids upon the town, for the interruption of which trees had been cut and thrown across the Road near Colonel Brumby’s House. At 11 o’clock today the whole wagon train and horses left us, leaving the desolating marks of an army encampment behind them, fences pretty generally destroyed and the improvement of the place greatly marred, what a devastator is war. Not a chicken nor a pig left on the place; and when about leaving Sharpe informed me they were about taking off our lame mule which by the by I thought had been taken long before. . . . [Union] Major Flagg being in ill health and sympathizing with me in my lonely condition, has consented to remain with me a few days longer, greatly relieving me from my anticipated loneliness. Captain Rankin advises me to bring the Ladies up, and the servants [slaves] wish me also to do so, but all things look so dreary and lonely and we having neither poultry nor garden and none to be had in the neighborhood, they had better remain where they are now for a while longer, here for a while they would almost feel like prisoners, for almost such do I feel myself to be, so much so in addition to the danger of being innocently implicated in depredations which may be committed by Bushwhackers and Raiders, that I think I had better go to the North for 1 or 2 months, hoping that a more settled state of things may pass over our afflicted country within that time, than now exists. . . . [Union] Captain Garfield the Commissary, informs me that he has been often robbed by their own men, and that they 2 nights ago had robbed him largely of Hams and other provisions, 1 of the wagoners was suspected and arrested; the Robbers steal from the Rebels, Negroes and their own people alike; stealing and not patriotism moves them, the thieves infest both armies, but the Federal Army is more largely attended. I discover they have either destroyed or stolen the Ploughs and most of the Spades and Hoes, but few things with us seem to have been wantonly destroyed, at other places I notice much has been destroyed from mischief and badness, such as the breaking of windows, glasses, and defacing walls, etc– general lawlessness pervades the whole country.” ~ Diary of William King.

July 20– Wednesday– Newtown, Virginia; Berryville, Virginia; Stephenson’s Depot, Virginia; Philomont, Virginia; Blount County, Tennessee; La Fayette County, Missouri; Johnson County, Missouri; Arrow Rock, Missouri– Skirmishes, brawls, melees and showdowns.

July 20– Wednesday– Liverpool, England– A detective from Scotland Yard boards a ship to New York City, hoping to catch Franz Muller for the July 9th murder of Thomas Briggs.

July 20– Wednesday– Le Ma-sur-Seine, France– Birth of Michel Gaston Carraud, composer. [Dies June 15, 1920.]

Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1931

Erik Axel Karlfeldt
1931

July 20– Wednesday– Karlbo, Sweden– Birth of Erik Axel Karlfeldt, poet. [Dies April 8. 1931 and posthumously receives the Noble Prize for Literature that year.]

July 21– Thursday– Buffalo, New York– Birth of Frances Folsom Cleveland [dies October 29, 1947], the only child of Oscar and Emma Folsom. [A graduate of Wells College, Frances, at age 22, will marry President Grover Cleveland, 27 years her senior and her father’s law partner. During her time as First Lady she will serve as an excellent hostess and, like Jackie Kennedy in later decades, a fashionable trend-setter. Five years after President Cleveland’s death, she will marry Thomas Preston, businessman and educator.]

Frances Folsom Cleveland

Frances Folsom Cleveland

July 21– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– “The bearer of this is a most estimable widow lady [Mrs. Ann G. Sprigg] , at whose house I boarded many years ago when a member of Congress [1847-1848]. She now is very needy; & any employment suitable to a lady could not be bestowed on a more worthy person.” ~ Lincoln to William P. Fessenden, new Secretary of the Treasury.

July 21– Thursday– Petersburg, Virginia– “How long we will remain in this situation we cannot tell. It seems as if Grant is determined, if not driven away, to remain here all summer. I do wish this campaign would close, tis very disagreeable, and very unhealthy, both from bullets & disease. We can stand it about as well as Grant, though. It is now certainly known that General Johnston has been relieved of his command and General Hood has assumed command. Hood is an excellent officer, and I’ve no doubt will soon relieve the downtrodden portions of our beloved state. The Yankees are

getting uncomfortably near my home and I’m extremely anxious they should be driven away as speedily as possible. They have overrun enough of our state, and I think it is now time for them to halt. I received two letters from home today, and they exhibit great uneasiness lest Sherman should overrun our portion of the state. Our country is actually filled up with refugees from the northern part of Georgia. I think there is no use in being in such a hurry, Sherman hasn’t got Atlanta yet– not do I believe he will. If he does succeed he will be compelled to do some very hard fighting, I’m certain.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier Alva Benjamin Spencer to his fiancee Maggie Cone.

July 21– Thursday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Mr. Fletcher called to see me this morning, he in common with the rest of us out and in town, are prohibited from passing the Lines. He says while going into town a few days ago in his wagon with a load of wood at noon, a band of thieves met him on the road and took away one of his Horses, there is but little safety in moving about now, the strict orders prohibiting going in or out of town just now, I think, is attributable to the apprehension of a raid on Marietta, where the [Federal] government has a large amount of stores, it is reported that for some days past Confederate Scouts have been seen about at no great distance from the town. The [railroad] cars are now running more numerously toward the river. Excluded as we are in the country we can gather but little news– I am provided with no guard yet. Long wagon trains are constantly passing up and down the Road. The flies exceed in number and annoyance anything of the kind I have ever known, leaving no comfort for man or beast.” ~ Diary of William King.

July 21– Thursday– outside Atlanta, Georgia– “We have again had ourselves exposed to a most terrific fire. God in His kind providence has again spared me, even to having allowed a minie ball to strike my pants and yet not injure my leg. But He saw fit to take a leg from our dear friend Captain B. H. Napier. Besides, the Captain, though now with one leg, is worth a dozen two-legged ones, and you must answer his letter without fail to cheer him up as much as possible. He was shot at about 3 o’clock yesterday in a dreadful charge up over the enemy’s breastworks.” ~ Letter from a Confederate soldier to his sister.

July 21– Thursday– Atlanta, Georgia– “General Johnston is removed from his command, and Hood succeeds him. Johnston could not stand, so his successor is expected to do wonderful things. When

censured for continually falling back, Johnston replied, ‘We can rebuild cities when demolished, but if this army is once destroyed, we can never raise another.’ His men love and honor him and regret his removal. . . . Words cannot picture the scenes that surround me, scenes and sounds which my soul will hold in remembrance forever. Terrific cannonading on every side, continual firing of muskets, men screaming to each other, wagons rumbling by on every street or pouring into the yard (for the remnants of fences offer no obstructions new to cavalryman or wagoner) and from the city comes up wild shouting, as if there was a general melee there. I sit in my dismantled home tonight, feeling that our earthly loves and all our pleasant things are ours so slightly . . . . the firing increased, becoming fiercer each hour. Still the soldiers said, ‘There is no danger. We are driving back the enemy.’ Towards evening, I was standing in the yard, listening to the firing and expressing my fears of a still nearer approach of battle-scenes. Our kind soldier friend replied, ‘Oh, that is nothing. That firing is a long way off from here. Our army will never allow the Yankees to take Atlanta.” ~ Diary of Cyrena Stone.

July 21– Thursday– Bald Hill, Georgia; Atchafalaya, Louisiana; Plattsburg, Missouri; Barrancas, Florida– Skirmishes and raids.

I Could Be Comfortable Enough~July 1864~18th to 20th

I Could Be Comfortable Enough ~ William King

In the midst of national tribulation there are some small joys. Whitman receives an encouraging letter from a disabled veteran. A soldier is thankful for a supply of paper and fresh apple cider. Union friends salute Confederate General Pickett on the birth of his son. A wealthy Georgia man enjoys the friendly companionship of Union officers. Yet sorry and worry are commonplace. A woman leans the details of the death of two her sons in the same battle. An Atlanta woman worries about the safety of her house. Deaths of prisoners occur every day at Andersonville. “A number of depraved and abandoned women” are imprisoned in Richmond. Common soldiers are unhappy about the dismissal of General Johnston. Welles worries about his son joining the army.

an Ohio farmer worries about his son serving with General Grant

an Ohio farmer worries about his son serving with General Grant

July 18– Monday– Washington, D.C.– “Your kind letter came to hand yesterday. I was very much surprised to hear that you were in Brooklyn. I was also very sorry to hear of your illness & to think that it was brought on by your unselfish kindness to the Soldiers. There is a many a soldier now that never thinks of you but with emotions of the greatest gratitude & I know that the soldiers that you have been so kind to have a great big warm place in their heart for you. I never think of you but it makes my heart glad to think that I have been permitted to know one so good. I hope you will soon be enjoying good health again for it is one of God’s greatest blessings. I should like very much to see you back here but I suppose you must stay where it suits your health best but I will still write to you for I can never forget your great kindness to me. I have got my [artificial] leg but I think that I will never be able to walk much on it as my stump is so short but if I can’t I can go on my crutches for they appear to be a part of myself for I have been on them so long. . . . The 4 of July passed off here as usual– there was a national salute fired from the surrounding forts & there was any amount of sky rockets. They commenced celebrating the 4th on Sunday evening after dark & they kept it up until morning. I could not sleep practically all night there being so much noise.” ~ Letter from Union soldier Lewis K Brown to Walt Whitman.

July 18– Monday– Richmond, Virginia– “I, being the last one of Company H to visit the battlefield of May 6th , by request of Mr. M.O. Young take pleasure in responding to a letter received of him by you soliciting information relative to the death of your beloved sons John and Thomas. Having received a painful wound myself in the knee, I did not see either of them when struck but have received full particulars of the sad events from reliable men who witnessed them. Lieutenant was kneeling down giving instructions to some of the company about firing, when he was struck in the forehead by a minie ball, it passing through his brain. He died instantly without even speaking. This [was] some 75 yards from the enemy’s breastworks. Thomas, I do not suppose, was aware of it at the time, for, after reaching the Yankee breastwork and remaining behind them for minutes, he was struck himself by a minie ball, it passing through the right side of his neck cutting the jugular vein. He turned to Lieutenant Culp and, pointing with his finger to his wound from which his life’s blood was fast gushing forth, asked him where John was. This was the only word he spoke. Noble, noble youths, their untimely fate is deeply lamented by the entire company. No more heroic soldiers have fallen since this war began than they. None more gallant have ever graced the ranks of the Confederate army. In courage and valor they were surpassed by none. I am wholly inadequate to describe with pen the grief I have felt at your irreparable loss.” ~ Letter from a Confederate soldier to a mother in Georgia.

Petersburg under siege

Petersburg under siege

July 18– Monday– Petersburg, Virginia– “I am glad to get the paper and envelope you sent me, for it is a hard matter to get here. My health is better than it has been in a long time, or in other words I am stout and hearty. We are still here in the same place and still in line fronting the enemy. We have been here 16 days today. We are not so friendly with the yanks now. All communications, trading, &c., is stopped except an occasional exchange of papers by the officers. There is still no firing between us and I hope will not be till an advance is made. We sharpshooters have not been relieved since we came here, and do not want to be as we have a better position than back at the Brigade [headquarters]. I gave you a sketch of our position in my last letter. We still continue to catch some fish and some days a great many are caught, and our rations are a little better now, so upon the whole we are living well. In addition to this, the boys have pressed a large amount of cider from half ripe apples in an orchard near by, which was quite a treat, but the apples are given out now. Soldiers are up to any emergency that presents itself.” ~ Letters from Confederate soldier Marion Hill Fitzpatrick to his wife Amanda.

July 19– Tuesday– Ashby’s Gap, Virginia; Berry’s Ford, Virginia; Charles Town, West Virginia; Darkesville, West Virginia; Kabletown, West Virginia– Federal troops in pursuit of General Early fight a number of sharp engagements, causing the Confederate forces to retreat toward Winchester, Virginia.

 July 19– Tuesday– Petersburg, Virginia– “My men had all heard of the arrival of the ‘Little General,’ as they call him, and when I was riding out of camp last night to surrender to him, I noticed the bonfires which were being kindled all along my lines and knew that my loyal, loving men were lighting them in honor of my baby. But I did not know till this morning that dear old [Union General Rufus] Ingalls, at Grant’s suggestion, had kindled a light on the other side of the lines, too, and I was over come with emotion when I learned of it. To-day their note of congratulation, marked unofficial, which I inclose, came to me through the lines. You must keep it for the baby.” ~ Letter from Confederate General George Pickett to his wife Sallie Ann.

July 19– Tuesday– Richmond, Virginia– “A department is devoted at Castle Thunder to the detention of a number of depraved and abandoned women, to prevent their following the army and contributing by their pestilential presence to the destruction of the moral of the soldiers. Several of them are yet good looking, and may at one time have been beautiful. It has been found necessary to keep them in constant confinement, as once at liberty they follow and hover in the tract of an army like carrion crows that snuff a field of slaughter.” ~ Richmond Examiner.

 July 19– Tuesday– Cobb County, Georgia– “This morning I have remained at Home, reading and enjoying for a short time the company I had around me, who are very pleasant and intelligent men, with such a good library, had I my wife with me I could be comfortable enough even with the exclusion from town, to which I am now subjected– but knowing as I do how many families there are in town who need sympathy and advice, I must got a special permit (which has been kindly promised to me by the Commandant) now and then to go and see them; I am not excluded from visiting any . . . around in the country, having the liberty of the county, but there is no society near me. I must however endure for a time the privation as best I can– but how long I can be content to remain here without my family or any other company I do not know, were it not for the charge of the servants [i.e. his slaves], I would quit at once and return Home or go to the North, but I cannot well leave them and the property here– to remain here under existing circumstances may subject me to even a greater annoyance than that of being excluded from town– if the rumors be true that many of our cavalry are in this vicinity, their doings in addition to the many evil disposed persons about, may subject us all to suspicion, and involve us in the consequences of their actions. I think I must so arrange matters as may allow me properly either to go to the North or South for a while, until affairs in this section become more settled, if that happy day can be again before the return of peace, which I fear cannot be, how sorely the fountains of happiness have been broken up by this war. I have not been away from Home today. In the afternoon Mr. Shepard made me a visit, he like myself being excluded from town.” ~ Diary of William King.

fighting in Georgia

fighting in Georgia

July 19– Tuesday– Atlanta, Georgia– “All of my neighbors have gone. Am alone on the hill. A friend has urged me to move to town and reside with her. But this is my house, and I wish to protect it, if possible. There may be not battle here. If not, I am safe. If there is one, where is any safety?” ~ Diary of Cyrena Stone.

July 19– Tuesday– Atlanta, Georgia– “General Hood has superseded General Johnston, and there is a great deal of dissatisfaction in the army about it. The Mississippi, Tennessee and Texas troops have threatened to lay down their arms and return home on account of Johnston’s removal. What he was removed for, no one knows. I presume, though, it was for not fighting and allowing the Yanks to penetrate so far into Georgia. I must confess that I am not as much of Johnston man as I have been. He is too cautious, is not willing to risk a battle until he is satisfied he can whip it. My dearest Wife, I want a suit of some sort, a dark one if you can get one. The one I have is in rags. My pants are out at the seat and knees, but I have not worn my summer pants yet on account of getting washing done. I have washed my shirts twice since I have been here. They were not washed very nicely, but it was better than a black shirt. My darling Camilla, [if] this cruel war would end what would I give! I do want to see you so badly, my darling. It appears like I have [never] seen you and the dear little children. I think of you, my darling Wife, all the time. I feel lonely and gloomy, but, if I could only get a sight of your dear face, I know my spirits would revive.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier to his wife.

July 19– Tuesday– Milledgville, Georgia– The Confederate Union reports that Yankee prisoners at Andersonville are dying at the rate of 50 to 60 per day.

July 19– Tuesday– Nanking, China–The Imperial Army takes the city from the rebels. The total number of dead from both sides may exceed 300,000.

July 19– near Little Rock, Arkansas; Webster, Missouri; Taos, Missouri; along the White River, Arkansas; Iron Bridge, Indian Territory [now Oklahoma]– Skirmishes and raids.

July 20– Holyoke, Massachusetts– Birth of William F Whiting, politician and businessman. [He will serve as U. S. Secretary of Commerce from August, 1928, to March of 1929. Dies August 31, 1936.]

William F Whiting

William F Whiting

July 20– Wednesday– Washington, D.C.– “My son, Thomas G. Welles, left to-day for the Army of the Potomac, having received orders from the War Department to report to General Grant. To part with him has been painful to me beyond what I can describe. Were he older and with more settled principles and habits, some of the anxieties which oppress me would be relieved. But he is yet a mere youth and has gone to the camp with boyish pride and enthusiasm, and will be in danger of being misled when beyond a parent’s control. He is just eighteen and goes alone on his mission. I have tried to dissuade him so far as I could with propriety, but there was a point beyond which I could not well go. In the condition of the country and when others were periling their lives and the lives of their children, how could I refrain, and resist the earnest appeals of my son, whose heart was set upon going? To have positively prohibited him would have led to bad results, and perhaps not have accomplished the end desired. Yet it has been hard to part with him, and as he left me, I felt that it was uncertain whether we should ever meet again, and if we do he may be mutilated, and a ruined man. I have attended closely to my duties, but am sad, and unfit for any labor.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

The Trails and Troubles of Their Acts~July 1864~15th to 18th

The Trials and Troubles Of Their Acts ~ William King

In Georgia citizens such as William King suffer and Confederate General Johnston is replaced. General Pickett becomes a proud father. Greeley’s peace efforts fail. A crossdressed woman coming from a tete-a-tete is arrested. Lincoln calls for more troops and encourages Grant and Sherman.

Shohola Train Wreck

Shohola Train Wreck

July 15– Friday– near Sholola, Pennsylvania– A train loaded with Confederate prisoners collides with a coal train, killing 44 prisoners, 17 guards and 4 railroad workers as well as injuring 109 others of 955 aboard

July 15– Friday– Washington, D.C.– “We had some talk at Cabinet-meeting to-day on the Rebel invasion. The President wants to believe there was a large force, and yet evidently his private convictions are otherwise. But the military leaders, the War Office, have insisted there was a large force. We have done nothing, and it is more gratifying to our self-pride to believe there were many of them, especially as we are likely to let them off with considerable plunder scot-free.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

July 15– Friday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Our servants [slaves] are all getting on well, I having but little for them to do, they are enabled to make money by washing and mending for the [Yankee] soldiers. I today heard of the sad condition of Mr. and Mrs. Greenlee Butler, they had remained within the Lines of Judge Irvine’s place, he was very feeble, and they in common with all their neighbors had been robbed of all their provisions and nearly everything else. . . . the sufferings from the depredations of the robbers is very great. Many who were well supplied for months and some for a year, have been compelled to come to town and perform day work for a living . . . . Large numbers of families are quitting the county, and going to the North to seek a support for themselves and families– such are the consequences of a needless war on domestic comfort and the prosperity of a county.” ~ Diary of William King.

July 15– Friday– Atlanta, Georgia– “I have made General Johnston two visits, and been received courteously and kindly. He has not sought my advice, and it was not volunteered. I cannot learn that he has any more plan for the future than he has had in the past. It is expected that he will await the enemy on a line some three miles from here, and the impression prevails that he is now more inclined to fight. The morale of our army is still reported good.” ~ Telegram from Confederate General Braxton Bragg to President Jefferson Davis.

July 15– Friday– Columbus, Mississippi– “Our dispatches from the front are very encouraging – Forrest is fighting the Enemy near Tupelo – nothing decisive, but we have repulsed them in every attempt to fight us. God grant our Army may be crowned with glory and success – protect my dear Brother and friends from all danger. The news from Virginia is glorious, God grant it may be true, our forces in three miles of Washington City, and shelling the City. Oh heaven, smile upon our poor, desolated South, brighten the hearthstones of our sad and lonely homes – drive our enemy back, take them in peace, we do not wish them any harm, but oh! grant our Sunny land Victory and peace, bless my dear old Father and spare him to us, for the days when our dear boys will once more bless our homes with their presence.”~ Diary of Belle Edmondson.

July 15– Friday– Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada– Birth of Franklin Knight Lane. [The family will move to California in 1871. He will become a news reporter, lawyer and Democratic politician, serving on the Interstate Commerce Commission from 1906 to 1913 and as Secretary of the Interior from 1913 to 1920. Dies May 18, 1921.]

Franklin Knight Lane

Franklin Knight Lane

July 15– Friday– London, England– Birth of Marie Susan Etherington, a/k/a Dame Marie Tempest, D.B. E, singer, stage and film actress. [Dies October 15, 1942.]

Dame Marie Tempest, 1886

Dame Marie Tempest, 1886

July 16– Saturday– Atlantic Ocean– The first hurricane of the season begins, well east of the coast of Georgia, and rages for the next two days, with winds reaching a peak intensity of 80 mph. It will dissipate in the ocean miles away from the coast of Nova Scotia.

July 16– Saturday– Nashville, Tennessee– “About three o’clock on Thursday night last (14th ) the police arrested a suspicious looking character, who afterwards proved to be a woman dressed in male attire. An investigation into the affair established the fact that she had but recently come to this city on a visit, and meeting a Lieutenant, a friend of her husband and family, a promenade and a disguise was suggested by the officer, which was acceded to by Mrs._____. She was returning to her boarding house when arrested, and, as might be expected, exhibited much uneasiness of mind, when being escorted to the police headquarters. The Lieutenant shortly afterwards made his appearance and deposited a sufficient sum for security, thus saving her from lodging the rest of the night in the workhouse.” ~ Nashville Daily Press.

July 17– Sunday– Washington, D.C.– “In your dispatch of yesterday to General Sherman, I find the following, to wit: ‘I shall make a desperate effort to get a position here, which will hold the enemy without the necessity of so many men.’ Pressed as we are by lapse of time I am glad to hear you say this; and yet I do hope you may find a way that the effort shall not be desperate in the sense of great loss of life.” ~ Telegram from President Lincoln to General Grant.

July 17– Sunday– Petersburg, Virginia– “God bless you, little Mother of our boy bless and keep you. Heaven in all its glory shine upon you; Eden’s flowers bloom eternal for you. Almost with every breath since the message came, relieving my anxiety and telling me that my darling lived and that a little baby had been born to us, I have been a baby myself. Though I have known all these months that from across Love’s enchanted land this little child was on its way to our twin souls, now that God’s promise is fulfilled and it has come, I can’t believe it. As I think of it I feel the stir of Paradise in my senses, and my spirit goes up in thankfulness to God for this, His highest and best the one perfect flower in the garden of life Love.” ~ Letter from Confederate General George Pickett to his wife Sallie Ann on the birth of their son George.

Sallie Corbell Pickett

Sallie Corbell Pickett

July 17– Sunday– Cobb County, Georgia– “How little could our disunion friends have conceived of the trials and troubles their acts were to bring upon a happy and prosperous people– most of them fleeing away from their Homes. [Union] Colonel Bishop informed me this morning that there would be preaching in the Presbyterian Church by a member of the [Northern] Christian Association, I told him I would attend but feeling a little unwell and not liking to be too long away from Home on Sunday, I returned without attending Church, this making 6 Sabbaths since I have attended Church; God grant that peace may soon be restored to our afflicted country.” ~ Diary of William King.

Union artillery outside of Atlanta

Union artillery outside of Atlanta

July 17– Sunday– Atlanta, Georgia– Confederate General Joseph Johnston receives notice from President Jeff Davis that Davis no longer has confidence in him and is replacing him with General John Bell Hood in order to turn back the advance of Union General Sherman. Davis writes “as you failed to arrest the advance of the enemy to the vicinity of Atlanta . . . you are hereby relieved from the command.”

July 17– Sunday– Parker’s Ford, Virginia; Vining’s Station, Georgia; Herring Creek, Virginia; Ray County, Missouri; Davison’s Ford, Louisiana– Onslaughts, forays and assaults.

July 17– Sunday– Spa, Belgium– Dirk D. Curtius, lawyer, opponent of monarchy and liberal politician, dies at age 71.

Dirk D Curtius

Dirk D Curtius

July 18– Monday– Niagra Falls, New York– Horace Greeley arrives to attempt peace negotiations.

July 18– Monday– Washington, D.C.– “Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do issue this my call for 500,000 volunteers for the military service: Provided, nevertheless, That this call shall be reduced by all credits which may be established under section 8 of the aforesaid act on account of persons who have entered the naval service during the present rebellion and by credits for men furnished to the military service in excess of calls heretofore made. Volunteers will be accepted under this call for one, two, or three years, as they may elect, and will be entitled to the bounty provided by the law for the period of service for which they enlist. And I hereby proclaim, order, and direct that immediately after the 5th day of September, 1864, being fifty days from the date of this call, a draft for troops to serve for one year shall be had in every town, township, ward of a city, precinct, or election district, or county not so subdivided, to fill the quota which shall be assigned to it under this call or any part thereof which may be unfilled by volunteers on the said 5th day of September, 1864.” ~ Proclamation of President Lincoln calling for a half million more volunteers, in large part because of the large number of casualties suffered in Virginia and Georgia.

July 18– Monday– Washington, D.C.– “I have seen your despatches objecting to agents of Northern States opening recruiting stations near your camps. An act of Congress authorizes this, giving the appointment of agents to the States, and not to the Executive Government. It is not for the War Department, or myself, to restrain or modify the law, in its execution, further than actual necessity may require. To be candid, I was for the passage of the law, not apprehending at the time that it would produce such inconvenience to the armies in the field as you now cause me to fear. Many of the States were very anxious for it, and I hoped that, with their State bounties, and active exertions, they would get out substantial additions to our colored forces, which, unlike white recruits, help us where they come from, as well as where they go to. I still hope advantage from the law; and being a law, it must be treated as such by all of us. We here will do what we consistently can to save you from difficulties arising out of it. May I ask, therefore, that you will give your hearty co-operation.” ~ Telegram from President Lincoln to General William Tecumseh Sherman.

General Sherman

General Sherman

July 18– Monday– Washington, D.C.– President Lincoln meets with James R. Gilmore to discuss peace. Gilmore, age 42, a Massachusetts-born businessman, had made a secret trip, with Lincoln’s permission, to meet with President Davis in Richmond. However, he reports that the Confederacy demands recognition of its independence and the continuance of slavery. After the meeting Lincoln issues this announcement: “Any proposition which embraces the restoration of peace, the integrity of the whole Union, and the abandonment of slavery, and which comes by and with an authority that can control the armies now at war against the United States, will be received and considered by the Executive Government of the United States, and will be met by liberal terms on other substantial and collateral points; and the bearer or bearers thereof shall have safe conduct both ways.” This effectively ends Horace Greeley’s efforts at peace talks.

Much Uneasiness Is Felt~ July 1864~13th & 14th

Much Uneasiness Is Felt ~ W A Stilwell

Many Southerners worry about the Federal advance in Georgia. General Hood criticizes General Johnston. An imprisoned editor is released. Rape and murder in Memphis. A baby born at Andersonville. A friend encourages Whitman. A new gold find in the West. A future businessman receives a famous name at birth.

July 13– Rhinebeck, New York– Birth of John Jacob Astor [the 4th of that name in American history] to William and Caroline Astor. A prosperous capitalist and inventor, he will add the Astoria section to the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City. [Dies April 12, 1912 on the Titanic.]

John Jacob Astor IV~1895

John Jacob Astor IV~1895

July 13– Wednesday– Wheeling, West Virginia– “Mr. Jordan, who was arrested on Monday, charged with circulating false rumors, was released yesterday by Captain Over, after an investigation of his case. Mr. Jordan admitted that he had told the store of Pryor & Frost, that the citizen rebels of Baltimore had risen and that fighting was going on in the streets. He heard the report from some one passing in the street, but did not recollect who the person was. Captain Over being satisfied that the accused did not circulate the rumor for an evil purpose, released him.” ~ Wheeling Daily Intelligencer.

July 13– Wednesday– Petersburg, Virginia– “No letter yet. Still I am doomed to sad disappointment. I hope, however, to get several at once in a few days, as the rail road communication with the South is now about established. I do anticipate so much pleasure. There’s not an hour but that your image comes up before me, and besieged as we are, our anxiety is doubly increased. I’m so anxious to hear how your anticipated visit terminated; and everything else connected with Georgia. Since the enemy has made his appearance in our own dear State, I can’t think there can be any dearth of news, and I assure you anything you may write, will interest me. The situation of affairs around Petersburg remains about the same. Grant still continues the barbarous practice of throwing shells into the city, occupied only by defenseless women and children. He seems afraid to make an advance. So he keeps up an incessant sharp shooting, and shelling, accomplishing nothing.” ~ Letters from Confederate soldier Alva Benjamin Spencer to his fiancee Maggie Cone.

deserters

July 13– Wednesday– Memphis, Tennessee– “A Mrs. Annie Mason, residing in the vicinity of Court Square, while passing through a by street in the southeastern part of the city, early last evening on her way to make arrangements for the renting of a residence in that quarter, was met and confronted by two men each with a canteen of whisky, who invited her to drink, and on her refusing, and attempting to pass, seized and forcibly carried her into a grove, some distance off, robbed her of all the money she had, tore her clothing almost entirely from her person, bound her to a tree in an upright position, and then commenced the hellish work of violating her person, repeating it a number of times, and quelling her cries by blows and curses. . . . Towards midnight they departed leaving their victim, still tied to the tree, and insensible. . . . early this morning was discovered nearly dead, by a woman passing near the scene of the outrage, who gave notice to the military authorities by whom she was removed to one of the hospitals, and tenderly cared for. On regaining her consciousness, she made a deposition, which led to the arrest of one Hugh Burns, who she immediately identified as one of the parties. He denied any complicity in the affair, but was sent to the Irving Block to await the result of further investigation. The other ruffian is still at large, but as careful description of him is in the possession of the authorities, and he will in all probability, be speedily arrested. Mrs. Mason, at the hour of this writing, was in a helpless condition from the injuries sustained. And her death was momentarily expected.” ~ Memphis Bulletin.

July 14– Thursday– Buena Vista, Wisconsin– “I received your kind letter, and it will be impossible for me to tell how glad I was to hear from you again though very sorry to hear that you had been sick. Oh! I should like to have been with you so I could have nursed you back to health & strength, but if you were with your mother no doubt you were taken care of better than I could have done for you but I would liked to have been with you anyway. I could have read to you and talked with you if nothing more. I am afraid I shall never be able to recompense you for your kind care and the trouble I made you while I was sick in the hospital unless you are already paid by knowing you have helped the sick and suffering soldiers many of them will never cease to remember you and to ask God’s blessing to rest upon you while you and they live– there is no one such as you at least I have often thought of you and wondered where you were [and] if you were still visiting Armory Square Hospital.” ~ Letter from Elijah D Fox, a disabled Union veteran, to Walt Whitman.

July 14– Thursday– near Petersburg, Virginia– “Much uneasiness is felt in regard to General Johnston’s army retreating and leaving our beautiful country to be desolated. Many are uneasy about friends, parents, wives, etc. being left in possession of the enemy. As for my part, of course, I can not but have some uneasiness and anxiety about you but having always trusted you to a merciful and kind providence, God forbid that I should now doubt and fear when danger is near. I therefore think that it is the part of wisdom to ask God still to take care of my dear Molly, and having done this, leave the matter with him who has thus far been our help. Should you be so unfortunate as to fall in the hands of the enemy, tell them that I stand between them and the capital of my country. Tell them that I breath the air of a true patriot fighting for my God, my country, my religion, my wife, and dear children. Should they insult you it will only cause me to strike the harder blows for all that is near and dear to man. Don’t insult them unnecessary. Treat them as enemies but never yield any principle.” ~ Letter from W. A. Stilwell to his wife Molly in Georgia.

July 14– Thursday– near Chattahoochee River, Georgia– “The whole army will thus form a concave line behind Nancy’s Creek, extending from Kyle’s Bridge to Buchanan’s, but no attempt will be made to form a line of battle. Each army will form a unit and connect with its neighbor by a line of pickets. Should the enemy assume the offensive at any point, which is not expected until we reach below Peach Tree Creek, the neighboring army will at once assist the one attacked. All preliminary steps may at once be made, but no corps need move to any great distance from the river until advised that General Stoneman is back. . . . Each army should leave behind the Chattahoochee River, at its bridge or at Marietta, all wagons or incumbrances not absolutely needed for battle. A week’s work after crossing the Chattahoochee should determine the first object aimed at, viz the possession of the Atlanta and Augusta [rail] road east of Decatur, or of Atlanta itself.” ~ Orders from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to all of his soldiers.

General William Tecumseh Sherman

General William Tecumseh Sherman

July 14– Thursday– Cobb County, Georgia– “In the afternoon I went to town to make a few visits, the Rain interrupting me in part. I saw several of the Roswell factory operatives. Mr. Wood among the number on their way to the North. Having a Letter to send to my Sister (Mrs. P.) & hearing that Mrs. Gossett was going to Roswell today, I went to see her & gave her the Letter, as it was raining heavily, I remained some time with her in her Room which was very poorly furnished. I noticed a very rich Mahogany Beaureau [sic], with a large glass on Marble slab, a piece of furniture which was probably worth $75.00, a marked contrast with the rest of her plain & scanty furniture, it occasioned some painful suspicions of the manner in which she became possessed of it. I heard the Report in town of a large portion of Wheeler’s [Confederate] Cavalry being on this side of the river again– this sad war, how many anxious feelings does it occasion. Will not God soon bring it to a close!” ~ Diary of William King.

July 14– Thursday– Atlanta, Georgia– “During the campaign from Dalton to the Chattahoochee River it is natural to suppose that we have had several chances to strike the enemy a decisive blow. We have failed to take advantage of such opportunities, and find our army south of the Chattahoochee, very much decreased in strength. Our loss cannot be less than 20,000, without having fought a decisive battle. I deem it of the greatest importance that General Kirby Smith should be ordered at once, with at least half, if not a larger portion, of his army, on this side of the Mississippi River. Our success west of the Mississippi River has proved a disadvantage to us, since the enemy has re-enforced his army on this side, and we have failed to do so. The strength of the Army of Tennessee is such at this time as to render it necessary to have aid from General Kirby Smith– allowing that we should gain a victory over Sherman– to follow up our success and regain our lost territory. Our present position is a very difficult one, and we should not, under any circumstances, allow the enemy to gain possession of Atlanta, and deem it excessively important, should we find the enemy intends establishing the Chattahoochee as their line, relying upon interrupting our communications and again virtually dividing our country, that we should attack him, even if we should have to recross the river to do so. I have, general, so often urged that we should force the enemy to give us battle as to almost be regarded reckless by the officers high in rank in this army, since their views have been so directly opposite. I regard it as a great misfortune to our country that we failed to give battle to the enemy many miles north of our present position. Please say to the President that I shall continue to do my duty cheerfully and faithfully, and strive to do what I think is best for our country, as my constant prayer is for our success.” ~ Letter from Confederate General General John Bell Hood, age 31 and one of the commanders serving under General Joseph Johnston, to General Braxton Bragg

General John Bell Hood

General John Bell Hood

July 14– Thursday– Andersonville, Georgia– The Sumter Republican, a local newspaper, reports that a baby had been born within the stockade to Mrs. H. Hunt, the wife of a prisoner, who, dressed as a man, remained with her husband through his imprisonment and her childbirth. Mrs. Hunt and the child are now boarding with a family in town.

July 14–Thursday– Tupelo, Mississippi–In a fierce fight, Union forces stop a major thrust by Confederate General Bedford Forrest but fail to bring his operations to a complete halt. Confederate causalities– dead, wounded and missing– total 1,347; Union causalities amount to 674.

July 14– Thursday– Helena, Montana– Prospectors discover gold.

This Sad, Useless War~July 1864~10th to 12th

This Sad, Useless War ~ William King

More than enough grief and concern to go around. A church service stopped. An editor arrested. Criminals in a prison camp. Weary refugees. A poet sick and exhausted. A president disappointed. Yet the Confederate raiders are turned back from Washington and a child who will be a great scientist and educator is born.

PA-Elizabethville-OldStoneChurchCemetery-0011

July 10– Sunday– Cobb County, Georgia– “I went to town but was informed that there would be no Church service. I saw Colonel Gleason (Commandant of Post) and asked if he would allow Mr. Benedict (the only remaining minister) to have services in his Church he said no, as he would not pray for the President of the U. S. I suggested that he would omit that part of the service, he said no, Mr. B. was too unsound, that he was the most ultra Secessionist he had met. I afterwards learnt that Mr. B. for some days had not been permitted to go beyond the limits of his lot. While in town I met Mr. Eldridge and Mr. Bonfoir (the Superintendent Of the Roswell Cotton and Wool factories), they inform me of the sad condition of things at Roswell, that the factories had been utterly destroyed and they and all the operatives, men and women, had been arrested and were in Marietta on their way to the North, that with the exception of Brother Pratt’s house, every one of the houses of the respectable settlers of Roswell had been broken open and plundered and everything of value had either been taken away or destroyed and done almost entirely by the operatives, that the soldiers had committed but few depredations. What a comment upon the human character. They stated that Brother P. & Cate were both well, but very anxious and wanted to see me; and although I no less anxious to see them, I could not prudently leave here even for a day, with such a multitude of depredators roving over the county. I returned home with many sad feelings. What a world of sin we live in. . . . The greater part of the day I remained at Home, in the afternoon I had much and pleasant company, some performing well on the Piano, others good singers, they refreshed me by playing and singing much pleasant sacred music. I told than not to sing Home, Sweet Home, that I did not want to hear it until I and my wife were within the same lines. Today closes one week since I have been under Yankee [control]. I thank God that my experiences far exceeded my most sanguine anticipations. I have suffered but little annoyance, exclusive of the robbing by the stragglers last Sabbath. I have suffered no more from the soldiers of the Federal Army than from those of our own Army. I have mingled and conversed freely with officers and privates. I have not met a single individual whose department and language has not been gentlemanly, nor a word nor opinion has been expressed to me in the least discourteous manner. Although in many cases our opinions materially differed, we pleasantly discussed them. And greatly to my surprise, even among the common soldiers with whom I have also conversed freely, I have seen exhibited no exultant spirit nor expression at our army having so constantly fallen back; but more a spirit of sympathy for us, and simply a desire to avoid any expression which might be painful to me. All which I have seen compels me to admire the men– they do not seem to feel any hatred toward us, but speak favorably of our army and our people, they say we are one people, the same language, habits and religion, and ought to be one people, they have a higher opinion of the people of the South than before the war; and I am sure even an ultra South Carolinian can never again say that 1 South Carolinian can whip 5 Yankees, to have effected such a change of sentiment North and South toward the people of both sections, has been one of the favorable results of this sad war.” ~ Diary of William King.

July 10– Sunday– Andersonville, Georgia– At the prison camp, the six ring leaders of the Raider prison gang, which had been accused of stealing from and even killing fellow inmates, are tried by a court of twenty-four Union sergeants, found guilty, and sentenced to hang, with the minor gang members to be flogged by a gauntlet of inmates.

Andersonville prison

Andersonville prison

July 10– Sunday– Camden County, Georgia– “Ed Richardson came home last month from Virginia with a wounded heel– a ball passed directly through it. Fred and Gussie have both gone to Tennessee to join Johnston’s army. They left the 1st of July. The whole regiment has gone and we are left to the mercy of the blockaders. We only number four men in a region of eight miles and they are lame and decrepit. Mr. Fisher is now confined to his bed with a bad abscess in his right breast. Suffers very much. If the enemy come and wish to take us, there is nothing to prevent them. We went over to Kate’s yesterday. She is complaining. Mrs. Smith with six children, and one at the breast, with a Negro, came to pass Sunday with her– hope she will enjoy it.” ~ Diary of Julia Johnson Fisher.

July 10– Sunday– Columbus, Mississippi– “A long, long weary day this has been for our little party. . . . Dispatches say the Yankees are in force in Pontotoc on yesterday, our boys will have some terrible fighting. God grant they may be victorious, oh! heaven hear our prayers, spare our friends and Brothers, and shield our Generals from danger, drive our wicked, heartless enemies back to their own hearth stones, smile upon, and prosper and bless once more our Sunny land. We had a hard rain this eve, Tate went to Church.” ~ Diary of Belle Edmondson.

July 10– Sunday– Rockville, Maryland; Gunpowder Bridge, Maryland; Cherry Creek, Mississippi; Plentytude, Mississippi; Issaquena County, Mississippi; Alpharetta, Georgia; Campbellton, Georgia; Little Rock, Arkansas; Petit Jean, Arkansas; Platte City, Missouri– Firefights, altercations, encounters and affrays.

July 11– Monday– Brooklyn, New York– “My dear comrade, I have been very sick, and have been brought on home nearly three weeks ago, after being sick some ten days in Washington. The doctors say my sickness is from having too deeply imbibed poison into my system from the hospitals. I had spells of deathly faintness, & the disease also attacked my head & throat pretty seriously. The doctors forbid me going any more into the hospitals. I did not think much of it, till I got pretty weak, & then they directed me to leave & go north for change of air as soon as I had strength. But I am making too long a story of it. I thought only to write you a line. My dear comrade, I am now over the worst of it & have been getting better the last three days– my brother took me out in a carriage for a short ride yesterday which is the first I have been out of the house since I have been home– the doctor tells me to-day I shall soon be around which will be very acceptable. This is the first sickness I have ever had & I find upon trial such things as faintness, headache & trembling & tossing all night, & all day too, are not proper companions for a good union man like myself.” ~ Letter from Walt Whitman to his friend Lewis K. Brown.

Walt Whitman

Walt Whitman

July 11– Monday– Wheeling, West Virginia– “On Saturday last, Captain Over, commanding at this post, received a peremptory order from General Hunter to arrest the responsible editors of the Wheeling Register and put them in the military prison, and suppress for the present the further publication of the paper. Captain Over was left in the dark as to the special cause why this order was issued and no one else of course was any better off. It was presumed that the extreme bitterness with which the Register had referred to General Hunter in connection with the Washington Statue might have had something to do with the arrest, but this is hardly probable. Still, the wonder is as to the reason of the arrest. What has been the immediate cause of it? No one seems to have any idea beyond the fact of the general disloyalty of the sheet. So far as we have observed there has been nothing unusual in the paper of late. . . . What makes the arrest of the Register all the more incomprehensible is the report of Wharton’s arrest at Parkersburg for an article published in his paper the Gazette. Wharton, we all know, is a loyal man and of course it was for no act of intentional aid or comfort to the enemy that he was arrested. We understand that the last issue of his paper was suppressed and burned, and hence we have not our usual copy of the Gazette to see what was said. The arrest of Mr. Wharton has stirred up a good deal of feeling among the Union men at Parkersburg as we learned yesterday. We presume that he will be speedily released by order of the Government. Governor Boreman has sent a request to that effect to the Secretary of War.” ~ Wheeling Daily Intelligencer.

July 11– Monday– Silver Spring, Maryland; Frederick, Maryland; Magnolia, Maryland; Fort Stevens, outside Washington, D.C.– Confederate forces under General Jubal Early tangle with Federal troops who have poured into the area to defend Washington.

July 11– Monday– Andersonville, Georgia– At the prison camp a chaplain administers last rites to the six Raider leaders convicted the previous day of murdering other inmates. They are then hanged by fellow inmates inside of the stockade and, by request of the other prisoners, buried dishonorably in a separate plot in the prison cemetery.

Andersonville burial detail

Andersonville burial detail

July 11– Monday– Hadarschu, Bulgaria– Birth of Petar Danow, spiritual teacher and founder of a religious community. [Dies December 27, 1944.]

July 12– Tuesday– outside of Washington, D.C.– Reviewing the re-enforced Union positions around the city, General Early decides not to launch an assault against the city and at dusk, begins to withdraw. The raid has not reduced the Federal pressure against Petersburg, Virginia nor made a significant change in the military position of the Confederacy.

July 12– Washington, D.C.– “It was a fine little fight but did not last long. . . . We slept upon the field, glad that we had saved Washington from capture, for without our help the small force in the forts would have been overpowered. Early should have attacked early in the morning. Early was Late.” ~ Diary of Elisha Hunt Rhodes.

July 12– Washington, D.C.– “I suppose you received my letter of the 9th. I have just received yours . . . and am disappointed by it. I was not expecting you to send me a letter, but to bring me a man, or men.” ~ Telegram from President Lincoln to Horace Greeley.

July 12– Tuesday– Richmond, Virginia– “General Johnston telegraphs to General Bragg to have the United States prisoners at Andersonville ‘distributed immediately.’ He does not allege a reason for the necessity. It may be danger of an outbreak– or that the yellow fever has broken out among them.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

July 12– Tuesday– Cobb County, Georgia– “What sufferings have been occasioned by this sad, useless war– how much happier would we all be had not the political demagogues North and South been permitted to force this war upon a happy, prosperous people. Mr. Goodman this morning informed of a pleasant incident of which he was a witness on Sabbath last, he with a few others had attended the burial in the graveyard of a child of a poor woman who was a refugee from the county, she was greatly afflicted, at the grave he met a Federal officer . . . who had prepared the grave and who he then learnt had assisted in attending the sick child, procured the coffin and prepared the grave, he stood by the poor mother, comforting her, while the Federal soldiers were filling up the grave, and when done the poor mother overcome with grief, threw herself on the grave, the Federal officer knelt by her side speaking comforting words, some higher spots still left in the Human heart, not all godforsaken. We had some rain last night to lay the dust. The flies have been more numerous and annoying for a month past than I have ever known before.” ~ Diary of William King.

Dr George Washington Carver-1906

Dr George Washington Carver-1906

July 12–Tuesday– near Diamond Grove, Missouri– Probable birth date of George Washington Carver, African American botanist and scientist, born to slave parents. [He will earn degrees in 1894 and 1896 from the Iowa State College of Agriculture, teach and conduct reach at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, and win five prestigious awards. Upon his death on January 5, 1943, he will leave an estate of $60,000 to Tuskegee which would be worth $808,000 today, using the Consumer Price Index.]

Directly in Front of Atlanta~July 1864~9th & 10th

Directly in Front of Atlanta ~ General Sherman

While Grant is stalemated in Virginia and settles down for a long, long siege, Sherman inches ever closer to Atlanta, dealing harshly with the people of Georgia. Whitman slowly recovers at home. Women on both sides worry and do what they can to help. Horace Greeley, a critic of the Lincoln Administration, attempts to generate peace talks. Lincoln seeks to calm nervous Northern politicians. Escaped slaves continue to join Federal forces. The first known murder on a train shocks England.

fashionable women of the period

fashionable women of the period

July 9– Saturday– Brooklyn, New York– “I had grown worse, quite a good deal, & I was about making up my mind that I would have to stand a good siege but yesterday the current changed, & I felt better all day, & in the afternoon went out riding with my brother, the first time I have been out of the house since I got home & to-day I remain feeling better. The doctor to-day tells me my throat is markedly better. . . . When you write tell me the impressions you got in the army, & the probabilities as far as you can make them out. As to me, I still believe in Grant, & that we shall get Richmond.” ~ Letter from Walt Whitman to his friend Charles W. Eldridge.

July 9– Saturday– Fairmont, West Virginia– “I enclose you a check for $72.15, being the amount of collections made by one our West Virginia Union girls, Miss Mollie E. Strum, of Bingammon, Harrison County. She rode five days – long, hot days – over a sparsely populated section of country, to collect the above amount, in items ranging from five cents to two dollars! Don’t you think she deserves a special praise? When or where has such self sacrificing devotion to the welfare of the suffering soldiers been exhibited? Were half our young ladies so devoted, so self-denying and enthusiastic in the case of the Union, how much good could be done; how much pain and suffering could be alleviated and how much sooner the war would end in the overthrow of the rebellion! Who will emulate the noble example of Miss Sturm? Let us teach our children to honor the memories of the patriotic ladies who minister with angel hands to the heroes, suffering that the Union may be preserved.” ~ Letter from J N Boyd to John Donlon. [Mollie Strum’s $72.15 would equal $1100 in today’s dollars, using the Consumer Price Index.]

July 9– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “If you can find any person, anywhere, professing to have any proposition of Jefferson Davis in writing, for peace, embracing the restoration of the Union and abandonment of slavery, whatever else it embraces, say to him he may come to me with you; and that if he really brings such proposition, he shall at the least have safe conduct with the paper (and without publicity, if he chooses) to the point where you shall have to meet him. The same if there be two or more persons.” ~ Letter from President Lincoln to Horace Greeley.

Horace Greeley

Horace Greeley

July 9– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “Our Alabama news comes in opportunely to encourage and sustain the nation’s heart. It does them as well as me good to dwell upon the subject and the discomfiture of the British and Rebels. The perfidy of the former is as infamous as the treason of the latter. Both were whipped by the Kearsarge, a Yankee ship with a Yankee commander and a Yankee crew.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

combat with the CSS Alabama

combat with the CSS Alabama

July 9– Saturday– Richmond, Virginia– “We have British accounts of the sinking of the Alabama, near Cherbourg, by the United States steamer Kearsarge, but [Captain] Semmes was not taken, and his treasure, etc. had been deposited in France.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

July 9– Saturday– Cleveland, Tennessee– “Mollie G. & Julia Grant came this morn, they are in a great deal of trouble in consequence of being notified to report at Chattanooga. We are making some new calico dresses in case we have to desert our homes. The order was read to us by a sergeant in the dining room, just as tea was ready, stating that all rebel sympathizers had to report at Chattanooga Monday [July 11]. Through the assistance of Chaplain Spence [a Federal soldier] we have been released [from reporting]. How said I feel to think even if we are permitted to stay our friend will go, and we cannot even bid them farewell or else we will be accused of sympathizing with them & plotting against the government & be sent off without a thing in the world.” ~ Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman.

July 9– Saturday– Memphis, Tennessee– “George Mellersh and William J. Conran, residents of Memphis, have applied for exemption from service in the Enrolled Militia of Memphis, on the ground of allegiance to Great Britain. It appears from the sworn statement of each of these men, that in 1861 and 1862, they were in the military service of the so-called Confederate States, and that subsequently thereto they came to Memphis and engaged in business, and in 1863 sought and obtained papers of protection as British subjects. Therefore, in pursuance of the previous of the circular from these Headquarters dated June 2nd, 1864, George Mellersh and William J. Conran are hereby directed to be sent outside the lines of the United States forces, not to return during the war.” ~ Order of Union General C. C. Washburn.

July 9– Saturday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Saturday has pretty much passed away, as the preceding days, with a few visits among friends in and out of town, trying to cheer and comfort them as cheerless and comfortless as I felt myself– this afternoon [Union] Captain Rankin informed me (rumor of which I heard yesterday) that all of the Roswell factories had been burnt by order of General Sherman, the causes which prompted the order he did not know; he stated that he had conversed with many of the operatives who had been brought into Marietta, to be sent North; he stated that they all spoke in very bitter terms.” ~ Diary of William King.

July 9– Saturday– near Chattahoochee River, Georgia– “I have ordered the arrested operators at the Confederate manufactories at Roswell and Sweet Water, to be sent North. When they reach Nashville have them sent across the Ohio River and turned loose to earn a living where they won’t do us any harm. If any of the principals seem to you dangerous, you may order them imprisoned for a time. The men were exempt from conscription by reason of their skill, but the women were simply laborers that must be removed from this district.” ~ Letter from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to the Union commandant in Nashville, Tennessee.

William Tecumseh Sherman

William Tecumseh Sherman

July 9– Saturday– near Chattahoochee River Georgia– “The army is very large and extends from Roswell factory at the north around to Sandtown, but my centre is directly in front of Atlanta. I will have to maneuver some hereabouts to drive the enemy and to gain time to accumulate stores by rail to enable me to operate beyond reach of the railroad. Thus far our supplies have been ample and the country is high, mountainous, with splendid water and considerable forage in the nature of fields of growing wheat, oats and corn, but we sweep across it leaving it as bare as a desert. The people all flee before us. The task of feeding this vast host is a more difficult one than to fight.” ~ Letter from William Tecumseh Sherman to his wife Ellen.

July 9– Saturday– Atlanta, Georgia– The Southern Confederacy newspaper prints a report from a correspondent with the army in which he expresses confidence that the Union forces will be turned back at the Chattahoochee River, comparing the situation to that of Union General George McClellan who had proclaimed “On to Richmond” in 1861 only to be turned back by Confederate troops then under General Joseph E. Johnston, now directing the defense of Atlanta. The writer asserts that Sherman’s “On to Atlanta” will be repulsed as well.

July 9– Saturday– Andersonville, Georgia– At the Andersonville prison camp the number of inmates has reached close to 30,000. A message is sent to Confederate officials in Richmond desperately asking for reinforcements, claiming that the guard force at the camp is undisciplined, riddled with spies, threatening mutiny and decreased by desertion.

July 9– Saturday– London, England– On a train, Thomas Briggs, a 69 year old banker, is assaulted and robbed by a German named Franz Muller. Muller tosses the badly injured Briggs from the train. His body is soon discovered and he dies in hospital.

Franz Muller

Franz Muller

July 10– Sunday– Franklin County, Pennsylvania– “We had meeting [for worship] to day, this after noon, at the School house, and had a very fine shower of rain which will freshen up things a little. It was very dry, and is no ways soaked deep yet. The news are as yet not very favorable the Rebels are said to be moving on towards Baltimore. But we Know nothing and should give all over to God to rule who has all in his hands. and power. I often feel that I dread the cross too much and would rather see it go according to my wish & will. Oh What short sighted creatures are we. May the Lord rule my heart and let me be silent.” ~ Letter from Eliza R. Stouffer to Catherine and Amos Miller.

July 10– Sunday– Wheeling, West Virginia– About 50 fugitive slaves who escaped from Virginia under the protection of Union General Hunter hold a prayer meeting and prepare to enlist in the U. S. Colored Troops. White citizens are a bit startled by the religious enthusiasm of the African Americans, as “such a noise as they created is seldom heard in this section.”

July 10– Sunday– Johnson Island near Sandusky, Ohio– “No letter from you in months, but two of yours indeed having reached me since my capture. I have written regularly. If I could have direct intelligence from Monroe, it would relieve my anxiety. The monotony of life on Lake Erie does not vary. We rarely even have a blow – never a respectable storm. The weather is now intensely hot, beyond almost anything I ever experienced. This, however, rarely continues many days in succession. There is much sickness among the prisoners, not severe in type, I think. As we have ample grounds for exercise, I make that the chief daily concern. Next to exercise, I class reading, being provided by friends with suitable books.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Henry McDaniel to his wife Hester. [By this time McDaniel has been a prisoner for over a year, having been captured at Gettysburg in early July, 1863.]

July 10– Sunday– Washington, D.C.– “I have not a single soldier but whom is being disposed by the military for the best protection of all. By latest accounts the enemy is moving on Washington. They cannot fly to either place. Let us be vigilant, but keep cool. I hope neither Baltimore nor Washington will be sacked.” ~ Telegram from President Lincoln to a number of Maryland politicians.

Lincoln with his two secretaries

Lincoln with his two secretaries

July 10– Sunday– near Petersburg, Virginia– “The right wing of our skirmish line rests on the Appomattox River and my post is on the extreme right, so I am now sitting on the banks of the river writing. The Yankee skirmish line is a short distance from us in full view. By mutual agreement, we do not fire at each other, there being no use of it unless an advance is made. They are quite friendly with us. We meet them everyday nearly and exchange papers. Only one or two go at a time and they meet half way. We have traded with them some too, but that is against orders and it got to be so common that they have put very strict orders against it, and have about broken it up. But occasionally some of the boys run the blockade and trade with them yet. Our boys give them tobacco and cornbread for crackers and knives, soap, pockette books, &c. I gave one them the other day a plug of tobacco for a pockette knife and six crackers. It was old Jeff Davis tobacco that I drawed about a month ago and I was glad to dispose of it. Of the future I can tell nothing more than you. We have been at it two months and over, and Old Grant still pecks away, but he is as far from having Richmond now as when he started.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier Marion Hill Fitzpatrick to his wife Amanda.

Under Constant Annoyance~July 1864~7th & 8th

Under Constant Annoyance ~ Union officer in Georgia.

In the Georgia heat Sherman draws ever nearer to Atlanta in plenty of hard fighting. After destroying much of Roswell, Georgia, Sherman orders the deportation of the town’s skilled workers, women as well as men. Grant, as at Vicksburg last year, has his artillery relentlessly pound Petersburg. The increasing bad situation in the prison camp at Andersonville draws attention from officials in Richmond and from Georgia citizens. Lincoln vetoes a bill he considers too harsh on reconstruction in the post-war South. The king of Hawaii exerts his power. Police in Japan disrupt an alleged coup attempt. Rumors about the Confederacy’s plans for Mexico float about in diplomatic circles.

Union General Sherman

Union General Sherman

July 7– Thursday– Richmond, Virginia– “Mary E. Vanderlip and Sarah Jane Rose, were yesterday brought before the Mayor on the charge of keeping a disorderly house of ill fame; and, at the same time, John C. Dawson, J. M. Boykin and Holesforth were charged with being found in the said house. It appeared that Vanderlip and Rose lived in a house in ‘Highland Row,’ on Main street, in Rocketts. The neighbors, complaining very much of the character of the house, officers Adams and Bibb visited it on Tuesday evening, when they found the woman and men behaving themselves in a manner calculated to disturb the peace and quiet of the neighborhood. Mr. Adams stated that the man Dawson was a released Penitentiary convict. Boykin and Holesforth were patients from Chimborazo Hospital. The Mayor sent Dawson and the women to jail, and turned the soldiers over to the Provost Marshal.” ~ Richmond Whig.

July 7– Thursday– Petersburg, Virginia– “It is distressing to see & to know the amount of terrible suffering caused by this useless & wicked bombardment of a place which if burst to the ground would not bring the Yankees one inch nearer to the city or to Richmond. The whole city with the exception of a house here & there is entirely deserted & to walk the silent Streets the foot fall echoes drearily from the houses more or less riddled by the shell which every few minutes comes tearing & plunging through. The citizens are camping in the suburbs & woods around the city old men women & children. I heard through a Major Johnston from Roswell up to the 27th of June at which time Roswell he said was safe. I am very anxious to hear.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Barrington King to his family in Roswell, Georgia.

July 7– Thursday– above the Chattahoochee River, Georgia– “I am sitting at a table under a fresh, green oak bower . . . as comfortable as one can be in this almost insufferable heat. We came here yesterday afternoon to encamp In the shady woods, with notice that we would be allowed a few days rest. We are . . . on a high ridge, and can see several church spires of the Gate City [Atlanta] from our camp. The enemy has strong fortifications on the north bank of the river and occupies them. I believe, however, that the larger portion of his army is on the south side, and that the works on this side are intended rather as a defense for the crossing. The rest here will do us good; we have had a severe campaign in hot weather Since we first met the enemy at Buzzard Roost two months ago, we have been marching and fighting all the time, and even when we have been in camp, It was so near the enemy’s line as to be under constant annoyance from picket firing and constantly on the alert ready for action, so that the rest ought to be a few weeks rather than a few days.” ~ Letter from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife.

July 7– Thursday– Cobb County, Georgia– “I went to town and saw a few friends, heard added statements of depredations and believe but few in the town and county had escaped the visits and terrors of the Robbers. I returned home to suffer from my own reflections upon the sufferings of all and the debasing effects of war and to enjoy some relief from my own thoughts in the society of the pleasant strangers who were encamped about me.” ~ Diary of William King.

Roswell deportees

Roswell deportees

 July 7– Thursday– Roswell, Georgia– Union General Garrard receives orders from General Sherman telling him to “arrest all people, male and female, connected with those factories, no matter what the clamor, and let them foot it, under guard, to Marietta, whence I will send them by [railroad] cars to the North. The poor women will make a howl. Let them take along their children and clothing, provided they have the means of hauling it or you can spare them.” In addition Sherman instructs Garrard that mill owners and employees alike should be charged with treason for providing material aid to the Confederacy.

July 7– Thursday– Kawaiahao, Hawaii– A constitutional convention meets to adopt a new constitution. King Kamehameha V, who ascended the throne last year, in conference with his advisors has drafted a constitution and presents it to the delegates. The members of the convention, however, will be unable to agree on the king’s proposed constitution because of his new voting requirements. Kamehameha will soon grow impatient with the delay, will dissolve the convention and will unilaterally announce that his constitution replaces the 1852 constitution as the law of the land.

King Kamehameha V

King Kamehameha V

July 8– Friday– New London, Connecticut– Birth of Frank B Brandegee, lawyer and Republican politician. [Dies by his own hand October 14, 1924.]

 July 8– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– Birth of Fred Holland Day, photographer who will work to establish photography as a fine art for. [Dies November 12, 1933.]

Fred Holland Day 1911

Fred Holland Day 1911

July 8– Friday– Washington, D.C.– “Whereas, at the late Session, Congress passed a Bill, ‘To guarantee to certain States, whose governments have been usurped or overthrown, a republican form of Government’, a copy of which is hereunto annexed; And whereas, the said Bill was presented to the President of the United States, for his approval, less than one hour before the sine die adjournment of said Session, and was not signed by him; And whereas, the said Bill contains, among other things, a plan for restoring the States in rebellion to their proper practical relation in the Union, which plan expresses the sense of Congress upon that subject, and which plan it is now thought fit to lay before the people for their consideration; Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, do proclaim, declare, and make known, that, while I am, (as I was in December last, when by proclamation I propounded a plan for restoration) unprepared, by a formal approval of this Bill, to be inflexibly committed to any single plan of restoration; and, while I am also unprepared to declare, that the free-state constitutions and governments, already adopted and installed in Arkansas and Louisiana, shall be set aside and held for nought, thereby repelling and discouraging the loyal citizens who have set up the same, as to further effort; or to declare a constitutional competency in Congress to abolish slavery in States, but am at the same time sincerely hoping and expecting that a constitutional amendment, abolishing slavery throughout the nation, may be adopted, nevertheless, I am fully satisfied with the system for restoration contained in the Bill, as one very proper plan for the loyal people of any State choosing to adopt it; and that I am, and at all times shall be, prepared to give the Executive aid and assistance to any such people, so soon as the military resistance to the United States shall have been suppressed in any such State, and the people thereof shall have sufficiently returned to their obedience to the Constitution and the laws of the United States,– in which cases, military Governors will be appointed, with directions to proceed according to the Bill.” ~ Message to Congress from President Lincoln, explaining his pocket veto of the Wade-Davis reconstruction bill.

 July 8– Friday– Richmond, Virginia– “Captain H. T. Bowles, for some time back engaged at Castle Thunder, John L. Weatherford, John F. Carter, and John S. Hammond, well known attaches of Captain Maccubin’s detective corps of this city, have received orders to report to General Winder, now commanding the prison post at Andersonville, Georgia. These gentlemen will leave forthwith for their destination.” ~ Richmond Times Dispatch.

graves at Andersonville

graves at Andersonville

July 8– Friday– outside Petersburg, Virginia– “We have just heard of the destruction of the Rebel Steamer Alabama by the Yankee Kearsage. Hurrah!” ~ Diary of Union officer Elisha Hunt Rhodes.

 July 8– Friday– Petersburg, Virginia– “The news of General Johnston falling back to Atlanta reached here on yesterday. I have but little or no fears that the Yankees will ever get down to where you are but I think that you will be pestered by our own soldiers, not that I think that they will harm you in any way except strolling about and begging for anything that is to eat and stealing your chickens, etc. I had almost as leave have the Yankees around my house as our own men except they will not insult ladies. Everything has remained quiet here since I last wrote, except the Yankees continue to shell the city and some little picket fighting. General Grant says the siege of Richmond has begun, if so we don’t know it. It will be like the little man hugging the big woman, he will have to besiege one side awhile and then the other. Tell me not that such an army as ours whose prayers ascend the throne of God day and night can ever by subdued or conquered. Our army is in good spirits and as far as I know, in good condition. Our brigade wants to get to Atlanta, if they must die in defense of their country they had rather fell in defense of their own native state but there is no hopes of our going as far as I know.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier W.A. Stilwell to his wife Molly.

July 8– Friday– above Atlanta, Georgia– “I have been marching or ditching for the last two weeks day and night. I am now on the bank of a ditch. I am well at this time. Well, Sis, I have been in several tight places since I saw you. Last week we were marched five or six miles across the Chattahoochee River. We stayed there two days and then we marched a mile and formed a line of battle and fronted 10,000 Yankees, but they did not see us. Our cavalry fought them about one hour and had to run, and we had to leave quick and then we marched three miles back where we had to entrench ourselves. We commenced ditching Sunday evening but before we finished our ditch the Yankees come on us. There was some of the heaviest cannonading last night I ever heard yet. I said last night it was about sundown, just across the river. I don’t know what it was for, nor what damage was done. I reckon there was forty fired to the minute. The Yankees are . . . . not more than 12 or 14 miles from Atlanta. The weather is very hot and dry. You said Brother wanted me to write to him and let him know where we are. Tell him we are on the Chattahoochee, 12 miles from Atlanta, but I cannot tell how long we will stay here. We are almost without anything to eat. I have not had as much meat this week as I could eat in one day. I am hungry all the time and cannot get anything hardly to eat.” ~ Letter from a Confederate soldier to his sister.

 July 8– Friday– near Andersonville, Georgia– “When we were in sight of Camp Anderson on an embankment of ten or fifteen feet the engine ran off down the embankment and jerked all the cars off track, fortunately no one was killed, one lady was wounded by jumping out before the train stopped. The engine and wood box were broken all to pieces. Next box was turned nearly over, the others were merely thrown off track. I was never so badly frightened before. Johnston’s Army has fallen back to the Chattahoochee river. The Yankees have possession of Marietta and have burned the military Institute. The people think Johnston hasn’t a sufficient number of troops to make a fight. I hear that General Lee is driving Grant back. We have been very fearful that communication would be cut off from that army. I know the soldiers must be awfully tired and worn out marching and fighting so much, and so long. I forgot to say anything about the Yankee prison at Anderson. We were not nearer the Stockade than the depot which is three hundred yards distant I suppose, well perhaps it may have been farther but anyway we had a plain view of the stockade as we wished. There are from 30 to 35,000 thousand Yankees there now and more are coming in daily. We were told, from 100 to 150 die daily.” ~ Letters from Maggie Cone to her fiancé, Confederate soldier Alva Benjamin Spencer.

overcrowding at Andersonville

overcrowding at Andersonville

July 8– Friday– Havana, Cuba–The U S Counsel sends a warning to Secretary of State Seward that Confederate operatives in northern Mexico are planning to set up an independent country, with the aid of the French, creating an independent country between Mexico and the United States.

modern memorial where the Ikedaya Inn once stood

modern memorial where the Ikedaya Inn once stood

July 8– Friday– Kyoto, Japan– At the Ikedaya Inn special police move against a group of free-lance samurai, accusing them of plans to burn the city. In the struggle 8 samurai and 1 police officer are killed and 23 other samurai are arrested.

Feel So Wholly Blue~July 1864~the 5th to 7th

Felt So Wholly Blue ~ Ellen M O’Connor

Whitman’s friends miss him and express concern for his health. Citizens in Georgia feel sad as Union troops surround them and sabotage the South’s industrial base. Soldiers worry. President Lincoln calls for a day of prayer and fasting. Navy Secretary Welles expresses great relief at the sinking of the Alabama. An elderly freed slave declares her gratitude for the Union army.

Harpers Weekly cartoon about the Fourth of July

Harpers Weekly cartoon about the Fourth of July

July 5– Tuesday– Washington, D.C.– “It will be two weeks to-morrow since you left us,1 and I have missed you terribly every minute of the time. I think I never in my life felt so wholly blue and unhappy about any one’s going away as I did and have since, about your going. I began to be really superstitious I felt so badly. I did not think that you were going to die, but I could not possibly overcome the feeling that our dear and pleasant circle was broken, and it seemed to me that we four should not be together any more as we have been. But now since you are so much better, I hope you will come back to Washington in the autumn to stay all winter, and I hope we shall spend a part of every day together, as we have so many days. Ah! Walt, I don’t believe other people need you as much as we do. I am sure they don’t need you as much as I do. . . . What news from your brother George? I think our army affairs are looking rather dismal, don’t you? And when gold went up so last week, I thought we were going to have a crash in the finance at once, & now what a terrible rise there is in prices, sugar 38 cents a pound here. Is it so bad with you? What about your book? Have you been able yet to give a thought even? And just how are you? Tell me won’t you? I hope you are very, very much better. That Wednesday evening after you left I felt so badly at your leaving so suddenly. For it was sudden at last, & I wished I had persuaded you to stay just one day longer, but the very next day was intensely hot, & so for four days, & then I was glad for your sake that you were safe home.” ~ Letter from Ellen M. O’Connor to Walt Whitman.

July 5– Tuesday– Union headquarters outside of Petersburg, Virginia– “I forgot to tell you that yesterday there appeared a wagon of the Sanitary Commission bearing a gift for the comfort of Headquarters. With it came the agent, Mr. Johnson, a dried-up Philadelphian, of a serious countenance. He brought some ice, mutton, canned fruit, etc., for the behoof of the suffering officers, and was received with sweet smiles. This morning we made up a quartet . . . and made a journey to City Point, distant some twelve or thirteen miles. It was not unpleasant, though the sun was extremely hot; for we took back roads in the woods and escaped a good share of dust. Before getting to the City Point road . . . we stopped at one Epps’s house. . . . Among other [slaves] a venerable ‘Aunty,’ of whom I asked her age. ‘Dunno,’ replied the Venerable, ‘but I know I’se mighty old: got double granchildren.’ She then began to chuckle much, and said: ‘Massa allers made me work, cause he was ugly; but since you uns is come, I don’t have to do nothin. Oh! I’se powerful glad you uns is come. I didn’t know thar was so many folks in the whole world as I seen round here.’ . . . At City Point I delivered some despatches at General Grant’s, and after went down and saw the Sanitary boats. They have three of them, large ones, moored permanently side by side, and full of all sorts of things, and especially a host of boxes, no two alike. The upper deck, to render it attractive, was ornamented with a pile of two or three hundred pairs of crutches. For myself I got some iced lemonade on board, and retired much refreshed and highly patriotic.” ~ Letter from Union officer Theodore Lyman to his wife Elizabeth.

July 5– Tuesday– Roswell, Georgia– Federal cavalry under the command of General Kenner Garrard arrives to find the bridge across the Chattahoochee River had been burned by withdrawing Confederate soldiers. Garrard orders his troopers to commence burning all the mills and industrial buildings in town. According to his report, one of the cotton mills destroyed today contained over one million dollars worth of machinery and employed four-hundred workers. [The one million would equal $15,300,000 today using the Consumer Price Index and $1.76 billion today in terms of economic power as a share of the Gross Domestic Product. Roswell served as a key provider of industrial products for the Confederacy.]

Union General Kenner Garrard

Union General Kenner Garrard

July 5– Tuesday– Cobb County, Georgia– “As the preceding day, I went to town, saw a few friends, enquired into their suffering; nearly all of whom in common with myself, had suffered more or less from the robbers on Sunday & Monday. Some had lost everything The Negroes had fared no better, old Mamie, the servant of Mrs. Duncan, who staid in her yard, was in great distress and . . . sadly, she informed me that the Robbers had broken open her Mistress’ house and destroyed everything left and had robbed her of all of her provisions and her clothing, even her needles & thread, leaving her nothing but the clothing she had on, she asked them to have mercy an a poor Negro, they cursed her and said if she did not close her mouth they would kill her. Into what demons does War transform men. During the day a Regiment of [Federal] Cavalry under Colonel C, an intelligent & gentlemanly officer, encamped on the premises to remain until the next day, but during the afternoon he received orders to proceed toward Power’s Ferry. He informed me the paper mill had been burnt. I visited some of my neighbors.” ~ Diary of William King.

July 6– Wednesday– Washington, D. C.– “Received dispatches to-day from Captain Winslow of the Kearsarge relative to sinking the Alabama. Wrote congratulatory letter. There is great rejoicing throughout the country over this success, which is universally and justly conceded a triumph over England as well as over the Rebels. In my first draft, I made a point or two, rather too strong perhaps, against England and the mercenary, piratical spirit of Semmes [Confederate captain of the Alabama], who had accumulated chronometers. . . . Violent attacks have been made upon the Department and myself for the reason that our naval vessels were not efficient, had no speed ; but in the account of the battle, the Kearsarge is said, by way of lessening the calamity, to have had greater steaming power than the Alabama, and to have controlled the movement. Our large smooth-bore guns, the Dahlgrens, have been ridiculed and denounced by the enemies of the Navy Department, but the swift destruction of the Alabama is now imputed to the great guns which tore her in pieces.”~ Diary of Gideon Welles. [The powerful Dahlgren guns were designed by Admiral John Dahlgren (1809-1870). His son Ulric was killed back in March while leading an abortive Union cavalry raid against Richmond.]

a Dahlgren gun on the USS Kearsarge

a Dahlgren gun on the USS Kearsarge

July 6– Wednesday– Washington, D. C.– “I have not heard from you for some time the last time I heard from you Jo Harris was telling me that you [weren’t] well & that you were on the Avenue & had a room there. I am still here & will stay until August I get out now most every day until six o’clock but I never see you. I have got my Artificial leg but can’t walk very well on it but I think that practice will make me more perfect. I would like very much to see you come in here & spend the evening as you used to do at the old Armory but alas I never see your familiar [face] in the threshold of my old tent. The boys feels sadly at a loss not to have some one to come in and set awhile with them for there is no one here to do so, as you used to at Armory Square. There is a great many wounded in the Hospital here.” ~ Letter from Union soldier Lewis K Brown to Walt Whitman.

July 6– Wednesday– outside Petersburg, Virginia– “The Army presents a rather motley appearance now, as little regard is paid to dress, and all are dirty and ragged. Still I am happy and probably the best contented man in the Army of the Potomac.” ~ Diary of Union officer Elisha Hunt Rhodes.

July 6– Wednesday– Petersburg, Virginia– “We have all written you repeatedly about the Yankees here & their conduct – I pray daily I may never be with them again – Oh! it was horrible past all descriptions! Dear Mother it is so hard on you & father, to be driven away from your sweet home, & to leave it all the dear old church, the graves of your loved children, & all that is so hard & grievous– We have heard nothing later than 31st of May from you– & have been very much worried by a rumor, that the factory has been burned.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Thomas Edward King to his parents in Roswell, Georgia.

July 6– Wednesday– Cobb County, Georgia– “I felt dull today, too much so to go to town. I visited some of the neighbors, heard their complaints and indulged in sad reflections on the consequences of this sad war, and thanked God that I had no agency in involving our happy country in it. How desolate do I feel in witnessing and hearing of so much distress & heartlessness for the safety of my two sons in the Armies of Virginia and Georgia and my wife and other members of my family [sent to Savannah, Georgia for their safety], so separated from me that I can neither hear of them nor partake of their counsel nor sympathy. How cheering is the hope of Heaven under such circumstances and the knowledge that God overrules all things.” ~ Diary of William King.

July 6– Wednesday– Roswell, Georgia– Union General Kenner Garrard continues burning mills and factories in the town. He sends word of what he had found and destroyed to General Sherman, who replies by telling Garrard to stay there and await further orders.

Federal troops destroying railroads & buildings in Georgia

Federal troops destroying railroads & buildings in Georgia

July 6– Wednesday– somewhere north of Atlanta, Georgia– “The Yankees don’t seem too want to fight us. They say they intend to flank us and drive us to South Carolina. They say there is no use to fight. General Johnston has tried to bring them to a fight, but there is so many of them they flank him and he is compelled to fall back. Some think they can’t flank us from the river, where we are now, but that is all a mistake. They will do it if they try. It was said they never would drive us from Dalton Gap, the best position we ever had, but they did. If we could not hold them there, we can’t hold them no where. They have drove us over 100 miles over the best farming country I ever saw. They have laid waste everything. Great God! what a destruction! All this has been done in two months! My dear, this is a distressing time. We are a gone people without help. Soon I fear they will be upon you all in less than three months. I hope this will not alarm you, but you may begin to prepare for it. I can’t think otherwise. My dear Wife, I cannot express myself to you what a world of trouble this is. It seems like the Lord has turned His face from us and left us to work out our own destruction.” ~ Letter from a Confederate soldier to his wife.

July 7– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– “Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, cordially concurring with the Congress of the United States in the penitential and pious sentiments expressed in the aforesaid resolution and heartily approving of the devotional design and purpose thereof, do hereby appoint the first Thursday of August next to be observed by the people of the United States as a day of national humiliation and prayer. I do hereby further invite and request the heads of the Executive Departments of this Government, together with all legislators, all judges and magistrates, and all other persons exercising authority in the land, whether civil, military, or naval, and all soldiers, seamen, and marines in the national service, and all the other loyal and law-abiding people of the United States, to assemble in their preferred places of public worship on that day, and there and then to render to the almighty and merciful Ruler of the Universe such homages and such confessions and to offer to Him such supplications as the Congress of the United States have in their aforesaid resolution so solemnly, so earnestly, and so reverently recommended.” ~ Proclamation by President Lincoln

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