That Old Hag and Harlot of Slavery~September 1864~14th to 16th

The Old Hag and Harlot of Slavery ~ New York Times.

New York Times attacks the Democrats for their on-going support of slavery as found in their campaign literature and an English reader encourages support for Lincoln. Sheman terminates his exchange of letters with General Hood. A Confederate soldier worries about Sherman attempting to liberate Andersonville prison. Residents of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, appeal to Masonic brothers for help to rebuild. Welles writes about a couple of Union admirals. Garrison’s paper carries news of Frederick Douglass and the Whittier family. A prominent British explorer dies.

one of Whittier's anti-slavery broadsides

one of Whittier’s anti-slavery broadsides

September 14– Wednesday– Atlanta, Georgia– “I agree with you that this discussion by two soldiers is out of place and profitless, but you must admit that you began the controversy by characterizing an official act of mine in unfair and improper terms. I reiterate my former answer, and to the only new matter contained in your rejoinder I add, we have no ‘Negro allies’ in this army; not a single Negro soldier left Chattanooga with this army or is with it now. There are a few guarding Chattanooga, which General Steedman sent to drive Wheeler out of Dalton. I was not bound by the laws of war to give notice of the shelling of Atlanta, a ‘fortified town’ with magazines, arsenals, foundries, and public stores. You were bound to take notice. See the books. This is the conclusion of our correspondence, which I did not begin, and terminate with satisfaction.” ~ Letter from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to Confederate General John Bell Hood.

September 14– Wednesday– London, England– Birth of Robert Cecil, lawyer, politician and diplomat who will win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937. [Dies November 24, 1958.]

Robert Cecil, c.1919

Robert Cecil, c.1919

September 15– Thursday– New York City– “We observe in an advertised list of ‘Democratic Campaign Documents,’ twenty-seven in number, three whose titles indicate that they are devoted to the defense of human Slavery. They are Bishop Hopkins’ Bible View of Slavery, Professor Morse on the Ethical Position of Slavery in the Social System, and Results of Emancipation in English, French and Spanish America. Three out of twenty-seven devoted specifically to Slavery – this is only one-ninth of the whole, though we think it altogether likely, that of the remaining eight-ninths the greater part are really, under various guises, on the same side of the same topic. It seems impossible for the Democratic party to get rid of the idea that the main and everlasting aim and end of its existence is the defense of Slavery. Don Quixote was not more eager to rush to the aid and risk his life in the defense of forlorn and abused damsels of high degree, than the Democratic party has been at all times, and it seems still is, to rush to the defense of the old hag and harlot of Slavery.” ~ New York Times.

September 15– Thursday– Chambersburg, Pennsylvania– “The undersigned . . . were, by resolution, appointed a Committee to address the Grand and Subordinate Lodges of this Commonwealth, and to invoke some relief for the destitute and suffering brethren of that place. We would gladly refrain from recital of the melancholy circumstances of the recent terrible conflagration at Chambersburg, and which are now a part of the history of the times. It is perhaps enough to say, that a large number of the members of our Lodge, from circumstances of ease and comfort, have been reduced to the sad condition of a houseless and homeless poverty. We make no argument– we would indulge in no eloquence, but we would simply point you to the black and smouldering ruins of that once happy and prosperous town– to business destroyed, to labor prostrated, to the burning tears of widowhood, to the moving sorrows of orphanage, to the desolation of home, and to the ashes of the altar where devotion knelt or love fed its flame of perennial joy. The undersigned, as the representatives of their unfortunate brotherhood, make, with great confidence, this earnest and anxious appeal to the sympathy and generosity of the Masonic heart. This august and venerable Order, renowned for her mighty achievements, and cherished her for noble and princely charities, will, we indulge the fond hope, turn a listening ear to the cry that comes from the distressed and destitute-the stricken and unfortunate brethren of Chambersburg.” ~ Letter of appeal from Thomas Barnhart, George W. Brewer, and H. S. Stoner to other lodges of Freemasons throughout Pennsylvania.

September 15– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– “Admiral Farragut writes that his health is giving way under the great labor imposed and long-continued service in the Gulf and the Caribbean Sea. Says he must have rest and shore exercise. The Department had ordered him North to command the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron and capture Wilmington. These orders he had not received when his dispatch was written, and I am exceedingly embarrassed how to proceed. . . . Farragut would take the place three times while [Union Admiral Samuel Phillips] Lee was preparing, and hesitating, and looking behind for more aid. It pains me to distress him and the Blairs by detaching him and ordering another to the work, but individual feelings, partialities, and friendships must not be in the way of public welfare. The importance of closing Wilmington and cutting off Rebel communication is paramount to all other questions– more important, practically, than the capture of Richmond. It has been impossible to get the War Department and military authorities to enter into the spirit of this work. They did not appreciate it. But they and Grant have now engaged in it, and Grant is persistent.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles. [Samuel Philips Lee (1812– 1897), a career naval officer, is a cousin of Confederate General Robert E Lee. Samuel rose to the rank of admiral in September, 1862, and from then until October, 1864, commands the Union ships blockading the coast of North Carolina, keeping European and American blockade runners from reaching southern ports.]

Union Admiral Samuel Philips Lee

Union Admiral Samuel Philips Lee

September 15– Thursday– Petersburg, Virginia– “I am sorry to say that I am no better and I fear I am worse. I hate to write so discouraging, but if I write at all I have to tell the truth. It seems that Ihave gotten into a low state of health and it is a hard matter for me to take a rise. I have an every other day kind of dumb chill or something and severe headache and fever but not much fever either. The Dr. says it is very near fever. I take medicine on my well days but there is not much well about any of them. My appetite is good and they feed us well but nothing I eat agrees well with me. I am getting pretty weak and poor and I get gradually weaker for the last few days. Now this is about as gloomy an account of myself as I could well put up and since I have been so frank in telling you, you must not by any means let it render you uneasy, for I am not low spirited myself, and still hope that I will have the pleasure of writing you in a short time that I am improving fast. Do write soon and do not be uneasy about me. May God bless you. Pray for me.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier Marion Hill Fitzpatrick to his wife Amanda.

September 15– Thursday– Andersonville, Georgia– Some improvements have finally been completed at Andersonville prison. A second stockade was built, enclosing the first for security. Better barracks and a better privy for the inmates were constructed.

John Speke, explorer

John Speke, explorer

September 15– Thursday– Wiltshire, England– The soldier and explorer John Speke dies at age 37 in a hunting accident. [About Speke and his explorations, see, The Blue Nile by Alan Moorehead (1962); Explorers on the Nile by Andrew Langley (1982) and Burton and Speke by William Harrison (1982)]

Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass

September 16– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– Today’s issue of The Liberator focuses much attention on a letter of June, 1864, from Frederick Douglass to an English abolitionist. “I have not readily consented to the claims set up in the name of anti-slavery for our Government, but I have tried to believe all for the best. My patience and faith are not very strong now. The treatment of our poor black soldiers – the refusal to pay them anything like equal compensation, though it was promised them when they enlisted; the refusal to insist upon the exchange of colored prisoners when colored prisoners have been slaughtered in cold blood, although the President has repeatedly promised thus to protect the lives of his colored soldiers – have worn my patience threadbare. The President has virtually laid down this as the rule of his statesmen: Do evil by choice, right from necessity. . . . I see no purpose on the part of Lincoln and his friends to extend the elective franchise to the colored people of the South, but the contrary. This is extremely dishonorable. No rebuke of it can be too strong from your side of the water.” On another page the paper carries the following obituary: “Elizabeth H. Whittier, sister of John G. Whittier, died at their residence in Amesbury on the 3rd instant. Miss Whittier’s name has long been known as that of a devoted friend of the colored race. Like her brother, she was born a poet, and the few pieces of hers which she has permitted to appear in print, are marked by rare grace and felicity of thought and expression, and deep and tender feeling. She has always lived in great retirement, the delight of her friends, who saw in her not only high poetical gifts, but an elevated and almost perfect character.” [Elizabeth Whittier was, in the words of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, "the rarest of women, the pet and pride of the household, her brother’s complement, possessing all the readiness of taking in his presence, the lead in conversation, which Whittier so gladly abandoned to her, while he sat rubbing his hands, and laughing at her daring sallies … no one can truly estimate the long celibate life of the poet without bearing in mind that he had for many years at his own fire-side, the concentrated wit and sympathy of all womankind in his sister."]

the Whittier home shared by the poet sister and brother

the Whittier home shared by the poet sister and brother

September 16– Friday– New York City– “There are papers in England which have strenuously, steadfastly – aye, and even enthusiastically supported the Federal cause and sought to counteract the evil designs of the London Times and its audacious copartners in guilt and falsehood. The Daily News and the Morning Star have, from the onset, been Federal to the backbone; yet what say they about this forthcoming election? Why, they say, if you study your own interest, your national honor and future peace, you will elect – General G.B. McClellan? No. But Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, the man who would not permit the ‘little Mac,’ the ‘Young Napoleon,’ the ‘hesitator,’ to trifle with a noble army, or play traitor in the face of an anxious people. The nomination of such a man as McClellan might be taken as an insult, especially when his military antecedents are analyzed. But it seems there are politicians in America, as in England, who have face enough for anything. If ‘Mac’ is elected, the London Times will express its satisfaction, but will secretly laugh at you. If Lincoln is your choice, it will howl forth its maledictions, for then it will know the Union is neither dead nor sleepeth.” ~ Letter to the editor of the New York Times from an English visitor.

pro-Lincoln cartoon which contrasts Lincoln by showing McClellan shaking hands with Confederate President Jeff Davis

pro-Lincoln cartoon which contrasts Lincoln by showing McClellan shaking hands with Confederate President Jeff Davis

September 16– Friday– Petersburg, Virginia– “Knowing that Andersonville was the point which Sherman was so anxious to possess, and knowing too that you were not very far distant, I was every day fearful that the raiders had made their appearance. Since your last was written Atlanta has fallen. What has been the effect produced upon the people of Georgia, I can’t tell; but I’m afraid the people have become somewhat discouraged, I hope not though. Its capture, did at first, I’m sorry to say, have quite a demoralizing effect on our army; but since the true condition of affairs has been made known, the same determined resistance and hatred to the Yankees has returned stronger, if possible, than ever. As to the cause of our failures in Georgia, or course, I’m not able to judge, but from all I can learn I’m fully convinced that your opinion, of the in competency of Hood to command so large an army was correct. I judged his ability by his previous successes while in command of a division in this army. You may think from the above, that I’m proud to belong to General Lee’s army. Well, I am, and I believe tis an honor too. Ought I not to feel so?” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier Alva Benjamin Spencer to his fiancee Maggie Cone.

War Is Cruelty~September 1864~the 12th to 14th

War Is Cruelty ~ General Sherman.

Sherman answers the letter from the mayor of Atlanta. One of his officers rejoices. Georgia newspapers want the government in Richmond to help but Lee is already short of soldiers and food. George Templeton Strong blames Peace Democrats. Reverend Charles Finney hopes for Lincoln’s reelection. A Nashville newspaper complains of the garbage pickers.

Union soldiers occupying Atlanta

Union soldiers occupying Atlanta

September 12– Monday– Atlanta, Georgia– “We must have peace, not only at Atlanta but in all America. To secure this we must stop the war that now desolates our once happy and favored country. To stop war we must defeat the rebel armies that are arrayed against the laws and Constitution, which all must respect and obey. To defeat these armies we must prepare the way to reach them in their recesses provided with the arms and instruments which enable us to accomplish our purpose. . . . I cannot discuss this subject with you fairly, because I cannot impart to you what I propose to do, but I assert that my military plans make it necessary for the inhabitants to go away, and I can only renew my offer of services to make their exodus in any direction as easy and comfortable as possible. You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty and you cannot refine it, and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out. I know I had no hand in making this war, and I know I will make more sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace. But you cannot have peace and a division of our country. If the United States submits to a division now it will not stop . . . . You might as well appeal against the thunder-storm as against these terrible hardships of war. They are inevitable, and the only way the people of Atlanta can hope once more to live in peace and quiet at home is to stop the war, which can alone be done by admitting that it began in error and is perpetuated in pride. We don’t want your Negroes or your horses or your houses or your lands or anything you have, but we do want, and will have, a just obedience to the laws of the United States. That we will have, and if it involves the destruction of your improvements we cannot help it. . . . I want peace, and believe it can now only be reached through union and war, and I will ever conduct war with a view to perfect an early success. But, my dear sirs, when that peace does come, you may call on me for anything. Then will I share with you the last cracker, and watch with you to shield your homes and families against danger from every quarter. Now you must go, and take with you the old and feeble, feed and nurse them and build for them in more quiet places proper habitations to shield them against the weather until the mad passions of men cool down and allow the Union and peace once more to settle over your old homes at Atlanta.” ~ Letter from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to Mayor James M. Calhoun along with Councilmen E. E. Rawson and S.C. Wells.

General Sherman & officers at Atlanta

General Sherman & officers at Atlanta

September 12– Monday– Atlanta, Georgia– “The Major and I took a moonlight ride around the city last evening and lingered some time near General Thomas’ headquarters, where that excellent band of the 33rd Massachusetts discoursed some of its exquisite music. Atlanta is really a very fine city; there must have been a great deal of wealth in it. There are many large mansions and it looks much like a western city. Two-thirds of our term of service has now expired, and we can stay only one year more. I have a hope that it won’t be a year more, still who can tell. The citizens of Atlanta are all leaving; large wagon trains leave daily with southern families and their chattels, all but the human chattels and are received into General Hood’s lines under flags of truce. Those who are not devoted to the south are preparing for a grand migration northward; thus Atlanta will be left to the soldiers alone. General Sherman has issued a stringent order, that no trader shall be allowed to settle within any fortified place south of Chattanooga. He has no sympathy with those who follow the army to make money out of it. The clerk of the paymaster of our brigade has arrived. It seems that all the armies are being paid; thus relief will soon be brought to your suffering soldiers’ families.” ~ Letter from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife Frances.

September 13– Tuesday– New York City– “A great and decisive battle may be fought in Virginia before this week ends. There will be a murder grim and great, for Lee’s hungry cohorts will fight their best. Hundreds or thousands of men, enlisted to maintain and enforce the law of the land, will perish by the violence of masterful rebels. Our Copperheads . . . Peace Democrats and the candidates and leaders, McClellan and George H Pendleton . . . are answerable for the death of every national soldier who dies in his duty.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

September 13– Tuesday– Oberlin, Ohio– “Your Dear Letters of last March were received & would have been answered long since but for the fact that I had written so many letters to sympathizing friends, & had thus kept the fountain of my sorrows open & flowing that my health was suffering. I ceased to write on the subject of my bereavement & from the result or the apparent result on my health I think it was wise to turn my thoughts away from my bereavement made doubly afflictive by the circumstances [of] my Precious wife’s death. She died suddenly, as you are aware away from home at a hotel. The material circumstances you have seen in the newspapers. O how delighted she would have been to have received letters from you both before her departure. It is not possible for any one who did not know my Dear Wife intimately & in her home life, & in her domestic character, to conceive adequately of the nature & extent of my loss. You had an opportunity to witness something of her importance to me as an evangelist. You might also infer what she was as a Pastor’s wife & also as the wife of a President of a college having among the number of its students nearly 500 young ladies. In all my public relations she was rarely qualified to be a helper. Rare as her endowments were as a help meet in my Public Relations her qualities as a wife & a mother were still more rare. In these relations she was a most excellent model. But I must not dwell upon what she was. I rather think of what she is. Now glorified! O how much that means! . . . . on the subject of our war . . . . We are progressing hopefully & I think surely to the total extinction of slavery & to the subjugation of the rebel territory. Our army & navy are victorious & the end can not be far distant. It is a great wheel & at least appears to people abroad to move slowly. But in fact progress has been astonishingly rapid. To us who know what has to be done & what has been accomplished the changes have been unparalleled in the world’s history both in magnitude & in rapidity. We are now once more & I trust for the last time to have a political contest with the sympathies with rebellion at the north. I feel confident that the right will triumph & that in this political triumph that corrupt party [the Democratic] that was so long in league with the slave power had every thing in [the ] wrong way, will be finally used up.” ~ Letter from Reverend Charles G Finney to Robert and Elizabeth Best. [Finney’s second wife Elizabeth died November 27, 1863. He will marry in 1865 for the third time. Finney has opposed slavery all during his ministry.]

Rev Charles Grandison Finney

Rev Charles Grandison Finney

September 13– Tuesday– Richmond, Virginia– “A bright, cool morning. . . . General Lee writes urgently for more men, and asks the Secretary to direct an inquiry into alleged charges that the bureaus are getting able-bodied details that should be in the army. And he complains that rich young men are elected magistrates, etc., just to avoid service in the field. . . . ‘Everybody’ is now abusing the President for removing General Johnston, and demand his restoration, etc. . . . I hope General Grant will remain quiet, and not cut our only remaining railroad (south), until we get a month’s supply of provisions! I hear of speculators getting everything they want, to oppress us with extortionate prices, while we can get nothing through on the railroads for our famishing families, even when we have an order of the government for transportation. The companies are bribed by speculators, while the government pays more moderate rates. . . . In this hour of dullness, many are reflecting on the repose and abundance they enjoyed once in the Union. But there are more acts in this drama! And the bell may ring any moment for the curtain to rise again.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

September 13– Tuesday– Memphis, Tennessee– “Feminine Politics. The discussion of partisan politics and public affairs is by no means confined in Memphis to person of the masculine gender. Half a dozen dear creatures who chance to meet at the house of some mutual friend can hardly wait to get their what-you-call-ems off and go through the insipid kissing each other, in which women habitually indulge before some casual remark, launches the whole bevy into a sea of argumentation.” ~ Memphis Bulletin.

September 13– Tuesday– Milledgeville, Georgia– “President Davis, we know, is determined to hold Richmond, at all hazards, and to the last extremity; but it is by no means impossible for him to do this and still save Georgia from the grasp of Sherman. . . . Georgia has troops enough in Virginia and South Carolina who if brought upon their own soil would drive Sherman and his hordes over the Tennessee River in dismay and utter rout. Must the brave Georgians in General Lee’s army who have done so much to defend the soil of Virginia, and especially the city of Richmond, be compelled to witness, in a distant land, the subjugation of their Fathers, Mothers, Sisters, Wives and Children and fellow citizens because the President considers the city of Richmond of more importance than the security of the great State of Georgia?” ~ Confederate Union.

September 13– Tuesday– Milledgeville, Georgia– “It is not to be disguised that the possession of Atlanta by the enemy is a severe blow to Georgia, and we may say to the military operations of the Confederate Government. . . . The army and the people– the whole people– now realizes the fact that each man must do his duty, and not govern his actions by those of his neighbor. Sherman should be made to feel that he is no longer fighting an army but a people– and that people determined to be free.” ~ Southern Recorder.

September 13– Tuesday– near Andersonville, Georgia– Over twenty Union prisoners and Confederate guards are killed or injured when a train transferring them from Andersonville prison to Camp Lawton in Millen, Georgia, derails near the Andersonville depot. Prisoners not injured are returned to the stockade, to be relocated at a later date.

September 14– Wednesday– Richmond, Virginia– “No news of our wheat and molasses yet; and we have hardly money enough to live until the next pay-day. We have no coal yet.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

September 14– Wednesday– Nashville, Tennessee– ” Outrageous Nuisance. A respectable citizen asks us to call the attention of the city officers to the abominable nuisance daily committed on the bank of the [Cumberland] river at the foot of Church [Street]. Hundreds resort thither to perform the mysterious rights of the goddess Cloacina, the thoughts of which makes one involuntarily hold his nose. It is intolerable, and should be stopped forthwith. The police should go there and compel the offenders to evacuate the premises.” ~ Nashville Daily Times and True Union. [Cloacina was the minor Roman goddess in charge of the main sewers of the city and was invoked as the patroness of those who were scavengers of sewer systems.]

ancient coins honoring the goddess Cloacina

ancient coins honoring the goddess Cloacina

The Consequences of This Measure~September 1864~the 11th & 12th

The Consequences of this Measure~ the mayor of Atlanta.

Mayor Calhoun and members of city council ask General Sherman to reconsider his decision to force people to leave Atlanta while Hood and Sherman continue their heated exchange of letters. A Southern soldier writes about overcoming his sadness. A Northern widow learns more about her husband’s service and death. Business is literally booming in Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania oil wells of the period

Pennsylvania oil wells of the period

September 11– Sunday– Winchester, Virginia– “Yours of the 27th . . . came safely to hand Yesterday, and I Will reply at once. You can only imagine how greedily I devoured its contents. And indeed it was a rich Treat to me. It gave me a great deal of pleasure to peruse it line by line; Every Word was Interesting and cheering to me, For I must confess, it arrived in a very good time, for I was very much down in the mouth about The fall of Atlanta. Just before, I had been raised to the very highest pinnacle that imagination could place a man, on the peace question. With the hopes that, Atlanta could hold out This campaign, but alas! all my bright visions of peace was blasted. My hopes of the pleasure of meeting my old Friends as a Freeman and enjoying my self as of years gone by, in their company. Then, to give up all, I admit it was too much for me, but your cheerful letter [caused] me to brighten up again, and bring back the old cheerful smile on my pug. I Soon banished all despondency, and now, I am Just as hopeful as Ever.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier James H. Blakemore to Mary Anna Sibert.

September 11– Sunday– Atlanta, Georgia– “We, the undersigned, mayor and two of the council for the city of Atlanta, for the time being the only legal organ of the people of the said city to express their wants and wishes, ask leave most earnestly, but respectfully, to petition you to reconsider the order requiring them to leave Atlanta. . . . As you advanced the people north of this fell back, and before your arrival here a large portion of the people had retired south, so that the country south of this is already crowded and without houses enough to accommodate the people, and we are informed that many are now staying in churches and other outbuildings. This being so, how is it possible for the people still here (mostly women and children) to find any shelter? And how can they live through the winter in the woods? No shelter or subsistence, in the midst of strangers who know them not, and without the power to assist them much, if they were willing to do so. This is but a feeble picture of the consequences of this measure. You know the woe, the horrors and the suffering cannot be described by words; imagination can only conceive of it, and we ask you to take these things into consideration. We know your mind and time are constantly occupied with the duties of your command, which almost deters us from asking your attention to this matter, but thought it might be that you had not considered this subject in all of its awful consequences, and that on more reflection you, we hope, would not make this people an exception to all mankind, for we know of no such instance ever having occurred; surely none such in the United States, and what has this helpless people done, that they should be driven from their homes to wander strangers and outcasts and exiles, and to subsist on charity? We do not know as yet the number of people still here; of those who are here, we are satisfied a respectable number, if allowed to remain at home, could subsist for several months without assistance, and a respectable number for a much longer time, and who might not need assistance at any time. In conclusion, we most earnestly and solemnly petition you to reconsider this order, or modify it, and suffer this unfortunate people to remain at home and enjoy what little means they have.” ~ Letter from Mayor James M. Calhoun along with E. E. Rawson and S.C. Wells, members of City Council, to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.

damaged Atlanta rail yard

damaged Atlanta rail yard

September 11– Sunday– Atlanta, Georgia– Atlanta families begin registering with Federal authorities for their removal from the city, under orders from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman, who intends to use Atlanta as his military base while his army rests, recovers and is re-supplied after the Atlanta campaign. [Over the next nine days, 446 families along with their furniture and household goods will be loaded into Union Army covered wagons and moved southward to the town of Rough and Ready. There, the refugees will be met by Confederate forces who will transport them to Lovejoy’s Station, where they will board trains to Macon, Georgia, and other locations. A total of 79 slaves accompany their masters, though most slaves decide to stay with the Union Army.]

September 11– Sunday– Gornji Milanoval, Serbia– Birth of Dragina Milicevic Lunjevica. [She will become Queen Consort when she marries King Alexander I on August 5, 1900. The royal couple will be assassinated by a group of army officers on June 11, 1903.]

Dragvina when Queen Consort

Dragvina when Queen Consort

September 12– Monday– New York City– “A table giving a list of one hundred and two Oil Companies, with a capital stock, the number of sharps, the prices asked and bid and the dividends declared, is published in the Philadelphia Commercial List and Price Current. The nominal capital of these companies exceeds $52,000,000! Of the whole number of companies only twenty-four have declared dividends. The Commercial List, which has devoted much attention to oil matters and is good authority on the subject, also gives a list of the off refineries in Pittsburgh, their capacity and owners’ names; likewise a list of all the oil companies of Philadelphia, location of office end name of President and Secretary, similar in style to the table of Mining Companies given some time since in the Commercial Bulletin. The Commercial List also gives a description of a few of the companies who peremptorily refuse to inform the public of what their assets consist. and are therefore set down as worthless. The excitement in these stocks lately, so well as the sales, have been unprecedented. The excitement runs high all through the oil region, parcels of real estates frequently changing hands at a high valuation; but in the estimation of those concerned all this is only a faint premonition of what is to come. The preserve production of oil is estimated at 6,000 barrels per day, and from present appearances the large number of new wells going into operation will enhance materially this aggregate.” ~ New York Times. [The $52 billion would equal $795 billion today, using the Consumer Price Index. On the Pennsylvania oil boom see, Oil on the Brain: The Discovery of Oil and the Excitement of the Boom in North Western Pennsylvania by Gary S McKinney, Chicora, Pennsylvania, 2008; Titusville of Yesterday, by Thomas O. Cartney, Richard Foy, and Alice Morrison, Oil City, Pennsylvania, 1984.]

workers in Pennsylvania oil fields

workers in Pennsylvania oil fields

September 12– Monday– outside Petersburg, Virginia– “I suppose you have already learned of the death of your husband. I have just been officially notified that Dr. S.M. Potter died at U.S. General Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, on the 6th instant at 1 A.M. of chronic Diarrhoea. I saw the Dr. at Cavalry Corps Hospital, City Point, Virginia, a short time before he was removed to Point Lookout. He thought & so did I that it might better his condition to be transferred to Point Lookout Hospital. I made every effort to get him sent to Washington City or Philadelphia but the boats were receiving none but wounded men for those points. The Dr. was a faithful Steward. He stood high in the estimation of every officer & man in the Regiment. We miss him very much. . . . The Doctor too had all the elements of a good soldier. He shrank from no danger or hardship when duty called. I have his pipe which I shall take care of and such other effect of his as I can find. His accounts with the Government will be properly arranged as soon as possible, when by application you can secure what may be due him. I think he has back pay due since February 29, 1864, at the rate of $430 per month. I can’t think he has been paid since then. . . . If you determine on the removal of his remains home I will lend any assistance or furnish any information I can. Had he died here I should have had his body embalmed & sent to you. . . . God’s ways are not our ways nor his thoughts our thoughts. May His Grace temper this sad affliction to your stricken heart. and may we all be reminded mortality & be prepared as the Dr. gave ample assurance that he was, for the great change that awaits us all, whether at Home or abroad, whether surrounded by friends or among strangers at Home or in the Army. Any inquiries you may wish to make concerning the deceased or his effects or accounts with the government address me & I will reply promptly.” ~ Letter from Union officer J. R. Loyd to Cynthia Potter, confirming the death of her husband Samuel Potter. [Disease caused more deaths among soldiers during the Civil War than did gunfire. Typhoid, malaria, smallpox, diarrhea, dysentery and pneumonia often ravaged the ranks on both sides. Poor medical care and/or an outbreak of disease frequently killed wounded soldiers. It is estimated that in the Union Army 2 out of every 27 soldiers died of disease. See, Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, 1861-1865 by William F Fox (1889); Doctors in Blue: the Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War by George W Adams (1952) and Bleeding Blue and Grey: Civil War Surgery and the Evolution of American Medicine by Ira M Rutkow (2005).The $430 would equal $6580 in today’s dollars, using the Consumer Price Index.]

typical dresses worn by widows

typical dresses worn by widows

September 12– Monday– near Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia– “The residue of your letter is rather discussion. It opens a wide field for the discussion of questions which I do not feel are committed to me. I am only a general of one of the armies of the Confederate States, charged with military operations in the field, under the direction of my superior officers, and I am not called upon to discuss with you the causes of the present war, or the political questions which led to or resulted from it. These grave and important questions have been committed to far abler hands than mine, and I shall only refer to them so far as to repel any unjust conclusion which might be drawn from my silence. . . . And because I characterized what you call a kindness as being real cruelty you presume to sit in judgment between me and my God and you decide that my earnest prayer to the Almighty Father to save our women and children from what you call kindness is a ‘sacrilegious, hypocritical appeal.’ You came into our country with your army avowedly for the purpose of subjugating free white men, women, and children, and not only intend to rule over them, but you make Negroes your allies and desire to place over us an inferior race, which we have raised from barbarism to its present position, which is the highest ever attained by that race in any country in all time. I must, therefore, decline to accept your statements in reference to your kindness toward the people of Atlanta, and your willingness to sacrifice everything for the peace and honor of the South, and refuse to be governed by your decision in regard to matters between myself, my country, and my God. You say, ‘let us fight it out like men.’ To this my reply is, for myself, and, I believe, for all the true men, aye, and women and children, in my country, we will fight you to the death. Better die a thousand deaths than submit to live under you or your Government and your Negro allies.” ~ Letter from Confederate General John Bell Hood to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.

We Are Full of Politics Here~September 1864~the 9th to 11th

We Are Full of Politics Here~Walt Whitman.

Still at home in Brooklyn but now mostly recovered, Whitman writes to friends and as others in the nation, he is discussing politics. Sherman and Hood exchange letters about Sherman’s plan to empty Atlanta of its citizens while a Union officer praises Sherman, declaring that Sherman should be Secretary of War. A citizen of Atlanta complains about the loss of his slave “property.” Loyal northern women continue efforts to support the cause.

pro-Lincoln cartoon which contrasts Lincoln by showing McClellan shaking hands with Confederate President Jeff Davis

pro-Lincoln cartoon which contrasts Lincoln by showing McClellan shaking hands with Confederate President Jeff Davis

September 9– Friday– Atlanta, Georgia– “We have had several days of great excitement, as it was understood that order had been, or were about to be, issued to the effect that everybody not belonging to the army must leave the city, going North or South as they saw fit, except the families of those men who had left the city before the Yankees came, and such must go South. But as yet no orders have been published specifying anything and we do not know what we have to do. The Yankees have not molested us much at the house, and have generally behaved pretty well. One unpleasant feature of present circumstances is the impudent airs the Negroes put on, and their indifference to the wants of their former masters. Of course they are all free and the Yankee soldiers don’t fail to assure them of that fact. Jabe’s Sally has come out of her hole now and is independent as can be. George and Clem are said to be in the city too. So our Negro property has all vanished into air.” ~ Diary of an Atlanta man.

"Negro property" vanishing by moonlight

“Negro property” vanishing by moonlight

September 9– Friday– near Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia– “I do not consider that I have any alternative in this matter. I therefore accept your proposition to declare a truce of two days, or such time as may be necessary to accomplish the purpose mentioned, and shall render all assistance in my power to expedite the transportation of citizens in this direction. I suggest that a staff officer be appointed by you to superintend the removal from the city to Rough and Ready, while I appoint a like officer to control their removal farther south; that a guard of 100 men be sent by either party, as you propose, to maintain order at that place, and that the removal begin on Monday next. And now, sir, permit me to say that the unprecedented measure you propose transcends, in studied and ingenious cruelty, all acts ever before brought to my attention in the dark history of war. In the name of God and humanity I protest, believing that you will find that you are expelling from their homes and firesides the wives and children of a brave people.” ~ Letter from Confederate General John Bell Hood to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.

General John Bell Hood

General John Bell Hood

September 9– Friday– Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada– The delegates depart, having agreed to meet next month in Quebec City for further discussions.

September 10– Saturday– Jamestown, New York– Birth of Josephine Adams Rathbone to Joshua and Elizabeth Bacon Adams. She will become an educator and librarian, serving on the staff of the Pratt Institute Free Library of Brooklyn from 1893 to 1938. [Dies May 17, 1941.]

Josephine Adams Rathbone

Josephine Adams Rathbone

September 10– Saturday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– “An accident occurred on the Pennsylvania Railroad, near Latrobe, last evening. Three men were killed and one injured by the explosion of the locomotive attached to a freight train. Six cars loaded with cattle were totally demolished. . . . Most of the cattle in the forward car were killed. The passenger train which left Pittsburgh at 8:40 P.M., Friday, was detained six hours. The wreck has been removed and trains are now running regularly.” ~ Philadelphia Bulletin.

September 10– Saturday– Wheeling, West Virginia– “At a meeting of the ‘Ladies’ Union Aid Society’. . . held on the 9th day of September, 1864, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted, viz: Resolved, That the thanks of this society be and they are hereby tendered to the Board of Managers of the Patriotic Fair and Festival, recently held in this city, for the transfer of the munificent sum of one thousand dollars, ($1,000) of the proceeds of said fair and festival, for the use of this society, to be expended in its efforts to relieve the wants and sufferings of our sick and wounded soldiers. Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in the Intelligencer. The Ladies of Wheeling are reminded that the Society still meets, on Friday, of each week, at 2 o’clock P.M.” ~ Wheeling Daily Intelligencer. [The $1000 would equal $15,300 in today’s dollars, using the Consumer Price Index.]

September 10– Saturday– Atlanta, Georgia– “We have received a lot of congratulatory orders, from the President yesterday, and from General Grant, who fires salutes . . . trained upon the enemy, and finally one from General Sherman, in which he recounts the main achievements of the campaign. General Thomas is coming to review our corps in a few days. I am not ashamed of my regiment. The two hundred men I have look as neat and trim and have their arms and accouterments as bright and shining as though they had been in camp undergoing daily drills and inspection, only I am out of all music. The rains have broken all our drums; when the pay master comes, we shall raise a fund and buy a half dozen first-class drums. General Sherman, in conducting the war, does not shrink from harshness. He says, in an order, that the City of Atlanta is wanted exclusively for military purposes, and orders all citizens to leave; this, of course, causes great excitement in town. They will lose a great deal of property by it, and it is hard for the people, but they cannot remain without falling a burden to the United States, and many of them are of very doubtful loyalty. But few men would have the courage to issue, or the firmness to execute, an order of banishment to all the inhabitants of a city. The army approves the fearless and independent course of the General in Chief; such a man we should have for Secretary of War. Wouldn’t he put the draft through? and wouldn’t he catch the runaways [deserters]?” ~Letter from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife Frances.

Frederick C Winkler, circa late 1890s

Frederick C Winkler, circa late 1890s

September 10– Saturday– Atlanta, Georgia– “I say that it is kindness to these families of Atlanta to remove them now at once from scenes that women and children should not be exposed to, and the ‘brave people’ should scorn to commit their wives and children to the rude barbarians who thus, as you say, violate the laws of war, as illustrated in the pages of its dark history. In the name of common sense I ask you not to appeal to a just God in such a sacrilegious manner; you who, in the midst of peace and prosperity, have plunged a nation into war, dark and cruel war; who dared and badgered us to battle, insulted our flag, seized our arsenals and forts that were left in the honorable custody of peaceful ordnance sergeants; seized and made ‘prisoners of war’ the very garrisons sent to protect your people against Negroes and Indians long before any overt act was committed by the, to you, hated Lincoln Government; tried to force Kentucky and Missouri into rebellion, spite of themselves; falsified the vote of Louisiana, turned loose your privateers to plunder unarmed ships; expelled Union families by the thousands; burned their houses and declared by an act of your Congress the confiscation of all debts due Northern men for goods [you] had and received. Talk thus to the marines, but not to me, who have seen these things, and who will this day make as much sacrifice for the peace and honor of the South as the best born Southerner among you. If we must be enemies, let us be men and fight it out, as we propose to do, and not deal in such hypocritical appeals to God and humanity. God will judge us in due time, and He will pronounce whether it be more humane to fight with a town full of women, and the families of ‘a brave people’ at our back, or to remove them in time to places of safety among their own friends and people.” ~ Letter from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to Confederate General John Bell Hood.

September 10– Saturday– Campbellton, Georgia; Woodbury, Tennessee; Roanoke, Missouri; Pisgah, Missouri; Dover, Missouri; Darkesville, West Virginia; Chimneys, Virginia– Fevered assaults and bitter skirmishes.

September 11– Sunday– Brooklyn, New York– “Well I am still home & no event of importance to write you about. My illness has passed over, & I go around the same as formerly, only a lingering suspicion of weakness now & then– I go out fishing & have been out riding frequently. There is a hospital here, containing a couple of hundred soldiers, it is only a quarter of a mile from our house, & I go there a good deal– am going this afternoon to spend the afternoon & evening. Strange as it may seem days & days elapse without their having any visitors. So you see I am still in business. Some of the cases are very interesting. My mother is very well, & the rest [of the family] the same. We have heard from my brother [George] up to the beginning of this month, he is well. We felt pretty gloomy some little time since, as two young men of the 51st New York, friends of my brother George & of our family (officers of 51st ), were killed in battle within ten days of each other & their bodies brought on for burial here. Mother was at the funeral of each of them, & I also– the regiment is on the Weldon [rail] road & in a position of danger.” ~ Letter from Walt Whitman to his friend Ellen M. O’Connor.

pro-Lincoln cartoon

pro-Lincoln cartoon

September 11– Sunday– Brooklyn, New York– “I have nothing of consequence to write, but I thought I would send you a few lines anyhow. I have just written Nelly [Ellen] a letter . . . . We are full of politics here, the dispute runs high & hot everywhere. I think the Republicans are going to make a stout fight after all, as there is confusion in the opposition camp– the result of course I do not pretend to foretell. My health is quite re-established, yet not exactly the same unconscious state of health as formerly. The book is still unprinted. Our family are all well as usual. I go two or three times a week among the soldiers in hospital here. I go out quite regularly, sometimes out on the bay, or to Coney Island & occasionally a tour through New York life, as of old– last night I was with some of my friends . . . till late wandering the east side of the City first in the lager beer saloons & then elsewhere– one crowded, low, most degraded place we went, a poor blear-eyed girl bringing beer. I saw her with a McClellan [election] medal on her breast. I called her & asked her if the other girls there were for McClellan too– she said yes every one of them, & that they wouldn’t tolerate a girl in the place who was not, & the fellows were too– (there must have been twenty girls, sad, sad ruins)– it was one of those places where the air is full of the scent of low thievery, druggies, foul play, & prostitution gangrened. I don’t know what move I shall make, but something soon, as it is not satisfactory any more in New York & Brooklyn. I should think nine tenths, of all classes, are copperheads here, I never heard before such things as I hear now whenever I go out– then it seems tame & indeed unreal here, life as carried on & as I come in contact with it & receive its influences.” ~ Letter from Walt Whitman to his friend William D O’Connor.

September 11– Sunday– Johnson Island, Ohio– “I have waited for weeks to hear from you. I know that your wound had not been doing well. Why have you not written? I cannot permit myself to think it was on account of some untoward development of the painful disease that had been infecting your wound. Nor have I been more fortunate with respect to Egbert. Not a syllable from him or of him, though I wrote nearly three weeks ago and though search is being made for him by persons in the prison at Elmira [New York]. Has he written to you? Let me hear from you as soon as you are able to write. I have had nothing from home. Carrie Sanders writes August 4th that the Monroe people were well, as was also our father when last heard from. She did not then know what had befallen you. Judge S. suffered somewhat from a party of the enemy which passed through Walton, but private property was respected except for army uses. Take care of yourself, don’t mope, meet the fortunes of war firmly.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Henry McDaniel, in a Federal prison camp, to one of his brothers.

Henry McDaniel, Governor of Georgia, 1883 to 1886

Henry McDaniel, Governor of Georgia, 1883 to 1886

Labor Together for the General Welfare~September 1864~7th to 9th

Labor Together for the General Welfare ~ Henry Highland Garnet.

A former slave calls for a convention of black leaders to plan for the future. Canadian politicians consider confederation. McClellan accepts the Democratic nomination. Grant evaluates Confederate strength. Sherman plans for the future of Atlanta. Welles evaluates the political significance of the success of Farragut and Sherman.

widows in cemetary images

September 7– Wednesday– Augusta, Georgia– “Important events since I last made entries in my diary. Atlanta has been besieged by Sherman, the commander of the Yankee Army, for many weeks. Hood, the Confederate commander, evacuated the place at night of the 1st. Some fighting before the evacuation in which the Confederates were defeated and many killed and wounded on both sides. The retreat was successful via McDonough to Griffin, where our army now is. George, Sims, Gilmer and Elbert [his sons] were in the retreat. This defeat has changed our prospects and makes this a dark day of the war. We have had considerable fighting about Petersburg, Virginia. We sustain ourselves better at all points than in Georgia.” ~ Diary of John Banks.

September 7– Wednesday– Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada– “The conference of delegates from the several provinces to consider the expediency of uniting under one Government and Legislature certain portions or the whole of British North America, has continued its deliberations here since the 1st of September. The conference meets every morning at 10 and adjourns at 3 P.M. The delegates enjoy in the evening the hospitalities of the citizens of Charlottetown. The proceedings of the conference are kept entirely secret. Not a whisper of what has been going on from day to day in the Parliament buildings has reached the public. But from the apparent cordiality among the delegates and the confidence with which they publicly assert the great advantages of confederation to all the provinces, it is assumed, and I suspect correctly assumed, that the original proposal of the maritime provinces is likely to be merged in the larger scheme of a confederation of all British North America. It was rumored this morning, that the Canadian gentlemen had their closing interview with the delegates from the maritime provinces yesterday, having made all the progress in the negotiation that could be made in an unofficial manner. It is also stated that the maritime delegates meet to-day finally, to determine whether to go on with their original plan, or to drop it and adopt the Canadian scheme.” ~ Dispatch from a reporter to the New York Times.

delegates to the Charlottetown Conference

delegates to the Charlottetown Conference

September 8– Thursday– Orange, New Jersey– “I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, informing me of my nomination by the Democratic National Convention, recently held at Chicago, as their candidate at the next election for President of the United States. It is unnecessary for me to say to you that this nomination comes to me unsought. I am happy to know that when the nomination was made, the record of my public life was kept in view. . . . The existence of more than one Government over the region which once owned our flag is incompatible with the peace, the power, and the happiness of the people. The preservation of our Union was the sole avowed object for which the war was commenced. It should have been conducted for that object only and in accordance with those principles which I took occasion to declare in active service. Thus conducted, the work of reconciliation would have been easy, and we might have reaped the benefits of our many victories on land and sea. . . . A vast majority of our people, whether in the army and navy or at home, would, as I would, hail with unbounded joy the permanent restoration of peace, on the basis of the Union under the Constitution without the effusion of another drop of blood. But no peace can be permanent without union. . . . Believing that the views here expressed are those of the Convention and the people you represent, I accept the nomination. I realize the weight of the responsibility to be borne, should the people ratify your choice. Conscious of my own weakness, I can only seek fervently the guidance of the Ruler of the Universe, and, relying on His all-powerful aid, do my best to restore union and peace to a suffering people, and to establish and guard their liberties and rights.” ~ Letter from George B. McClellan to the Democratic National Committee, accepting the nomination.

McClellan campaign poster

McClellan campaign poster

September 8– Thursday– Atlanta, Georgia– “We must concede to our enemy that he met these efforts patiently and skillfully, but at last he made the mistake we had waited for so long, and sent his cavalry to our rear, far beyond the reach of recall. Instantly our cavalry was on his only remaining road, and we followed quickly with our principal army, and Atlanta fell into our possession as the fruit of well-concerted measures, backed by a brave and confident army. This completed the grand task which had been assigned us by our Government.” ~ Congratulatory message from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to his soldiers.

September 8– Thursday– Mobile, Alabama– Federal forces destroy the salt works at Salt House Point.

September 9– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– “Fellow-Citizens: The present state of our country, together with the claims of humanity and universal freedom, and the favorable development of the Providence of God, pointing to the liberation and enfranchisement of our race, demand of us to be united in council, labor and faith. The nation and the age have adjudged that the extinction of slavery is necessary to the preservation of liberty and republicanism, and that the existence of the Government itself if contingent upon the total overthrow of the slaveholders’ oligarch and the annihilation of the despotism which is inseparably connected with it. Brethren, the present time is immeasurably more favorable than any other period in our history to unite and act for our own most vital interests. If we are to live and grow, and prove ourselves to be equal to the exigencies of the times, we must meet in council, and labor together for the general welfare of the people. Sound morality must be encouraged; education must be promoted; temperance and frugality must be exemplified, and industry, and thrift, and everything that pertains to well-ordered and dignified life, must be exhibited to the nation and the world. Therefore, the strong men of our people, the faithful and the true, are invited to meet in a National Convention, for the advancement of these objects and principles, on Tuesday, the 4th day of October, A.D. 1864, at 7 o’clock P.M.. (place will be named at an early day,) in the city of New York.” ~ Call for a national convention, signed by Henry Highland Garnet and a number of other prominent African Americans, appearing in today’s issue of The Liberator. [Garnet (1815– 1882) escaped from slavery in Maryland as a youth, is an abolitionist, educator and minister and at this time serves as pastor of the Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C.]

Henry Highland Garnet

Henry Highland Garnet

September 9– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– “A large and enthusiastic meeting was held to celebrate the recent victories of the Union army at Atlanta and Mobile. Speakers include Governor Andrew, Senators Wilson and Sumner, and there is discussion of how negotiations for peace might best proceed.” ~ The Liberator.

September 9– Friday– New York City– “McClellan’s letter of acceptance is in the morning papers. Will it help much? It is made up of platitudes floating in mucilage, without a single plain word against treason and rebellion. It has no ring of true metal, and no suggestion of magnetic power in word, phrase, or thought. . . . Now that Atlanta has fallen, rebel newspapers discover that it was not worth holding and declare that Sherman’s occupation of it is quite a blow top the Federal cause and equivalent to a rebel victory. Nothing is so characteristic of Southerners as brag (self-assertion, tall talking, and loud lying).” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

September 9– Friday– New York City– “The rebels have now in their ranks their last man. The little boys and old men are guarding prisoners, guarding railroad bridges, and forming a good part of their garrisons or intrenched positions. A man lost by them cannot be replaced. They have robbed the cradle and the grave equally to get their present force. Beside what they lose in frequent skirmishes and battles, they are now losing from desertions and other causes at least one regiment per day. With this drain upon them, the end is not far distant, if we will only be true to ourselves. Their only hope now is in a divided North. This might give them reinforcements from Tennessee, Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri, while it would weaken us. With the draft quietly enforced, the enemy would become despondent, and would make but little resistance. I have no doubt but the enemy are exceedingly anxious to hold out until after the Presidential election. They have many hopes from its effects. They hope a counter-revolution. They hope the election of the peace candidate. In fact, like Micawber, they hope for something to ‘turn up.’ Our peace friends, if they expect peace from separation, are much mistaken. It would be but the beginning of war, with thousands of Northern men joining the South because of our disgrace in allowing separation. To have ‘peace on any terms,’ the South would demand the restoration of their slaves already freed; they would demand indemnity for losses sustained, and they would demand a treaty which would make the North slave-hunters for the South; they would demand pay for the restoration of every slave escaped to the North.” ~ Letter from Union General Ulysses S Grant to Elihu B Washburne, Republican Congressman from Illinois and a strong supporter of President Lincoln, quoted in today’s New York Times.

September 9– Friday– Washington, D.C.– “The success of Sherman at Atlanta, following on that of Farragut at Mobile, has very much discomposed the opposition. They had planned for a great and onward demonstration for their candidate and platform, but our naval and army successes have embarrassed them exceedingly. General McClellan, in his letter of acceptance, has sent out a different and much more creditable and patriotic set of principles than the convention which nominated him; but the two are wholly irreconcilable. It will be impossible for Vallandigham, Wood, Tom Seymour, Long, Brooks, and men of that stripe to support McClellan without an utter abandonment of all pretensions to consistency or principle. Yet some of that class will be likely to adhere to him, while those who are sincere will not. But the letter will be likely to secure him more friends than he will lose by it.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

Gideon Welles

Gideon Welles

September 9– Friday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Much excitement in town . . . that the inhabitants of Atlanta have been ordered to leave the place in a few days, either to go North or South, and the same order is apprehended will be issued here; unless the order in Atlanta arises, as is surmised by some in consequence of so many citizens having remained there, as not to afford unoccupied houses enough for Hospitals & officers uses. I cannot well credit the rumor, as the Federal Army has expressed surprise at the folly of the people in abandoning their Homes as their Army approaches; if such be their feelings they cannot be willing to force off those who do remain; & yet the course they are pursuing of refusing to sell provisions & clothing to those who remain & who have been robbed of everything, tends to the same result. War seems to be like party politics, a complete game of lying, deception is strategy. Honesty in War & Politics is deemed and treated as poor Policy.” ~ Diary of William King.

September 9– Friday– Atlanta, Georgia– ” Your dispatch is received. Even sutlers must be prohibited from coming to Atlanta. I will as soon as the railroad is open make arrangements for opening and supplying three stores, one at Atlanta, one at Decatur, and one at East Point, and allow them jointly one [railroad] car a day. Telegraph all parties to push [Confederate General] Wheeler and his bands to the death. Now is the time to strike hard, and to wipe out all guerrilla bands. Show them no mercy. I will exchange with [Confederate General John Bell] Hood about 2,000 prisoners that I have in hand. Our success has been very complete, and I want to make it thorough from the Ohio River to Atlanta, so that we may use Atlanta hereafter as a base.” ~ Message from General William Tecumseh Sherman to General Henry W. Slocum.

General Henry W Slocum

General Henry W Slocum

All Those Things Desirable~September 1864~the 6th & 7th

All Those Things Desirable ~ President Lincoln.

Lincoln receives the gift of a Bible and comments on the sacred text. The New York Times speaks of the desirability of the fall of Atlanta and the capture of the CSS Georgia. Southern papers call for a desirable defense of Georgia, even at a cost to General Lee’s army. General Sherman finds it desirable to empty Atlanta of its civilian population.

damaged buildings in Atlanta

damaged buildings in Atlanta

September 6– Tuesday– New York City– “For months past the feeling in Richmond respecting the fate of Atlanta has been one of the gravest anxiety, in spite of the attempts to conceal it under a show of bravado. Said the London Times correspondent, writing from Richmond on the 14th of July: ‘It must be admitted that great and increasing anxiety is here felt, as telegram follows telegram announcing that General Johnston has again and again fallen back, until . . . his bold antagonist, General Sherman is seen to be within three leagues of Atlanta.’ . . . the advance of Early into Maryland was more than counterpoised in Richmond ‘by the gloom which is inspired by the mere mention of Sherman and Atlanta.’ It must be noticed that this fearful gloom overspread the rebel capital nearly two months ago, while Early was within sight of Washington, while communication between the National Capital and the North was actually interrupted, and while the rebel raiders were reaping a harvest of plunder in the richest counties north of the Potomac. It must be remembered, too, that this dismal foreshadowing of their doom had fallen upon the rebel chiefs before Sherman had crossed the Chattahoochee, and a full month before Grant had laid his iron grasp upon the main rebel line of communication south of Richmond. By this we can judge what is the terror struck home at the rebel heart to-day, with Atlanta in our possession, and Hood’s army cut in twain in the open field. We can judge, too, how ineffectual to allay this terror will be the peace platforms and the peace candidates of the rebel sympathizers here – while Sherman and Grant clench the conspirators by the heart, and hold them in the final death-grapple.” ~ New York Times.

September 6– Tuesday– New York City– “The seizure of the rebel privateering corvette Georgia by the frigate Niagara, off the coast of Portugal, seems, so far as we have the facts, to have been a perfectly justifiable affair. We have no doubt that the Captain of the Niagara, satisfied himself fully as to the character borne by the Georgia before he took possession of her. The fact that the latter made no defense in the presence of such a formidable adversary, argues nothing; and the trick of hoisting the English flag is one that has been adopted by all the pirates on every opportunity. The Georgia was engaged last Autumn and Winter in destroying our vessels on the high seas; and we had no doubt, when she lately passed out of a French port after refitting, that it was for the purpose of again engaging in her nefarious work. A telegram of the 18th of last month from Lisbon announced that the Niagara had arrived in the Tagus – that her mission was to intercept a steamer bought at Liverpool ostensibly for navigation between Lisbon and Liverpool, and that as the intention of the Federal naval commander had become known, the steamer Georgia would not sail from Portugal. This shows that the purpose of the Niagara was not hastily formed, and furnishes strong reason for believing that the Georgia still retained her piratical character.” ~ New York Times.

CSS Georgia

CSS Georgia

September 6– Tuesday– Wheeling, West Virginia– “The condition of our troops in the field is much better than at the time of my last visit to them. They are in good spirits, willing to march or fight –anxious to help put down this infernal rebellion, and then return to the loved ones at home. I am under many obligations to Major Walker, the efficient and obliging Paymaster and his faithful and accommodating clerk, for valuable aid rendered me in the discharge of my duty. I close with this observation, that the more thorough the efficiency of our troops the more prompt the efforts to have them paid.” ~ Report from Jacob Hornbrook to Governor Boreman of West Virginia.

September 6– Tuesday–Washington, D.C.– “A disagreeable, rainy day. Only a light Cabinet meeting. As usual the dignitaries were absent, but Seward is not in Washington. Fessenden and Stanton were not with us, and Usher has gone to Indiana. . . . Governor Koerner sent his name in before we left and was introduced. He is recently from Spain. Says Semmes [Captain of the CSS Alabama] was taunted into fighting the Kearsarge by French and other European officers.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles. [See my blog entry for June 19, 1864.]

Captain Semmes of the CSS Alabama

Captain Semmes of the CSS Alabama

September 6– Tuesday– Petersburg, Virginia– “I arrived here this morning after a long and tiresome trip. I am in good health. I got skinned and bruised up smartly by the collision of the [railroad] cars at Barnesville, Georgia. I never seen such a sight in my life, twenty-six persons killed and many wounded. I was riding on top of the cars because I could not get inside. I jumped off and got hurt some but I am all right now, and thank God that I got off so light but I have to report another accident that happened to me. I got my carpet sack stole from me and all that was in it between Columbia, South Carolina, and Charlotte, North Carolina. I was asleep and had the carpet sack under me and they jerked out and jumped off the cars while they were running and run off in the woods, so you may tell all that sent sacks by me that they are all gone. I am very sorry but could not help it.” ~ Letter from William Stilwell to his wife Molly.

September 6– Tuesday– Cobb County, Georgia– “The streets in Marietta are all barricaded, the Episcopal, Presbyterian & Baptist Churches are used as Hospitals. The Methodist Church, I understand, is open, but occupied by the Negroes for their services. Preaching by the Christian Commission is conducted on Sundays & prayer meetings in the week held at Mr. A. Green’s Store. I will try to attend next Sabbath. Mrs. Brown made me a visit this afternoon, she talks very dull, she does not know how they are to live the coming winter. . . . I truly hope our [experience?] may warn the people in future to place [no faith in the?] wisdom or honesty of professed politicians. I [find?] most of them, the worst & most dangerous . . . so little has my confidence been in them from my boyhood, that I have never voted a Democratic nor Whig ticket, never having identified myself with either party; but always been at war with both, for their intolerable corruption.” ~ Diary of William King.

September 6– Tuesday– Milledgeville, Georgia– “[Sherman’s] frank policy, we confess, is difficult to overcome. If it continues to be successful, Macon will be reached and Andersonville will be relieved of its 35,000 Yankee prisoners, who will increase Sherman’s army to frightful proportions. If General Hood can draw the enemy into open field, or into a general fight, we have no fears of the result. At the present writing, all is uncertainty from that quarter.” ~ Southern Recorder.

damaged buildings in Atlanta

damaged buildings in Atlanta

September 6– Tuesday– Milledgeville, Georgia– “No effort, not even the weakening of Lee’s Army, should be spared to defend the central line of communication through the state. A few weeks will determine the fate of Georgia. . . . We think the best thing our Government could do, touching the Yankee prisoners at . . . Andersonville, would be to parole all of them . . . and send them beyond our lines. There are many good reasons for such a course of conduct, which we may urge at another time.” ~ Confederate Union.

September 6– Tuesday– Andersonville, Georgia– A surgeon at the Andersonville prison camp reports to Richmond that conditions at the prison are deplorable: beds for the sick prisoners are without straw, rations are often inedible, and the hospitals on the post lack medicines.

September 6– Tuesday– Shimonoseki, Japan– A fleet of warships, consisting of 9 British, 4 Dutch, 3 French and 1 American, complete two days of bombardment of fortifications in order to protect the interests of foreign traders in the area.

September 7– Wednesday– Washington, D.C.– “I can only say now, as I have often said before, it has always been a sentiment with me, that all mankind should be free. So far as I have been able, so far as came within my sphere, I have always acted as I believed was just and right, and done all I could for the good of mankind. I have, in letters sent forth from this office, expressed myself better than I can now. In regard to the great Book, I have only to say it is the best gift which God has ever given to man. All the good from the Saviour of the world is communicated to us through this book. But for that Book, we could not know right from wrong. All those things desirable to man are contained in it. I return you sincere thanks for this very elegant copy of this great Book of God which you present.” ~ Remarks by President Lincoln to a committee of African Americans from Baltimore, Maryland, who present him with a leather-bound Bible.

President Lincoln

President Lincoln

September 7– Wednesday– Cobb County, Georgia– “It is reported that Hood’s Army has been routed & scattered, & a large number of Prisoners taken, how anxious do I feel about our little boy. A Train heavily loaded with soldiers passed down this morning– how painful to the feelings to witness such constant demonstrations for the destruction of human life & happiness; how sadly corrupt is the Human family, can there be any hope of ever attaining a high standard of character & Christianity? or in Man even with the Bible in hand always to remain in subjugation to his Brute passions, delighting to kill each other & to destroy happiness? I went to town this afternoon, heard nothing more. About 400 prisoners went up in the Train this morning.” ~ Diary of William King.

September 7– Wednesday– Atlanta, Georgia– “I have deemed it to the interest of the United States that the citizens now residing in Atlanta should remove, those who prefer it to go South, and the rest North. For the latter I can provide food and transportation to points of their election in Tennessee, Kentucky, or farther north. For the former I can provide transportation by [railroad] cars as far as Rough and Ready, and also wagons; but that their removal may be made with as little discomfort as possible it will be necessary for you to help the families from Rough and Ready to the [railroad] cars at Lovejoy’s. If you consent I will undertake to remove all the families in Atlanta who prefer to go South to Rough and Ready, with all their movable effects, viz, clothing, trunks, reasonable furniture, bedding, &c., with their servants, white and black, with the proviso that no force shall be used toward the blacks one way or the other. If they want to go with their masters or mistresses they may do so, otherwise they will be sent away, unless they be men, when they may be employed by our quartermaster. Atlanta is no place for families or non-combatants and I have no desire to send them North if you will assist in conveying them South. If this proposition meets your views I will consent to a truce in the neighborhood of Rough and Ready, stipulating that any wagons, horses, or animals, or persons sent there for the purposes herein stated shall in no manner be harmed or molested, you in your turn agreeing that any [railroad] cars, wagons, or carriages, persons, or animals sent to the same point shall not be interfered with. Each of us might send a guard of, say, 100 men to maintain order, and limit the truce to, say, two days after a certain time appointed. I have authorized the mayor to choose two citizens to convey to you this letter and such documents as the mayor may forward in explanation, and shall await your reply.” ~ Letter from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to Confederate General John Bell Hood.

General Sherman

General Sherman

The Loss of Atlanta is a Stunning Blow~September 1864~the 5th & 6th

The Loss of Atlanta Is a Stunning Blow~ John Jones.

In Richmond a government clerk admits the seriousness of the fall of Atlanta. General Lee wants 2,000 slaves for manual labor to help the army. A young woman in Virginia ponders her future. A Confederate officer supposes that McClellan will win the presidency of the United States while a Union officer reaches the opposite conclusion. Perhaps worried about Sherman’s success at Atlanta, Confederate officials begin transferring thousands of Union prisoners out of Andersonville. The Masons help the people of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. General Grant writes home. A woman fleeing the South reaches Boston. A soldier writes to Whitman.

the burnt courthouse at Chambersburg

the burnt courthouse at Chambersburg

September 5– Monday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– “A communication was received from George Washington Lodge, No. 143, located at Chambersburg, through a committee consisting of brothers Thomas Barnhart, George W. Brewer, and H. S. Stoner, appealing to the Grand Lodge for relief for the suffering brethren of said Lodge, made destitute by the terrible conflagration consequent upon the recent rebel raid at that place. A full statement of the facts, and earnest appeal on behalf of the suffering brethren, having been made by brother Brewer, one of the committee, brother Lamberton, Deputy Grand Master of the District, and also by a number of the members of the Grand Lodge, it was unanimously Resolved, That this Grand Lodge contribute the sum of Two Thousand Dollars ($2,000) in aid of the suffering brethren by the late disastrous conflagration at Chambersburg, such sum to be paid to the committee of George Washington Lodge, No. 143, and that it be recommended to all the subordinate lodges in its jurisdiction to grant such aid as may be in their power.” ~ Minutes of meeting of the Grand Masonic Lodge. [The $2,000 gift would equal $30,600 in today’s dollars, using the Consumer Price Index.]

September 5– Monday– Washington, D.C.– “Lew tells me he has just finished writing to you, and I take the opportunity of sending a few lines in his letter, as a slight token of my affectionate regard for you. I am sorry to hear you have been ill; but hope that by this time you have fully recovered; and that we shall soon have the pleasure of seeing you in Washington, where you are so much missed by your intimate friends and the soldiers in hospitals. I am at present rather unwell– with a bilious attack– but hope to be up again in a day or two. There was a salute of 100 guns fired here at noon today, in honor of the news from Atlanta, which creates quite a Jubilee. There is now quite a shower of rain falling, and Lew and Bartlett are having quite a time down stairs, while I am up here in our room, alternately throwing up bile, and writing to you. Very interesting, is it not? (I mean the bile affair.) If you have time, please write me sometimes, as I will always be very happy even to receive a few lines from you.” ~ Letter from Union soldier Joseph Harris to Walt Whitman.

September 5– Monday– Augusta County, Virginia– “I expect I will be the last one going into the Union. Although I would do most any thing to cause peace once more but it looks like we will never again See the same times we once did– we have some of the finest opportunities to have Sport making Apple butter but I can never enjoy myself as long as this war Continues. I think we would all forget that times ever were to be enjoyed if this war lasts two years longer. I don’t think I Can ever forgive the Enemy for those they have killed– I hope they will be made sorely repent for it but If they Continue fighting as they have recently they wont be a great number left on either side. . . . I will have to give you a pounding the first time I see you about that I would like to know your reason for doubting my Sincerity when I told you that I was not Engaged– you stated that you thought I was & you Could guess his name &c – I would like very much to hear the name. I’m in the dark about it myself. I am anxious to no what my name is to be. well Cousin we are having Some brandy made & I expect I will kill myself drinking. I am going to save some that I may get drunk when this Cruel war is over. I was coming from Greenville the other day & I met a soldier– he was as drunk as people generally get– he insisted on me drinking but I told him I never drank any. If I had only been acquainted with him I would certainly have plagued him enough but I was too bad scared to talk much– if they had only some person been along with me I would have taken his brandy like I was going to drink & kept it. he begged me to Excuse him for being drunk & I told him I would if he would do so no more & he promised he would do better but I know the boy’s promises are like pie crust– they are made to be broken– when they can get liquor to drink they never think of a promise.” ~ Letter from Mollie M Houser to her cousin James Houser.

September 5– Monday– Stephenson’s Depot, Virginia– “I suppose McClellan will be elected as nearly all the Army of the Potomac goes for him – Pendleton, the nominee for Vice President, is a man with strong Southern feelings & a peace man, it is said. Evidently the Peace & War men have made a compromise matter of the nominations & will all be for peace if the signs of the times are as much in our favor as they are now. We are very well assured of the fall of Atlanta, since the Yanks have official despatches announcing it, but we are full of hope that even good may come from temporary ill & that Hood has not given up the place but for good & sufficient reasons. I am in excellent health. Hope to hear from you today again – it seems a long time between your letters. Love to the children & blessings for you from our Merciful Heavenly Father.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Jedediah Hotchkiss to his wife Sara.

trench warfare in 1864

trench warfare in 1864

September 5– Monday– Richmond, Virginia– “Clear and warm. General Lee has called for 2000 Negroes (to be impressed) to work on the Petersburg fortifications. General Lee has been here two days, giving his advice, which I hope may be taken. . . . The loss of Atlanta is a stunning blow.” ~ Diary of John Jones. [Lee had on September 2nd written to President Jeff Davis and asked for slaves “in every place in the army or connected with it when [sic] . . . [they] can be used.” Thus he hoped to have white men released from jobs as teamsters, laborers, carpenters and so forth to fill his thinning ranks of fighters.]

September 5– Monday– City Point, Virginia– “Your theory about delays, either with Sherman or myself, was not correct. Our movements were co-operative but after starting each one has done all that he felt himself able to do. The country has been deceived about the size of our armies and also as to the number of the enemy. We have been contending against forces nearly equal to our own, moreover always on the defensive and strongly intrenched. Richmond will fall as Atlanta has done and the rebellion will be suppressed in spite of rebel resistance and Northern countenance and support. Julia and children are in Philadelphia. If I can get a house there, I will make that my home. Julia is very desirous that Jennie should make her home with us if she will, and if she will not do that, at least spend the fall and winter with us.” ~ Letter from Union General Ulysses S Grant to his father Jesse.

General Grant

General Grant

September 5– Monday– Atlantic Ocean, off the southeastern coast of the United States– A hurricane begins to rage today and continues through Thursday September 8th but it does not make landfall, other than dumping a lot of rain along the coast.

September 5– Monday– Atlanta, Georgia– “We have reliable information now that there has been severe fighting in the neighborhood of Jonesborough, and it would seem that such a whipping the rebels never got before. If reports are true, our prisoners count by thousands, and the rebel dead and wounded that remain on the field are said to exceed all precedent. They burned two trains, consisting of eighty cars, loaded with arms and ammunition the night before we took the city. There was a good deal of powder and many filled shells on the trains which exploded and were thrown all over the neighborhood; besides a large number of small arms, there were also two batteries of twelve pounders I exhumed from the ruins. We also found five very large siege guns in the city, which had only been brought up from Augusta two days before, and a number of smaller ones around in the city, all spiked. Their evacuation was certainly very precipitate. I think the military prospect is brightening and Mr. Lincoln will be re-elected, but, even if McClellan should be chosen, unless he repudiates every act and word of his past life, his course cannot be essentially different. It is quite remarkable how diametrically opposed McClellan’s course has been to that advocated by the present peace faction of the Democratic party. . . . I do not think General Howard was ever seriously thought of as a Democratic candidate. He is a strong anti-slavery man and a staunch supporter of the administration. . . . Thus the General [Sherman] . . . tells us of his plans for the future; it is well that he does, it will keep many from cherishing idle, demoralizing dreams of rest when there is work ahead. I expected another campaign this year. It is right that there should be one. The rebel army in its present demoralized state ought to be followed up, and the next three months certainly offer very good campaigning weather. I am ready for my part. If I could start out with four hundred muskets, as I did four months ago, it would be more gratifying. Three officers and thirty-two men killed, four officers and one hundred and fifty-three men wounded, are the casualties of the regiment in the last campaign; besides there is a large number of men sick in many of the large hospitals. That terrible army disease, scurvy, has made inroads upon us. This ever unchanging army ration is too bad. In Virginia we got potatoes, dried fruit, etc– here in such diminutive quantities. I hope we will get some little extras for the men during this month of rest, for we have less than two hundred men fit for duty now.” ~ Letters from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife Frances.

pro-Lincoln poster by Thomas Nast calling for peace through victory

pro-Lincoln poster by Thomas Nast calling for peace through victory

September 5– Monday– Andersonville, Georgia– The Confederate government finally begins transferring Union prisoners out of the Andersonville prison camp to prisons in South Carolina and elsewhere in Georgia. [This will gradually reduce the inmate population at Andersonville from 33,000 to 5000 by October. There is concern in some Southern minds that Sherman will make a thrust southward from Atlanta for the 140 miles to Andersonville and free the Union prisoners.]

crowding at Andersonville

crowding at Andersonville

September 6– Tuesday– Providence, Rhode Island– Brown University celebrates its centennial. In his speech at the occasion Union General Ambrose Burnside calls for popular support of the army. “Our army is not a mercenary army. It is composed of our own citizens. Every praying man in the army – and there are a great many more of them than we are apt to imagine – I say, every praying man in our army asks of God daily, almost hourly, that peace may be reestablished; but whilst that desire is uppermost in his heart, no honest, loyal and true soldier will ever consent to a division of his country.”

September 6– Tuesday– Boston, Massachusetts– “A lady who left Richmond on the 25th of August, and who arrived in this city within a few days, gives an account of her sufferings and the state of affairs in the rebel capital, a synopsis of which we deem of interest to the public. She is a native of Fredericksburg, Virginia, but the principal part of her life has been passed in Massachusetts. In January, 1861, she went to Richmond to visit her mother, with whom she remained until her decease.

In December, 1863, being anxious to return North, where her husband and son resided, she obtained a pass for herself and little daughter through the rebel lines. On reaching the Blackwater River, she was arrested as a spy, taken to Petersburg, and subjected there to an insulting inquisition by the rebel General Pickett and his staff officers, who used every exertion to obtain evidence sufficient to bring her to trial by court-martial. Failing in that, they sent her to Richmond, where she was imprisoned in Castle Thunder four weeks, and subjected to great indignities. She was finally released . . . . On receiving her trunks from Petersburg, all valuables were found to be abstracted, for which the officer would give no account. . . . The lady reports the people of Richmond decidedly in favor of closing the war as they best can. They have lost all faith in the establishment of a separate Confederacy. The streets are now guarded by old gray-headed men, who have shut up their places of business, and been substituted for boys who have been sent to the front.” ~ Boston Transcript.

We Come to You as American Women~September 1864~the 4th

We Come to You as American Women~ workers in New York City.

In a letter whose language could come out of today, women appeal for a wage to match the price of living. Garibaldi, the great Italian revolutionary, praises Lincoln’s efforts at the emancipation of slaves and calls for Europe to learn a lesson. Lincoln salutes a Quaker peace activist. In Richmond and Atlanta people worry about the loss of the city while General Sherman proposes to depopulate the place. A bold Confederate officer is ambushed and killed, leaving a pregnant widow.

19th century woman at work in a factory

19th century woman at work in a factory

September 4– Sunday– New York City–”We, the undersigned working women of the City of New York, respectfully solicit your indulgence while we relate the causes which have compelled us to seek relief from the Government, of which you are an honored representative. At the breaking out of this unhappy rebellion, which has desolated so many hearthstones, the prices paid for female labor at the United States Arsenal were barely sufficient to enable us to obtain a subsistence. No stronger argument of the necessity of our appeal can be adduced than the unprecedented increase in all the necessaries of life, coupled with the fact that women’s labor has been reduced more than thirty per cent since the existence of the rebellion. We do not ask charity, we come to you as American women, many of whom have sacrificed the dearest treasures of their hearts on the altar of freedom. We appeal to those in authority to do all in their power to alleviate the misery which is the inevitable result of war. Let it not be said that the Government turns a deaf ear to the prayer of women who have given their all to their country. What we ask is an order to the Quartermaster-General, authorizing him to increase the price of female labor, until it shall approximate to the price of living. We would also respectfully ask you (if it comes within your province) to so modify the contract system as to make it obligatory upon all contractors to pay Government prices. We feel assured that no other argument is required to induce you to use all the power vested in you, than the fact that to-day thousands of delicately-reared women whose husbands, fathers and brothers have fallen on the battle-field, are making army shirts at six cents apiece. In the name of justice and humanity, we implore you to do all in your power to remedy this evil. Trusting in Him, who has promised to be a father to the fatherless, and the widow’s friend, we leave our cause in your hands, praying that God may so incline your hearts that your answer may come as a ministering angel to our households, teaching us that our sacrifices have not been in vain.” ~ Letter from working women to Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War.

September 4– Sunday– New York City– “I desire to add my name to the four thousand citizens of Geneva who have addressed the United States in favor of the maintenance of the Constitution and the abolition of Slavery, and I hope in so doing to obtain the approbation of the Liberal Press, and of all my fellow-citizens. Glory to Switzerland! That old home of liberty deserves to stand in the vanguard of human emancipation. From a fatality now weighing on nations, we see great peoples grow less, and even disappear before the lying flattery of despotism, and the champions of freedom become the police of tyranny. Well, let Switzerland take the lead till nations repent. Tyrants pass away; nations are immortal. What avails a minority? We shall conquer by aid of our old traditions; and we shall again see tyranny melt before the sun. We shall conquer because we have right, justice and brotherhood on our side. Let me now call the attention of Switzerland to a great fact. The American Republics present to the world the spectacle of the connection of the peoples. An aggression against the Peruvian territory, completed by the Spanish Bourbons, has raised a cry of shame and vengeance from all her sister nations. If the elder sister of Republics will send one word of comfort to her suffering sister, it would be a striking contrast to the shameful league of tyrants against liberty which we now see in Europe. Mind this: Poland swamped by Russia, amid the apathy of all, is the first step to a return to the barbarism of the middle ages. If the ‘partition’ disgraced the Eighteenth, the destruction of Poland is a lasting blot on the Nineteenth Century. Alas! our civilization as yet is but false.” ~Public letter from Garibaldi, published in today’s New York Times.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Giuseppe Garibaldi

September 4– Sunday– near Chambersburg, Pennsylvania– “We had a refreshing rain here, commencing on Saturday evening and lasting (at intervals) all day Sunday. Many of us were sorry for this, as we had an invitation to attend Divine worship, under the direction of our esteemed and worthy Chaplain, Rev. Rakestraw, which was to have been held in a grove contiguous to camp. Dress Parade was also dispensed with for the same reason, which was another source of annoyance to most of the men, for a true soldier delights to see the regiment drawn up for inspection, to witness the fine appearance the respective companies present on the occasion. The Harrisburgers belonging to the 201st have evidently been accustomed to good living. After duty, parties go out to ‘forage,’ as they term it, and return to camp laden with poultry; corn; sweet potatoes; fruit; milk; &c., all of which they pay for. Our young Colonel issued an order that no private property was to be molested, and the order is strictly adhered to. The rations we get daily are fresh, ample and of the best quality. But ‘force of habit’ is strong with many people, and they must have delicacies if money can procure them. It is amusing to witness the railroad engineer, the blacksmith, tailor, carpenter, clerk, butcher and man of letters, sitting around a fire of logs, toasting hard tack, frying chicken, stewing lamb and sweet potatoes, or anything else that their appetite craves. Many of them will be capital cooks when they return to their homes, and adepts in the art and mastery of gastronomy.” ~ Letter from Union soldier A.H. Baum to the Pennsylvania Daily Telegraph, a newspaper published in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, the state capital.

soldiers at a religious service

soldiers at a religious service

September 4– Sunday– Fayette County, West Virginia– “We have experienced a great many hardships and deprivations her, as you are a ware it has been our lot to be placed between the two Armies. Goods are high and getting more so every day and cannot be had at all times. Taking every thing into consideration we have gotten along as well as could be expected and may be better than many other places and do not feel disposed to murmur. . . . We have had a good deal of dry weather this Summer, in consequence of which corn will be cut short– however since it has become more seasonable corn seems to be coming out considerably and if frost will keep off until it makes it self there will be considerable corn raised more I think than were last year, grain was very scarce here last year. Wheat crops this year were not very good hardly an average Crop.” ~ Letter from Thomas McGuffin to his brother Templeton.

September 4– Sunday– Washington, D.C.– “I have not forgotten probably never shall forget the very impressive occasion when yourself and friends visited me on a Sabbath forenoon two years ago– nor has your kind letter, written nearly a year later, even been forgotten. In all, it has been your purpose to strengthen my reliance on God. I am much indebted to the good Christian people of the country for their constant prayer and consolations; and to no one of them, more than to yourself. The purposes of the Almighty are perfect, and must prevail, though we erring mortals may fail to accurately perceive them in advance. We hoped for a happy termination of this terrible war long before this; but God knows best, and has ruled otherwise. We shall yet acknowledge His wisdom, and our own error therein. Mean while we must work earnestly in the best light He gives us, trusting that so working still conduces to the great ends He ordains. Surely He intends some great good to follow this mighty convulsion, which no mortal could make, and no mortal could stay. Your people– the Friends– have had, and are having, a very great trial. On principle, and faith, opposed to both war and oppression, they can only practically oppose oppression by war. For those appealing to me on conscientious grounds, I have done, and shall do, the best I could and can, in my own conscience, under my oath to the law. That you believe this I doubt not, and believing it, I shall still receive, for our country and myself your earnest prayers to our Father in Heaven.” ~ Message from President Lincoln to Eliza P. Gurney. [Gurney (1801– 1881) is a Quaker minister, the widow of Joseph John Gurney, one of the co-founders of Earlham College, an abolitionist and ardent pacifist. She has traveled extensively in North America and in Europe. See, The Quaker in the Forum by Amelia Mott Gunmere (1910) and The Later Period of Quakerism by Rufus M Jones (1921).]

Eliza P Gurney

Eliza P Gurney

September 4– Sunday– Richmond, Virginia– “Showery. Atlanta has fallen, and our army has retreated some thirty miles; such is Hood’s dispatch, received last night. The cheering in Grant’s camp yesterday was over that event. We have not had sufficient generalship and enterprise to destroy Sherman’s communications. Some 40,000 landowners, and the owners of slaves, are at their comfortable homes, or in comfortable offices, while the poor and ignorant are relied upon to achieve independence! and these, very naturally, disappoint the President’s expectations on momentous occasions.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

September 4– Sunday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Sabbath again– another week gone, & I one week nearer Home; & Atlanta being occupied by the Federals, I may soon be able to get a passport to return Home & what anxiety must I feel until I can hear from Home, not knowing what sad changes may have taken place during the long, anxious period since I have last heard from them. After the hard Rains yesterday, we have today a bright, clear & cool Sabbath. I have not left the House, not being able to hear of any Church services in town. I may walk into town this afternoon for exercise. Dr. Miller . . . made me a pleasant of over 2 hours this morning, he is a very intelligent & pleasant man from Iowa. He told me he would like to move to this country after the war was over, & we united, but he apprehended the feelings would be too much opposed to all Northerners. I told him I did not think it would be so towards him, he has been so very kind to Mrs. Mc C. & others. We had a long & pleasant discussion about the waging of this War & the prospects of its termination. I told him if the North was contending for the Union & the Constitution as they professed, an early reunion may take place, but if they intended to act in violation of the Constitution, on the subject of Slavery or in any other way, they had to subjugate the South & force it back & keep it in by many Bayonets, which would violate all principles of a free government, to effect this purpose it would require years of bloody War. He said it was a sad state, but the North was so convinced that we could not live together in harmony with slavery, that it became necessary to if possible to get rid of the [slave system.]” ~ Diary of William King.

September 4– Sunday– Atlanta, Georgia– “It is strange to go about Atlanta now and see only Yankee uniforms. The City Hall is headquarters for the Provost Guard. The enemy behave themselves pretty well except in the scramble for liquor, during which every store in town nearly was broke into yesterday. This afternoon three soldiers asked for dinner saying their rations had not come and they would pay for their dinner, so Sallie had some cooked for them. They belonged to Company E, 2nd Massachusetts Volunteers, but their chief spokesman was a Scotchman. They think McClellan will be the next president as he has been nominated by the Chicago Convention. Returning home [after church] we heard that another big fight in Jonesboro had resulted disastrously to the Confederates, and in confirmation of this we saw 1800 ‘rebel prisoners’ marched into town. They filled the street from the [2nd] Baptist Church to Whitehall St. It was a sad sight but the Yankees cheered at it lustily of course.” ~ Diary of an Atlanta resident.

General Sherman

General Sherman

September 4– Sunday– Atlanta, Georgia– “I propose to remove all the inhabitants of Atlanta, sending those committed to our cause to the rear, and the rebel families to the front. I will allow no trade, manufactories, nor any citizens there at all, so that we will have the entire use of the railroad back, as also such corn and forage as may be reached by our troops. If the people raise a howl against my barbarity and cruelty I will answer that war is war, and not popularity seeking. If they want peace they and their relatives must stop war.” ~ Report from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to the War Department in Washington.

September 4– Sunday– Greenville, Tennessee–Acting on a tip from a local woman, Federal troops attempt to capture Confederate General John Hunt Morgan. He flees and is shot dead while trying to escape. [There is some dispute about whether he is killed while trying to surrender. His wife Martha Ready Morgan is two months pregnant with their second child. They have been married only since December 14, 1862.]

Martha Ready Morgan with her husband John Hunt Morgan

Martha Ready Morgan with her husband John Hunt Morgan

 

Atlanta is Ours and Fairly Won~September 1864~the 3rd

Atlanta Is Ours and Fairly Won~ General Sherman.

By telegraph, the electronic and social medium of its day, the news spreads quickly throughout the North– Atlanta has fallen into Federal hands. President Lincoln issues a number of celebratory orders and proclamations. Gideon Welles laments partisan politics. A Democratic leader offers guidance to McClellan on how to craft his acceptance of the nomination. Richmond responds too slowly to the crisis in Georgia. Southern soldiers feel relief and hope that the nomination of McClellan means a quick truce and early peace. Mexico’s minister assures the United States that President Juarez has not fled his country. In Sweden the brother of Alfred Nobel dies in an explosion and that trauma will guide the rest of Alfred’s life.

General William Tecumseh Sherman

General William Tecumseh Sherman

September 3– Saturday– Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia– “Atlanta is ours and fairly won.” ~ Telegram from General Sherman to President Lincoln and the War Department.

September 3– Saturday– New York City– “Glorious news this morning– Atlanta taken at last!!! It comes in official form, seemingly most authentic, but there are doubters who distrust it, and the appearance of no additional intelligence since morning gives certain plausibility to their skepticism. So I suspend all jubilation for the present. If it be true, it is (coming at this political crisis) the greatest event of the war.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

September 3– Saturday– New York City– “With many thanks for the sympathy for the cause of my country, so kindly manifested by the Press of the United States, I have to request the favor that you will state, from me, that President Juarez has not arrived in this country; that he has not left Mexico; that he has no intention of leaving the Republic, and that there is not, has not been, nor is there likely to be, any necessity for such a proceeding. A daughter of President Juarez is married to a gentleman of New Orleans, and has arrived in that city with her husband, and was accompanied by her mother and younger sisters, in pursuance of a long-entertained purpose. This is, doubtless, the origin of the report so incorrectly circulated that President Juarez had arrived in this country. It will be seen, on the contrary, that he is now only the more free to act with vigor, celerity and determination. Republican institutions are not yet destined to be overthrown either in Mexico or in the United States.” ~ Letter from Matias Romero, Mexico’s Minister to the United States, published in today’s New York Times.

President Benito Juarez of Mexico

President Benito Juarez of Mexico

September 3– Saturday– New York City– “It is absolutely necessary that in your letter of acceptance you place yourself squarely and unequivocally on the ground that you will never surrender one foot of soil and that peace can only be based upon the reconstruction of the Union. In other words cessation of hostilities can only be agreed upon after we have sufficient guarantee from the South that they are ready for a peace under the Union.” ~ Letter from August Belmont to General George McClellan.

August Belmont

August Belmont

September 3– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “Ordered, first. That on Monday, the 5th day of September, commencing at the hour of 12 o’clock noon, there shall be given a salute of 100 guns at the arsenal and navy-yard at Washington, and on Tuesday, the 6th of September, or on the day after the receipt of this order, at each arsenal and navy-yard in the United States, for the recent brilliant achievements of the fleet and land forces of the United States in the harbor of Mobile and in the reduction of Fort Powell, Fort Gaines, and Fort Morgan. The Secretary of War and Secretary of the Navy will issue the necessary directions in their respective Departments for the execution of this order. Second. That on Wednesday, the 7th day of September, commencing at the hour of 12 o’clock noon, there shall be fired a salute of 100 guns at the arsenal at Washington, and at New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Newport, Ky., and St. Louis, and at New Orleans, Mobile, Pensacola, Hilton Head, and New Berne the day after the receipt of this order, for the brilliant achievements of the army under command of Major-General Sherman in the State of Georgia and the capture of Atlanta. The Secretary of War will issue directions for the execution of this order.” ~ Executive order from President Lincoln

September 3– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “New York City is shouting for McClellan, and there is a forced effort elsewhere to get a favorable response to the almost traitorous proceeding at Chicago. As usual, some timid Union men are alarmed, and there are some . . . who falter, and another set, like Greeley, who have an uneasy, lingering hope that they can yet have an opportunity to make a new candidate. But this will soon be over. The Chicago platform is unpatriotic, almost treasonable to the Union. The issue is made up. It is whether a war shall be made against Lincoln to get peace with Jeff Davis. Those who met at Chicago prefer hostility to Lincoln rather than to Davis. Such is extreme partisanism [sic]. . . . We have to-day word that Atlanta is in our possession, but we have yet no particulars. It has been a hard, long struggle, continued through weary months. This intelligence will not be gratifying to the zealous partisans who have just committed the mistake of sending out a peace platform, and declared the war a failure. It is a melancholy and sorrowful reflection that there are among us so many who so give way to party as not to rejoice in the success of the Union arms. . . . This is the demon of party– the days of its worst form– a terrible spirit, which in its excess leads men to rejoice in the calamities of their country and to mourn its triumphs. Strange, and wayward, and unaccountable are men. While the facts are as I have stated, I cannot think these men are destitute of love of country; but they permit party prejudices and party antagonisms to absorb their better natures.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

September 3– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “The signal success that Divine Providence has recently vouchsafed to the operations of the United States fleet and army in the harbor of Mobile, and the reduction of Fort Powell, Fort Gaines, and Fort Morgan, and the glorious achievements of the army under Major General Sherman, in the State of Georgia, resulting in the capture of the city of Atlanta, call for devout acknowledgment to the Supreme Being in whose hands are the destinies of nations. It is therefore requested that on next Sunday, in all places of worship in the United States, thanksgivings be offered to Him for His mercy in preserve our national existence against the insurgent rebels who have been waging a cruel war against the Government of the United States for its overthrow, and also that prayer be made for Divine protection to our brave soldiers and their leaders in the field who have so often and so gallantly periled their lives in battling with the enemy, and for blessings and comfort from the Father of mercies to the sick, wounded, and prisoners, and to the orphans and widows of those who have fallen in the service of their country, and that He will continue to uphold the Government of the United States against all the efforts of public enemies and secret foes.” ~ Proclamation by President Lincoln.

President Lincoln

President Lincoln

September 3– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “The national thanks are tendered by the President to Major-General William T. Sherman and the gallant officers and soldiers of his command before Atlanta for the distinguished ability, courage, and perseverance displayed in the campaign in Georgia, which, under divine favor, has resulted in the capture of the city of Atlanta. The marches, battles, sieges, and other military operations that have signalized this campaign must render it famous in the annals of war, and have entitled those who have participated therein to the applause and thanks of the nation.” ~ Executive order from President Lincoln.

September 3– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “The national thanks are tendered by the President to Admiral Farragut and Major-General Canby for the skill and harmony with which the recent operations in Mobile Harbor and against Fort Powell, Fort Gaines, and Fort Morgan were planned and carried into execution; also to Admiral Farragut and Major-General Granger, under whose immediate command they were conducted, and to the gallant commanders on sea and land, and to the sailors and soldiers engaged in the operations, for their energy and courage, which, under the blessing of Providence, have been crowned with brilliant success and have won for them the applause and thanks of the nation.” ~ Executive order from President Lincoln

September 3– Saturday– Stephenson’s Depot, Virginia– “Yours of the 27th came to hand in two days – the first late news I have had from you in a long time – so you know it must have been very welcome – the more so that it contained good news – that is news of your good health & spirits & the good rains & prospects of something to eat &c. . . . We learn by the late papers that McClellan & Pendleton are the nominees of the Chicago Convention – I have not seen the Platform – but think it must be a peace one – Pendleton is a southern man in principle & it is thought he will be for peace – everything indicates a strong peace movement in the North & they may succeed in electing their candidates.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Jedediah Hotchkiss to his wife Sara.

September 3– Saturday– Cobb County, Georgia– “I went to town this morning, & learnt that Hood had evacuated Atlanta the night before last & it was occupied by the Federal Army, the notice posted in the street was ‘Atlanta is ours! Glory to God!’ I heard there had been heavy fighting on the Macon Road, particulars I could not learn. How anxious do I feel about my little Boy, if I could only hear that he was safe & well, how grateful would I feel. What sad anguish & anxiety does this needless political war occasion. What a curse to a Nation are these professional Politicians.” ~ Diary of William King.

September 3– Saturday– Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia– “Move all the stores forward from Allatoona and Marietta to Atlanta. Take possession of all good buildings for Government purposes, and see they are not used as quarters. Advise the people to quit now. There can be no trade or commerce now until the war is over. Let Union families go to the North with their effects, and secesh families move on. All cotton is tainted with treason, and no title in it will be respected.” ~ Orders from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to General Henry W Slocum.

Sherman and his staff

Sherman and his staff

September 3– Saturday– Augusta, Georgia– “This morning I received a note from Mr. Thomas about day telling me that a dispatch had just been sent through him to General Wright from President Davis and General Bragg to send every armed man to Atlanta. Mr. Thomas expects he will have to go but I trust that his company will remain for the defense of Augusta. Oh these are troublous times. I leave Belmont not knowing what an hour may bring forth. I carry all the children with me. In case of a nearer approach of the Yankees I will remain in town. I wish to carry something with me and don’t know what to take. I will carry the Confederate Bonds and silver spoons and forks. Perhaps the Yankees may make a raid here before I return. I do not form an idea of what the issue of this fight may be.” ~ Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas.

September 3– Saturday– Stockholm, Sweden–An explosion in a factory kills five people, including 21 year old Emil Nobel, younger brother of Alfred Nobel. This increases Alfred’s determination to develop safe yet powerful explosives. [Alfred is 31, a brilliant chemist and engineer, works in the family business which produces munitions and explosives.]

young Alfred Nobel

young Alfred Nobel

Atlanta Is Ours~September 1864~the 1st & 2nd

Atlanta is ours.~ A Union officer.

Late in the afternoon of September 1st, Confederate General Hood begins to retreat from Atlanta. When Federal troops do not enter the city right away on the 2nd the mayor goes out to Union lines under a flag of truce. By afternoon the flag of the United States flies unhindered in the city. There is some chaos and looting. Between Sherman and Hood they have handed Lincoln an electoral victory, only a day after the Democrats have nominated a rival for the presidency. In barely two more months 70% of Federal soldiers will vote for Lincoln. Activity in states such as Pennsylvania and West Virginia in response to the draft suggests that Sherman and Grant will have a fresh supply of soldiers. The provinces of Canada begin discussion which will lead to confederation.

slave auction building in Atlanta, soon to be occupied by Federal troops

slave auction building in Atlanta, soon to be occupied by Federal troops

September 1– Thursday– near Chambersburg, Pennsylvania– “Camp Couch is situated a little over four miles, due west of Chambersburg, in Hamilton Township, Franklin County. The camp is located on an eminence overlooking a vast tract of country. A fine mountain view is had northward and westward, (the lofty range running in a semi-circle from due north to west,) . . . . Eastward and south the view is insignificant; interspersed here and there with farm-houses or humble log dwellings, then shut out abruptly by belts of timber. At the foot of the Slate Hill on which we pitched our tents, runs a sluggish stream, the water (in which we frequently plunge, like so many porpoise,) is icy cold. . . . The rations dealt out three times a day, consist of fresh beef, salt pork, rice or bean soup, sugar, coffee and hard tack, and the men stow it away in ‘double quick’ time, for camp life gives them an appetite. . . . owing to the industry, courtesy and perseverance of our worthy Chaplain, Reverend Mr. Rakestraw, there is a decided moral and religious improvement in the regiment; as many of the soldiers are seen, when at leisure, to read over religious matter, and can be heard to sing the hymns that John Wesley, and [Francis] Asbury, and the other great lights of the Methodist Church used to sing in years gone by. . . . Our officers are all men of good breeding and education, and men of the regiment are greatly attached to them already. We anticipate a good time during our enlistment. The men are lavish in their praises of our courteous and gentlemanly young colonel.” ~ Letter from Union soldier A.H. Baum to the Pennsylvania Daily Telegraph.

September 1– Thursday– Memphis, Tennessee– “Major General A. J. Smith, commanding the right wing of the 16th Army Corps, has kindly provided the services of the magnificent band of the 178th New York volunteers, for the concert this evening, and a rich musical treat may be expected. The Park will be reserved for ladies, children and the gentlemen accompanying them. School teachers are invited to attend with their pupils. Second street and East Court street will be closed to all vehicles. Carriages will drive to the Main street entrance to the Park, which will be kept clear for ladies and families. The Provost Guard and City Police will be on hand to enforce the above regulations and preserve order.” ~ Memphis Bulletin.

street in Atlanta

street in Atlanta

September 1– Thursday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Soon after Breakfast this morning I made my call on General Mc Arthur in town, the first [time] I have met [him]. I found him a very pleasant man, a Scotchman, about 40 years old. I spent over an hour very agreeably with him, but was disappointed in my hopes for Passport, he told me could not just now grant me a passport to pass the lines, that none could be granted now . . . so I must be patient, but that he would give me one to go to the North any time I desired it. My disappointment was great, relieved however, by his kindly giving me a pass to go in & out of town whenever I desired, which will be every day I know, so I am now a free man again. My loneliness here was too great for me to quietly to remain, but town Society, as small as it is, will be almost a world to me; the General says to diminish my loneliness he will also come & see me now & then.” ~ Diary of William King. [The Union "General" Arthur Mc Arthur (1845-1912) to whom Mr King makes reference will become the father of General Douglas Mc Arthur (1880-1964). At this time he is only 20 years old, not 40, a hero of several battles, holds the rank of major, not general, and is adjutant, i.e. assistant to the commanding officer of the 24th Wisconsin Regiment. He will achieve the rank of general in 1898.]

September 1– Thursday– Atlanta, Georgia– Beginning late in the afternoon, Confederate troops under General Hood evacuate the city. Unable to carry off all the supplies and ammunition, Hood orders their destruction which results in damage to railroad equipment and a number of buildings.

September 1– Thursday– Jonesborough, Georgia– After several hours of quiet, the fighting which began yesterday resumes. At nightfall Confederate forces disengage and move to join General Hood’s retreating army. Total Confederate casualties– dead, wounded, missing– amount to approximately 2350 and total Federal casualties reach 1450 for the two days of fighting.

September 1– Thursday– Dooly County, Georgia– “Sherman has abandoned his entrenchments on his left and centre, and is massing on the left of Hood, with a view not fully explained. He is either playing a trick to deceive Hood, or his retreat has commenced. Reports say General Wheeler is doing much damage to the enemy, and that Sherman’s communications have been effectively cut. I hope his whole army will soon be driven out of this state. We are very tired of his long visit, indeed we should have thanked him not to have come at all.” ~ Letter from Maggie Cone to her fiance Alva Benjamin Spencer.

atlanta siege-02

September 1– Thursday– north of Winchester, Virginia; Tipton, Missouri; Fort Smith, Arkansas; Beatty’s Mill, Arkansas; Elk River Bridge, Tennessee; near Nashville, Tennessee; near Smyrna, Tennessee– Raids, skirmishes and firefights.

September 1– Thursday– Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada– Twenty-three delegates representing Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada [a union of Upper and Lower Canada created in 1841, now roughly equal to the provinces of Ontario and Quebec] meet to open a conference to consider the first steps toward confederation and the formation of modern Canada. [See, The Road to Confederation: the Emergence of Canada, 1863-1867 by Donald Creighton, with a new introduction by Donald Wright, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2012; and The Critical Years; the Union of British North America, 1857-1873 by William Lewis Morton, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1964.]

delegates to the Charlottetown conference

delegates to the Charlottetown conference

September 1– Thursday– Dublin, Ireland– Birth of Roger Casement, diplomat, and nationalist activist. [He will be executed in London on August 3, 1916 for his part in the Irish Easter Rebellion of 1916.]

Roger Casement

Roger Casement

September 1 – Thursday– Paris, France– Barthelemy Prosper Enfantin, social reformer and utopian socialist, dies at age 68.

Barthelemy Enfantin

Barthelemy Enfantin

September 2– Friday– New York City– “The Emperor Maximilian is pursuing a conciliatory policy, and is trying to obtain the adhesion of the prominent men of all parties. He had left the capital for Guadalajara, hoping to win over to his cause the Juarist chiefs there, who, it was rumored, were disaffected. He had again urged Santa Anna to come to Mexico. . . . The French and Imperialist troops are marching simultaneously upon New-Leon, Coahulla and Tamaulipas. It is expected that Monterey and Matamoras will soon be attacked. In pursuance of his conciliatory policy, the Emperor has issued a circular, forbidding the use, in official documents or by the newspapers, of odious or irritating epithets, as applied to those Mexicans who are yet holding out against the Empire.” ~ New York Times.

September 2– Friday– Wheeling, West Virginia– “As the time for the draft approaches, the business of recruiting is going on very briskly. Yesterday about one hundred and twenty men were mustered into the service at the Provost Marshal’s office, and the number enlisted has been very large each day for several days previous.” ~ Wheeling Daily Intelligencer.

September 2– Friday– Cobb County, Georgia– “Two young men . . . called to see me this afternoon & spent about an hour, one a Sargent from Ohio about 20 years [of age]. I found a very intelligent & pleasant young man, he said when he came into the Army his feelings against the South was very bitter, & he thought he would willingly & cheerfully destroy any Rebel property, but after being among the people, and having intercourse with them, his feelings had undergone great change, and he now thought it too sad a War, to increase its terrors more than can possibly be avoided, & effortsought to be made to bring it to a close.” ~ Diary of William King.

September 2– Friday– Atlanta, Georgia– Residents who remained and city officials expected the Union army to ride in immediately. Seeing no one, Mayor James Calhoun and a small delegation ride out toward Union lines with a white flag to surrender. When they met a contingent of Federal troops Mayor Calhoun hands them a letter for General Sherman which simply says, “Sir: The fortune of war has placed Atlanta in your hands. As mayor of the city I ask protection of non-combatants and private property.” By early afternoon, Union troops reach downtown, occupy the city hall and raise the flag of the United States which has not flown there in over three years.

Mayor James Calhoun

Mayor James Calhoun

September 2– Friday– Atlanta, Georgia– “I have good news. Atlanta is ours. A strong reconnoitering party was sent out from our division this morning early and others from the other divisions of our corps and entered Atlanta without opposition. This is authentic. It is said also that a battle has been fought, resulting most disastrously to the rebels, near East Point. There was a big fire in the direction of the city last night and heavy cannonading heard. We have also heard some political news, the nomination of McClellan and Seymour at Chicago. I am rather glad McClellan was nominated. Of all the candidates before that Convention, he is certainly the most respectable and patriotic; whatever may be said of his political opinions, his antecedents and avowed principles admit of no doubt as to his loyalty to the United States and hostility to the Rebellion, and I am glad to see the majority of the Democratic party vindicate this loyalty by putting such a man in nomination. As the Union party is divided by many feuds, it must be a comfort to every one, whose partisanship and love of spoils is not stronger than his patriotism, to know that the success of the opposition will put a man like McClellan at the head of the Union.” ~ Letter from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife Frances.

damaged buildings in Atlanta

damaged buildings in Atlanta

September 2– Friday– Atlanta, Georgia– “About noon today the Yankees came in sure enough. A party of five or six came riding by our house. A committee of our citizens went out early and met General Slocum and got his word that private property should be respected, upon which the city was surrendered to them and in they came. The Stars and Stripes were soon floating aloft over the city. The private houses were not molested by the soldiers, and I was therefore very much surprised when I went downtown to see armsful and baskets full of books and wall-paper going up the street in a continuous stream from our store. When I reached the store, the scene would have required the pencil of [artist William] Hogarth to portray. Yankees, men, women, children and nxxxxxx were crowded into the store, each one scrambling to get something to carry away, regardless, apparently, whether it was anything they needed, and still more heedless of the fact that they were stealing! Such a state of utter confusion and disorder as presented itself to my eyes then, I little dreamed of two hours before when I left it all quiet and, as I thought, safe. The soldiers in their mad hunt for tobacco had probably broken open the door, and the rabble had then pitched in, thinking it a ‘free fight.’ At first I was so dismayed that I almost resolved to let them finish it, but finally I got them out and stood guard until after dark when I left it to its chances until morning, as I was very sleepy.” ~ Diary of a store owner.

September 2– Friday– Glass Bridge, Georgia; Big Shanty, Georgia; Darksville, West Virginia; Bunker Hill, West Virginia; along the Weldon Railroad, Virginia; near Little Rock, Arkansas; near Quitman, Arkansas; Mt Vernon, Missouri; near Union City, Tennessee; Owensborough, Kentucky– Raids and skirmishes.

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