A Great Anti-Slavery Party~Origin of the Republican Party

The real story from a man who was there.


“The convention which met in Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania] on the 22nd of February, 1856, for the purpose of organizing a national Republican party, was called together by the chairmen of the Republican state committees of Ohio, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Vermont and Wisconsin. It was not a convention of delegates selected by constituent assemblies of the people, but a mass convention of men who favored the formation of a great national anti-slavery party and who volunteered their services in the undertaking. It was in session two days, and its purpose was fully accomplished, but the report of its proceedings in the newspapers of the time was meager and inadequate. They were published in pamphlet soon after the convention, but they covered only a few pages, being a mere skeleton of what happened and even less satisfactory than the newspaper reports, while they gave the reader no conception of the spirit and character of the gathering. No roll of the members was preserved, while the several histories of political parties and conventions which have since appeared contain little more than a mere reference to the subject. Since the writer is one of the very few survivors of the convention, and was officially and somewhat actively connected with its proceedings, and since there is always a natural curiosity to know something of the beginnings of a great historic movement, perhaps a brief paper on the subject may prove timely and not entirely without value as a contribution to the literature of politics. . . .


The convention assembled at eleven o’clock in La Fayette Hall, a building which disappeared years ago to make room for a larger structure. It was called to order by Hon. Lawrence Brainerd, of Vermont, who read the call upon which it had convened and asked John A. King, of New York, a son of Rufus King, to act as temporary chairman. After brief and appropriate remarks, Mr. King called on the Rev. Owen Lovejoy, who was present as a representative from Illinois, to open the proceedings with prayer. The name of Lovejoy was an inspiration, for it recalled the murder of his brother by a mob at Alton in 1837, for merely exercising his constitutional right of free speech in a free state in talking about slavery. The heart of the people was manifestly and fervently with him, and there was a suppressed murmur of applause when he asked God to enlighten the mind of the President of the United States, and turn him from his evil ways, and if this was not possible, to take him away, so that an honest and God-fearing man might fill his place. A committee on permanent organization was then appointed, and while it was engaged in its work in an adjoining room the people seemed to be hungry for speeches. When Horace Greeley, with his earnest, kindly face and long white coat, was seen in the audience, he was enthusiastically called for. On taking the platform, he was received with prolonged cheers. . . . .

[The meeting’s declaration:] ‘We therefore declare to the people of the United States as the objects for which we unite in political action: 1. That we demand and shall attempt to secure the repeal of all laws which allow the introduction of slavery into territory now consecrated to freedom, and will resist by every constitutional means the existence of slavery in any of the territories of the United States; 2. We will support by every lawful means our brethren in Kansas in their constitutional and manly resistance to the usurped authority of their lawless invaders; and we will give the full weight of our political power in favor of the immediate admission of Kansas to the Union as a free, sovereign and independent state; 3. Believing the present national administration has shown itself to be weak and faithless, and as its continuance in power is identified with the progress of the slave power to national supremacy, with the exclusion of freedom from the territories, and with unceasing civil discord, it is a leading purpose of our organization to oppose and overthrow it.’ . . . .

Their devotion to the cause and singleness of purpose kept them steadfast. They could have had no conception of the magnitude of the work which they were beginning. They did not dream of the civil war which was to result from the splendid courage of the new party in standing by its principles, nor of the magnificent part it was to play in crushing a great slaveholders’ rebellion. As little did they dream of the total extirpation of slavery in the United States in less than nine years, and its abolition throughout the civilized world which was to follow. They were building better than they knew. This was strikingly illustrated by Mr. Greeley’s account of the convention in the Tribune, in which he said, ‘its moral and political effect will be felt for a quarter of a century.’ He did not see the greatness of the work which had been inaugurated, because the angle of his vision left it outside of his horizon; but he lived to see the curtain lifted, and to realize that the movement in which he had shared involved the life of the Republic, the emancipation of a race, and the grand march of democratic government towards its world-wide triumph.”

From an article by George Washington Julian in The American Historical Review, Vol. 4, No. 2 (January, 1899), pp. 313-322.


George Washington Julian


George Washington Julian was born near Centerville, Wayne County, Indiana, on May 5, 1817. He studied law, became a practicing lawyer, served in the state legislature and write newspaper articles attacking slavery. In due course he joined the Free Soil Party and was elected to the U S Congress in 1848 where he worked with other anti-slavery men and opposed Henry Clay’s Compromise of 1850. In 1852 he was the Free Soil Party’s candidate for vice-president. As he relates in his article he associated himself with the new Republican Party at its inception. He won a seat in Congress as a Republican in 1860 and won re-election four times after his initial victory.

His first wife Anne Elizabeth Finch Julian died in November, 1860, shortly after his election. December of 1863 saw him marry for the second time, taking as his wife Laura Giddings, the daughter of the radical abolitionist Joshua Giddings. Giddings served in the House of Representatives from 1838 to 1842 and again from 1843 to 1859. Julian and Giddings became close friends.

Julian was the author of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which extended voting rights to African-American males. He believed that all citizens should be allowed to vote. His original draft of the Fifteenth Amendment would have given women the right to vote. He also wrote legislation which extended voting rights to African-American males in the District of Columbia and the territories, such as the Dakota Territory, the New Mexico Territory, and Utah. As ratified by a sufficient number of states by February 3, 1870, the Amendment says: “Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”

In 1872 Julian split from the Republican Party to join the Liberal Republicans who favored civil service reform and, appalled by the Republican abandonment of reform issues in the presidential election of 1876, he became a Democrat and gave a speech in favor of Samuel J Tilden. This speech, entitled The Gospel of Reform, was used by the Democrats as a campaign brochure, of which two million copies were distributed. Julian remained a Democrat for the rest of his life. When accused of changing sides, Julian maintained that the “sides changed” and that he remained true to his principles. President Grover Cleveland appointed Julian as Surveyor General of New Mexico where he served from July,1885 to September,1889. He returned to Indiana in 1889 and spent much of his remaining years writing, including a biography of his father-in-law, Joshua Giddings. George Washington Julian died in Irvington, Indiana, on July 7, 1899, and was buried in Crown Hill Cemetery in Indianapolis.

julian grave-3421376679

Does the Republican Party of 2016 have a candidate with the personal integrity and commitment to reform of George Washington Julian? Apparently not. Will any Republican candidate acknowledge the heritage of Mr Julian? Definitely not. People like him and Abraham Lincoln scare the pants off of the current Republican herd.

For more information on the life of Julian, see George W Julian by his daughter, Grace Julian Clarke (1923); George Washington Julian, Radical Republican; a Study in Nineteenth-century Politics and Reform by Patrick Riddleberger (1966).


Friendly & Intimate Relations ~ January 1892

President Harrison asserts his intention to “cultivate friendly and intimate relations” with other countries despite the tensions with Chile which resolve at the end of the month. He wants to send grain to starving people in Russia and appoints a black man as American minister to Liberia. Evidence of labor tensions and the on-going problem of racism manifest themselves. Both will escalate during the coming year.


Ellis Island Main Building


January 1–Friday– New York City–The facility at Ellis Island goes into operation as the location to receive and process immigrants coming into the port of New York.

January 1– Friday– Chicago, Illinois– Roswell B. Mason, Mayor of Chicago from 1869 to 1871 and who called in federal troops after the Great Chicago Fire, angering some citizens, dies at age 86.

January 1– Friday– Capiz, the Philippines– Birth of Manuel Roxas y Acuna, who will serve as first President of the Philippines after independence from 1946 to his death on April 15, 1948.

January 4–Monday– Santiago, Chile–The government advises the United States that the attack on American sailors from the U S S Baltimore in Valparaiso last year [October 16, 1891] was the action of local drunkards, not an orchestrated attack against American honor.


USS Baltimore



January 5– Tuesday– Washington, D.C.– “The famine prevailing in some of the Provinces of Russia is so severe and widespread as to have attracted the sympathetic interest of a large number of our liberal and favored people. In some of the great grain-producing States of the West movements have already been organized to collect flour and meal for the relief of these perishing Russian families, and the response has been such as to justify the belief that a ship’s cargo can very soon be delivered at the seaboard through the generous cooperation of the transportation lines. It is most appropriate that a people whose storehouses have been so lavishly filled with all the fruits of the earth by the gracious favor of God should manifest their gratitude by large gifts to His suffering children in other lands. The Secretary of the Navy has no steam vessel at his disposal that could be used for the transportation of these supplies, and I therefore recommend that he be authorized to charter a suitable vessel to receive them if a sufficient amount should be offered, and to send them under the charge of a naval officer to such Russian port as may be most convenient for ready distribution to those most in need.” ~ Message to Congress from President Benjamin Harrison.

January 7– Thursday– Krebs, Oklahoma– A mine explosion due to unsafe working conditions kills approximately 100 workers and injures about another 150. Black people trying to help rescue white survivors are driven away by armed white men.

krebs miners 16807132181

monument to the Krebs miners


January 7– Thursday– Cairo, Egypt– Tewfik Pasha, Khedive of Egypt since 1879, dies at 39 years of age.

January 9– Saturday– Neveda, Missouri– Birth of Eva Kelly Bowring, politician, who will become the first woman to represent Nebraska in the U S. Senate. [Dies January 8, 1985.]

January 10– Sunday– Indianapolis, Indiana–Streetcar employees strike.

January10– Sunday– Coldwater, Mississippi– Birth of Dumas Malone, historian who will author a six volume biography of Thomas Jefferson and will serve as the first editor-in-chief of the Dictionary of American Biography. [Dies December 27, 1986.]

January 11–Monday– Washington, D.C.–President Harrison appoints William D McCoy, an African American, 38 years old, an educator from Indiana, as United States minister to Liberia. [McCoy will present his credentials to the Liberian government in the capital of Monrovia on March 28, 1892 and will die there of fever on May 16, 1893.]

January 14– Thursday– Norfolk, England– Prince Albert Victor, age 28, grandson of Queen Victoria and son of Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales, dies of influenza. [His father will become King Edward VII when Victoria dies in 1901. Victor’s fiancee, Princess Mary of Teck, will marry Victor’s younger brother George who will become King George V upon the death of his father in 1910.]

January 14– Thursday– Lippstadt, Germany– Birth of Martin Niemoller, Protestant clergyman who will initially support Adolph Hitler but change his view and be imprisoned from 1937 to 1945. He will serve as president of the World Council of Churches from 1961 to 1968. [Dies March 6,1984.]

January 15– Friday– Greeley County, Nebraska– Birth of Jane Margueretta Hoey, social worker who will become the first director of the Bureau of Public Assistance in the Social Security Administration from 1936 to 1953. [Dies October 6, 1968.]

jane hoey-fb10c

Jane Hoey


January 19– Tuesday– Borgades, Iceland– Birth of Olafur Thors, political leader who will serve as prime minister several times between 1942 and 1963. [Dies December 31, 1964.]

January 20–Wednesday– Santiago, Chile–The government demands the recall of the American minister.

January 21–Thursday– Washington, D.C.–The United States demands the payment of an indemnity from Chile for last October’s incident.

January 22– Friday– Brooklyn, New York– Adele Parmentier Bayer, who has become known as “the Guardian Angel of the sailors” for her forty years of welfare work with merchant seamen and sailors in the U S Navy, dies at 77 years of age.

January 22– Friday– Washington, D.C.– Joseph P Bradley, U.S. Supreme Court Justice appointed by President Grant in 1870, dies at age 78. He served on the commission which resolved the disputed election of 1876.

January 24– Sunday– Mengo, Uganda– With the help of fire from British soldiers using a Maxim gun, Protestant believers repel an attack by a large number of Catholic believers.

January 25– Monday– Washington, D.C.– “The request for the recall of Mr. Egan upon the ground that he was not persona grata was unaccompanied by any suggestion that could properly be used in support of it, and I infer that the request is based upon official acts of Mr. Egan which have received the approval of this Government. But however that may be, I could not consent to consider such a question until it had first been settled whether our correspondence with Chile could be conducted upon a basis of mutual respect. In submitting these papers to Congress for that grave and patriotic consideration which the questions involved demand I desire to say that I am of the opinion that the demands made of Chile by this Government should be adhered to and enforced. If the dignity as well as the prestige and influence of the United States are not to be wholly sacrificed, we must protect those who in foreign ports display the flag or wear the colors of this Government against insult, brutality, and death inflicted in resentment of the acts of their Government and not for any fault of their own. It has been my desire in every way to cultivate friendly and intimate relations with all the Governments of this hemisphere. We do not covet their territory. We desire their peace and prosperity. We look for no advantage in our relations with them except the increased exchanges of commerce upon a basis of mutual benefit. We regret every civil contest that disturbs their peace and paralyzes their development, and are always ready to give our good offices for the restoration of peace. It must, however, be understood that this Government, while exercising the utmost forbearance toward weaker powers, will extend its strong and adequate protection to its citizens, to its officers, and to its humblest sailor when made the victims of wantonness and cruelty in resentment not of their personal misconduct, but of the official acts of their Government.” ~ Message to Congress from President Benjamin Harrison regarding the situation with Chile.

lady justice

January 25– Monday– Santiago, Chile– The government of Chile offers $75,000 indemnity to the families of U S sailors killed and injured and withdraws the request for the recall of the American minister. [This dollar amount would equal approximately $2.01 million in today’s dollars using the Consumer Price Index.]

January 26– Tuesday– Worcester, Massachusetts– Birth of Zara Cully, African American actress. [She will begin her career in 1919 and continue performing until her death on February 28, 1978.]

zara cully -1390861923

Zara Cully


January 28– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– “I transmit herewith additional correspondence between this Government and the Government of Chile . . . . The response . . . to our note of the 21st withdraws, with acceptable expressions of regret, the offensive note of . . . the 11th ultimo, and also the request for the recall of Mr. Egan [American minister to Chile]. The treatment of the incident of the assault upon the sailors of the Baltimore is so conciliatory and friendly that I am of the opinion that there is a good prospect that the differences growing out of that serious affair can now be adjusted upon terms satisfactory to this Government by the usual methods and without special powers from Congress. This turn in the affair is very gratifying to me, as I am sure it will be to the Congress and to our people. The general support of the efforts of the Executive to enforce the just rights of the nation in this matter has given an instructive and useful illustration of the unity and patriotism of our people.” ~ Message to Congress from President Benjamin Harrison reporting on additional correspondence between the United States and Chile.

January 28– Thursday– Washington, D.C.–The United States accepts Chile’s offer of $75,000 made on January 25th.

January 30– Saturday– Bucharest, Romania – Birth of Grigore Gafencu, Romanian lawyer, journalist and politician who will serve as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1939 to 1940. [Dies January 30, 1957.]

January 31– Sunday– Menton, France– Charles Spurgeon, popular English preacher, evangelist and author dies at age 57.

Curtain Going Up on 1892

The year begins on a Friday. Around the world, leaders include Queen Victoria of Great Britain, age 72, reigning since 1837; her current prime minister is Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, age 62, in office since 1886; Queen Wilhelmia of the Netherlands, age 11, reigning since 1890 under the regency of Princess Emma, age 33; Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, age 61, ruling since 1848; Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, age 33, ruling since 1888; Emperor Guangxu of China, age 20, reigning since 1875 under the Dowager Empress Cixi, age 56, who rules de facto; Emperor Meiji of Japan, age 39, ruling since 1867; Tsar Alexander III of Russia, age 46, ruling since 1881; Emir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan, exact age unknown but probably about age 55, ruling since 1880; Sultan Abdul Hamid II of Turkey, age 49, ruling since 1876; Sultan Ali bin Said of Zanzibar, age 38, ruling since 1890; King Leopold II of Belgium, age 56, ruling since 1865; King Naser al-Din Shah Qajar of Persia, age 60, ruling since 1848; King Christian IX of Denmark, age 73, ruling since 1863; King George I of Greece, age 46, reigning since 1863; King Umberto I of Italy, age 47, reigning since 1878; King Chulalongkorn of Siam, age 39, ruling since 1868; King Carlos I of Portugal, age 28, ruling since 1889; King Alfonso XIII of Spain, age 5, reigning since 1886 under the regency of Queen Maria Christina, age 33; King Oscar II of Sweden, age 63, ruling since 1872; John Abbott, Prime Minister of Canada, age 70, in office since 1891; President Marie Francois Sadi Carnot of France, age 54, in office since 1887; President Hilary Johnson of Liberia, age 54, in office since 1884; President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico, age 61, in office since 1884; President Carlos Pellegrini of Argentina, age 45, in office since 1890; President Aniceto Arce of Bolivia, age 67, in office since 1888; Acting President Floriano Peixoto of Brazil, age 52, in office since 1891; President Jorge Montt of Chile, age 46, in office since 1891; President Remigio Morales Bermudez of Peru, age 55, in office since 1890; President Raimundo Andueza Palacio of Venezuela, age 45, in office since 1890; President Benjamin Harrison of the United States, age 58, in office since 1889.

Queen  of spain

Queen Maris Christina of Spain


Religious leaders include Pope Leo XIII of the Roman Catholic Church, age 81, ruling since 1878; Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury of the Anglican Church, age 62, in office since 1883; Hermann Adler, Chief Rabbi of the British Empire, age 52, in office since 1891; Pope Cyril V of the Coptic Orthodox Church, age 62, in office since 1874; Leonty, Metropolitan of Moscow of the Russian Orthodox Church, in office since 1891; John Williams, Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, age 74, in office since 1868; William Booth, General of the Salvation Army, age 62, in office since 1865.

Around the world new movements for social and political change are beginning. In the past year a group of Turkish exiles formed the Young Turk movements to bring change to the Ottoman Empire. There has been agitation by workers for improved conditions and wages both in Europe and the United States. This year will see major labor disturbances. The German government has introduced the first old age pensions. Pan-Slav movement is gaining strength.

Belgian and British interests are looking for ways to exploit the huge copper reserves in central Africa. Railroads continue to expand across the globe. Industrial growth benefits from new inventions and new chemical and metallurgical developments. Famine ravages parts of the Russian Empire. France and Russia have made an alliance for mutual protection from Germany. Germany has renewed its alliance both with Italy and with the Austrian Empire.

The population of the United States is approximately 65,926,000 people, of whom 36.6% live in urban areas which the Census Bureau defines as places with 2500 or more people.

Of women over the age of 14, 24.4% are single, 59.4% are married, 15.9% are widowed and 0.4% are divorced. The average age at marriage is 22.

female factory workers

Of all school age children 13,255,921 attend public schools while another 1,299,600 attend private and parochial schools. High school graduates this year will number 53,039. Colleges and universities will confer 16,802 bachelor degrees, only 17.6% of them to women; 730 masters level degrees, none of record to women; 190 doctoral level degrees, none of record to women.


Telegraph offices numbering 20,700 send 62,387,000 messages over 739,000 miles of wire. Post offices, 67,119 in total, will handle 4,776,575,000 pieces of mail and sell 2,543,270,000 stamps, generating $70,930,000 in revenues but expending $76,980,000 in operating costs. Across the whole country there are 261,000 telephones. The approximately 1675 daily newspapers have an average 8,500,000 daily circulation. Books published this year will total 4,862 new and reprinted titles.

Railroads operate 211,051 miles of track with 33,136 locomotives pulling 966,998 freight cars and 13,363 passenger cars.

The average worker in a factory or mill earns $495 in the year. [This equals $13,300 in today’s dollars, using the Consumer Price Index.] This year will see 1,359 work stoppages involving a total of approximately 239,000 workers; 50.7% of these stoppages will involve wage & hours issues, 19.2% about the right to organize and the others about an assortment of issues. In the mines 991 miners will die on the job. On the railroads, 2,554 workers will die in accidents and another 28,267 will be injured. Workers compensation does not yet exist in the United States.


Farms, mines and mills will produce 294,000,000 pounds of wool; 1,897,412,000 bushels of corn; 611,854,000 bushels of wheat; 721,824,000 bushels of oats; 95,170,000 bushels of barley; 28,718,000 bushels of rye; 6,700,000 bales of cotton; 756,845,000 pounds of tobacco; 114,120,000 bushels of potatoes; 120,536,000 bushels of apples; 126,857,000 tons of bituminous coal; 52,473,000 tons of anthracite coal; 50,515,000 barrels of crude ore; 172,499,000 tons of copper; 208,223,000 tons of lead; 87,260,000 tons of zinc; 1,597,000 troy ounces of gold; 63,500,000 troy ounces of silver; 11,000 tons of bauxite; $63,300,000 worth of vehicles [horse-drawn]; $196,600,000 worth of industrial machinery & equipment; $90,900,000 worth of locomotives and railroad cars; $75,400,000 worth of farm equipment; $30,100,000 worth of office & store furniture and fixtures; $230,500,000 worth of cigars and cigarettes; $632,800,000 worth of clothing; $263,800,000 worth of shoes & boots; $37,000,000 worth of household furnishings; 381,000 new housing units constructed.

Jim Crow laws limiting the rights of black people have increasing been enacted, particularly in the Deep South. Lynchings will take the lives of 161 black persons.

American colonists in Hawaii are plotting against the new queen and looking for a way for the United States to acquire the lush islands. Likewise, other Americans eye on-going troubles in Cuba and seek to build American influence.

The year opens with tensions between Chile and the United States over an incident last October in Valparaiso, Chile, when a mob attacked American sailors, killing two and wounding others. Some in the United States favor war with Chile.

The federal government will take in $354,938,000 while spending $345,023,000, leaving a budget surplus of $9,914,000. However the national debt stands at $968,219,000. Civil service employees of the federal government total 37,523 persons. The Army has 27,190 men on active duty, the Navy 9,448 and the Marine Corps 2,039.

The Fifty-second Congress began its first session on December 7, 1891. Republicans control the Senate, holding 47 seats, the Democrats having 39, the Populists 2. Democrats have a sizeable majority in the House of Representatives, having 238 seats to the Republicans 86 while the Populists have 8 seats. The Speaker of the House is Charles Crisp, age 47, a Democrat from Georgia.


Charles Crisp, Speaker of the House


Many farmers and workers are strongly dissatisfied with the two major political parties. Farmers feel that prices are too low for their crops. Many ordinary citizens believe that the government favor bankers and the titans of industry. In the spring of last year the People’s Party, a/k/a the Populist Party, formed in Cincinnati, Ohio. Benjamin Harrison, the Republican incumbent, intends to seek re-election but faces challenges within the party from James G Blaine and from William McKinley, governor of Ohio. Grover Cleveland, the Democrat who had been in office from 1885 to 1889 but lost the 1888 election to Harrison, wants another opportunity to recapture the White House. However he faces challenges from within his own party from Senator David Hill of New York, Senator Arthur Gorman of Maryland, Senator John Palmer of Illinois, and Governor Horace Boies of Iowa. The Socialist Labor Party and the Prohibition Party also intend to nominate candidates for president. Some women are active in organizations like the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (“WCTU”), seeking limitations on or a total ban of the manufacture and sale of liquor. The seasoned campaigners for woman suffrage still mount spirited battles for the vote.

All Kinds of Workers~Occupations, 1890

For a significant number of pages the census lists occupations, the number of people who practice them and how many are male or female. In my summary the percentage of female workers is indicated immediately after the total number of workers in the occupation. If no percentage of females is shown, then either no women were identified in that particular occupation or the percentage of women was below two percent. I have divided them into various general categories using modern divisions. However, the job titles are those used in the census. The following list is not all-inclusive nor exhaustive but rather a representative sample to provide a portrait of life and work in late-nineteenth century America. We see an America becoming more urban and more industrial; yet over 8.25 million people work in agriculture. We see women making some gains in where they can work; yet many occupations, particularly the skilled ones and the professions remain mostly closed to them, the notable exception being in elementary and secondary education where women perform in large numbers.


Agriculture & Related Providers:

Farmers & Planters (5,281,557 ~ 4.2% women); Agricultural laborers (3,004,061 ~ 14.8% women); Gardeners, Florists, Nurserymen & Vine Growers (72,601 ~ 3.3%); Fishermen and Oyster men (60,162); Dairymen & Dairywomen (17,895 ~ 10.0% women); Hunters, Trappers, Guides & Scouts (2,534)

Arts & Entertainment:

Musicians & Music Teachers (62,155 ~ 55.5% women); Artists & Art Teachers (22,496 ~ 48.0% women); Photographers (20,040 ~ 11.0% women); Theatrical Managers & Showmen (18,055 ~ 3.5% women); Actors (9,723 ~ 40.2% women); Authors (6,714 ~ 40.3% women)

Building Trades:

Carpenters & Joiners (611,482); Painters & Glaziers (219,912); Masons [brick & stone] (158,918); Sawmill Employees (133,037); Builders & Contractors (45,988); Paper Hangers (12,869); Roofers & Slaters (7,043)


Clerks & Copyists (557,358 ~ 11.5% women); Stenographers & Typewriters (33,418 ~ 63.7% women)



Dressmakers (289,164 ~ 99.7% women); Boot & Shoe Makers (213,544 ~ 15.8% women); Tailors & Tailoresses (185,400 ~ 34.4% women); Milliners (60,482 ~ 99.3% women); Hosiery & Knitting Mill Operatives (29,555 ~ 70.5% women); Hat & Cap Makers (24,013 ~ 27.9% women); Shirt & Collar Makers (21,107 ~ 75.4% women); Sewing Machine Operators (7,120 ~ 84.5% women); Corset Makers (6,533 ~ 89.2% women); Glove Makers (6,416 ~ 57.8% women); Apprentice Dressmakers (4,340 ~ 100% women); Umbrella & Parasol Makers (3,403 ~ 55.8% women); Apprentice Tailors & Tailoresses (2,625 ~ 26.9% women); Button Makers (2,601 ~ 61.1% women); Apprentice Milliners (1,204 ~ 100% women)


Agents [claim, commission, real estate, insurance, etc.] (174,582 ~ 2.8% women); Hucksters & Peddlers (59,083 ~ 4.4% women); Messengers & Office Boys (51,355 ~ 5.6% women); Wholesale Merchants of Imports (27,443); Packers & Shippers (24,046 ~ 27.0% women); Weighers, Gaugers & Measurers (8,860); Wholesale Merchants of Wines & Liquors (3,643)


Printers, Lithographers & Pressmen (86,893 ~ 6.5% women); Telegraph & Telephone Operators (52,214 ~ 16.3% women); Bookbinders (23,858 ~ 48.7% women); Journalists (21,849 ~ 4.0% women); Telegraph & Telephone Linemen (11,134 ~ 6.0% women); Publishers [books, newspapers, maps, etc] (6,284); Newspaper Carriers (5,288)

Domestic Service:

Servants (1,454,791 ~ 83.6% women); Launderers & Laundresses (248,462 ~ 87.2%); Housekeepers & Stewards (92,036 ~ 93.5% women); Janitors (21,556 ~ 13.0% women); Sextons (4,982)



Teachers (341,952 ~ 71.7% women); College Professors (5,392 ~ 12.8% women)


Bookkeepers & Accountants (159,374 ~ 17.4% women); Bank & Insurance Officials (39,900); Bankers (30,008)

Food Production:

Butchers (105,456); Bakers (60,197 ~ 3.6% women); Millers (52,841); Confectioners (23,251 ~ 24.6% women); Brewers & Maltsters (20,362); Butter & Cheese Makers (11,211 ~ 3.6% women); Bottlers, Mineral & Soda Water Makers (7,230); Meat & Fruit Packers & Canners (5,830 ~ 24.2% women); Distillers (3,314)

Hospitality & Food Services:

Saloon Keepers (71,385 ~ 3.0% women); Bartenders (55,806); Hostlers (54,036); Boarding & Lodging-house Keepers (44,340 ~ 73.4% women); Hotel Keepers (44,076 ~ 11.8% women); Livery Stable Keepers (26,757); Restaurant Keepers (19,283 ~ 12.5% women)


Heavy Industry:

Coal Miners (208,545); Machinists (177,090); Cotton-mill Operatives (173,142 ~ 53.7% women); Iron & Steel Workers (144,921); Miners [not otherwise specified] (141,047); Mill & Factory Operatives [not otherwise specified] (93,596 ~ 44.8% women); Tinners (55,488); Quarrymen (37,656); Silk-mill Operatives (34,855 ~ 59.1% women); Paper-mill Operatives (27,817 ~ 32.0% women); Steam Boiler Makers (21,839); Oil Well Employees (9,147); Rope & Cordage Makers (8,001 ~ 38.7% women); Nail & Tack Makers (4,583 ~ 10.4% women)

women factory workers

factory workers


Light Industry:

Tobacco & Cigar Factory Operatives (111,625 ~ 25.0% women); Broom & Brush Makers (10,115 ~ 10.9% women); Basket Makers (5,225 ~ 13.6% women); Straw Workers (3,660 ~ 66.7% women); Candle & Soap Makers (3,450 ~ 11.6% women); Artificial Flower Makers (3,046 ~ 83.3% women)


Physicians & Surgeons (104,805 ~ 4.3% women); Nurses & Mid-wives (47,586 ~ 86.9% women); Dentists (17,498); Veterinary Surgeons (6,494)


Personal Services:

Seamstresses (150,044 ~ 93.3% women); Barbers & Hairdressers (84,982 ~ 3.3% women); Upholsterers (25,666 ~ 6.6% women); Clock & Watch Makers (25,252 ~ 18.2% women); Engravers (8,320 ~ 3.6% women)

Professional Services:

Lawyers (89,630); Clergy (88,203); Engineers [civil, mechanical, electrical, mining] (43,230) Undertakers (9,891); Draftsmen & Designers (9,391 ~ 8.6% women); Architects (8,070); Chemists (4,503); Professional Services [not otherwise specified] (1,569 ~ 30.5% women)

Public Service:

Government officials (79,664 ~ 6.2% women); Watchmen, Policemen & Detectives (74,350) Soldiers, Sailors & Marines (27,919)

Retail Trades:

Merchants [not specified] (440,262 ~ 3.6% women); Salesmen & Saleswomen (264,394 ~ 22.1% women); Retail Merchants– Groceries (114,997 ~ 5.9% women); Retail Merchants– Drugs & Chemicals (46,375); Retail Merchants– Dry Goods (42,527 ~ 4.9% women); Retail Merchants– Wines & Liquors (10,078)


Skilled Trades:

Blacksmiths (205,387); Wood Workers [not otherwise specified] (67,360 ~ 5.5% women); Coopers (47,486); Harness & Saddle Makers (43,480); Cabinet Makers (35,915); Carriage & Wagon Makers (34,538); Glass Workers (34,282 ~ 4.9% women); Carpet Makers (22,302 ~ 47.9% women); Potters (14,928 ~ 13.3% women); Wheelwrights (12,855); Gunsmiths (9,158); Lace Makers (5,250 ~ 84.6% women); Sail, Awning & Tent Makers (3,257 ~ 7.7% women)


Steam Railroad Employees [not otherwise specified] (382,750); Draymen & Teamsters (308,490); Street-railway Employees (87,484); Locomotive Engineers & Firemen (79,463); Sailors (55,899); Ship & Boat Builders (22,951); Boatmen & Canal-men (16,716)

Unskilled Labor:

General laborers (1,913,373 ~ 2.8% women); Porters & Helpers (24,356)

How Things Have Changed~Census, 1890

The United States Constitution in Article One, Section Two, Sub-section Three, mandates that “Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers . . . . The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct.” This year requires such a census. It is thirty years since the election of Lincoln and fourteen years since the election of 1876 and the country has changed. The information from this census helps us understand something of the background of the two presidential elections in this decade, that is, of 1892 and 1896. Since the Civil War the country by 1890 has become more urban, more industrial, more populous and increasing more of a player in international affairs.


population density


The census shows the total population to be 62,947,714 which is an increase of 24.9% over the census of 1880 and double the population of 1860 which was 31,443,322. Of this total population, 48.8% are female and 51.2% are male; 12.1% are under the age of 5; 23.3% ages 5 to 14; 10.5% are 15 to 19; 6.4% are 50 to 59; 3.9% are 60 to 69 years of age; 2.3% are age 70 and over. Potential male voters, that is males age 21 and over, number 16,940,311. [Only in Wyoming can women vote.]

African Americans number 7,470,040 persons, Chinese Americans number 107,475 persons, Japanese Americans number 2,039, and “civilized” Indians number 58,806. [By this term the Federal government meant Native Americans who had assimilated the dominant culture; those who practiced traditional ways or continued to speak their own languages or follow traditional religion or wore traditional clothes or hairstyles or refused “white” education or in some or many ways refused assimilation were not counted as “civilized” and often not counted at all which often led to significant under-counting of Native Americans where such smaller counts worked to the advantage of government. Of the total population, 14.8% [better than 9.3 million persons] are immigrants, born in countries other than the United States and, regardless of what year they arrived, have become citizens or are in the process of becoming citizens or simply choose to live in America. Of immigrants, 5,246,613 came to the United States from 1881 to 1890.


counting the statistics


Overall population density is 21.3 persons per square mile of land. The greatest population density is found in the New England and Middle Atlantic states. For example Massachusetts has 278.5 people per square mile, Rhode Island 318.4, Connecticut 154.6, New York 125.9, New Jersey 193.8, Pennsylvania 116.9. Southern states are less densely populated. For example, Virginia has 41.3 people per square mile, South Carolina 38.2, Georgia 31.2, Florida 7.2, Alabama 29.4. As may be expected, the least dense population is found in Western states. Montana has 0.9 people per square mile, Colorado 3.9. Along the Pacific coast, Washington has 5.2 people per square mile, Oregon 3.3 and California 7.8.

Marital status of the total population: 59.3% are single [of course this includes children under the legal age to marry], 35.7% are married, 4.7% are widows or widowers, significantly less than 1.0% are divorced, and the small remainder simply did not report their status.

The ten largest states are New York [5,997,853 people], Pennsylvania [5,258,014 people], Illinois [3,826,351 people], Ohio [3,672,316 people], Missouri [2,679,184 people], Massachusetts [2,238,943 people], Texas [2,235,524 people], Indiana [2,192,404 people], Michigan [2,093,889 people], and Iowa [1,911,806 people].

The ten largest cities are 1) New York– 1,515,301 people; 2) Chicago, Illinois– 1,099,850 people; 3) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– 1,046,964 people; 4) Brooklyn, New York– 806,343 people; 5) St Louis, Missouri– 451,770 people; 6) Boston, Massachusetts– 448,477 people; 7) Baltimore, Maryland– 434,439 people; 8) San Francisco, California– 298,997; 9) Cincinnati, Ohio– 296,908 people; 10) Cleveland, Ohio– 261,353 people. Washington, D C is the 14th largest city with a population of 230,392. Among the 100 largest cities the ones in the South include New Orleans, Louisiana [12th with 242,039 people]; Richmond, Virginia [35th with 81,388 people]; Nashville, Tennessee [38th with 76,168 people]; Atlanta, Georgia [42nd with 65,533 people]; Charleston, South Carolina [53rd with 54,955 people]; Savannah, Georgia [69th with 43,189 people]; Dallas, Texas [#77 with 38,067 people]; San Antonio, Texas [81st with 37,673 people]; Norfolk, Virginia [88th with 34,871 people]; Augusta, Georgia [90th with 33,300 people]; and Mobile, Alabama [97th with 31,076 people]. On the Pacific coast, the largest cities include Los Angeles, California [57th in size with 50,395 people]; Oakland, California [60th in size with 48,682 people]; Portland, Oregon [61st in size with 46,385 people]; Seattle, Washington [70th in size with 42,837 people]; and Tacoma, Washington [84th in size with 36,006 people].



Of all persons over the age of 10, 48.0% are gainfully employed. Among those employed, 39.6% work in agriculture, fishing and mining; 22.4% work in manufacturing and mechanical industries; 19.2% work in domestic and personal service; 14.6% work in trade and transportation; 4.2% work in professional services. Women working outside of the home number 3,914,571; of them 69.8% are single, 16.1% are widowed and the remaining are married, except for the less than 1.0% who are divorced.

The industrial strength of the country has grown significantly. The census identified 355,415 “manufacturing establishments.”

Agriculture remains strong. The census reports that 357,616,755 acres of land are under cultivation and yield 34.3 million bushels of barley; 293 thousand bushels of buckwheat; 367.7 million bushels of corn; 401.4 million bushels of oats; 8.6 million bushels of rye; 217.5 million bushels of potatoes; 43.9 million bushels of sweet potatoes; 8.9 million bushels of wheat; 957.2 million pounds of cotton; 301.3 million pounds of cane sugar; 32.9 million pounds of maple sugar; 2.3 million gallons of molasses; 128.6 million pounds of rice; 488.3 million pounds of tobacco.

Exports and Imports:

The five major trading partners for U S exports are, in order, the United Kingdom (buying 49.2% of exports), Germany (9.4%), France (5.5%), Canada (4.4%), and Australia (1.8%). The five major partners from which the U S buys imported goods and materials are the United Kingdom (22.6% of imports), Germany (12.0%), France (9.5%), Brazil (7.2%), and Cuba (6.6%).



A total of 11,674,878 children are attending school; 1,603,806 of them attend private or parochial schools while the others attend public schools. Of all these students, 51% are male, 49% are female, 8.6% are “colored” [in which the census includes African Americans and Asian Americans], 4.4% are immigrant children [meaning that they were not born in the United States but came with their parents], and 25.3% are first generation Americans [meaning that their parents came from some other country but they themselves were born in the United States after their parents arrived]. Of the teachers who educate the children, 61.5% are white women, 2.6% are women of color, 32.5% are white men, and 3.4% are men of color. Of the children of Native Americans, 12,410 are in boarding schools and another 3,967 attend day schools. Teachers and staff at these schools are 90.3% white and 67.0% are female. Among all persons age 10 and over, a total of 47,413,559, 13.3% are illiterate. Among illiterate persons, 52.4% are female; 81.5% cannot read or write; 18.5% can read at some level but cannot write. Of all persons age 10 and over, 1,718,498 cannot speak English. [This year the 998 American colleges and universities will confer 15,539 bachelor degrees, 17.3% to women; 1,015 master’s degrees, none to women; 149 doctoral degrees, only 2 to women.]


There are 234,000 telephones or 3.7 for every 1,000 people. The 19,382 telegraph offices operate 679,000 miles of wire. [This year they will send 55,879,000 messages and generate $20,055,000 in revenues.] Mail is delivered by 62,401 post offices. [This year totaling 4,005,408,000 pieces and selling 2,219,737,000 stamps to generate $60,882,000 in revenues while expending $66,259,000 in costs.]


Railroads operate across 163,562 miles of track with 30,153 locomotives pulling 27,653 passenger cars and 987,109 freight cars. Some urban areas operate street railways [trolley or streetcar service]. These systems have 32,505 passenger cars running over 8,123 miles of track and carrying 2,023,010,202 passengers. The cities with the most miles of service are Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [276.9 miles]; Boston, Massachusetts [237.8 miles]; Chicago, Illinois [193.1 miles]; New York City [180.6 miles]; St Louis, Missouri [115.2 miles]; and New Orleans, Louisiana [112.6 miles]



This census developed the most detailed information about religious practice in the United States of any census done before 1890. In it the census takers identified 143 distinct religious bodies. For purposes of general summaries, they combined these into “denominational families” with a total number of members. The largest part of that list is as follows:

Catholics 6,257,871

Methodist 4,589,284

Baptist 3,712,468

Presbyterian 1,278,332

Lutheran 1,231,072

Episcopalian 540,509

Reformed 309,458

United Brethren 225,281

Latter Day Saints 166,125

Jewish 130,496

Friends (Quakers) 107,208

Dunkards 73,795

Unitarians 67,749

Adventist 60,911

Universalist 49,194

Mennonite 41,541

Respondents identified 142,521 edifices as buildings designated specifically for worship and an additional 23,334 halls, schoolhouses and private homes used for religious purposes. Rabbis, priests, ministers, deacons and other religious leaders total 111,036 persons.

1890 census-01~media


At the time of the census there are 1,034,073 living veterans of the United States armed forces who served in the Civil War. There are also 145,359 living widows of Civil War U S veterans. Living Confederate veterans number 432,020 along with 60,564 widows of Confederate soldiers and sailors. The greatest numbers of Union veterans live in Pennsylvania (10.7% of Union veterans), Ohio (9.8%), New York (8.3%), Illinois (6.8%), and Indiana (6.1%). The remainder are scattered among other states. The greatest number of Confederate veterans live in Texas (15.5% of Confederate veterans), Virginia (11.2%), Georgia (10.8%), North Carolina (10.2%), and Alabama (7.8%). The remainder are scattered among the other states.

Criminal Justice:

Prisons and jails hold 82,329 persons, excluding only juveniles in reformatories. White men constitute 63.9% of prisoners, men of color 28.3%, white women 5.4%, and women of color 2.4%. Of all prisoners, 54.9% are in state prisons [as distinct from workhouses, county, city or federal prisons] and 1.1% are in asylums or hospitals for the insane. Juvenile reformatories hold 14,846 offenders, 77.7% of whom are male.

Progress Day by Day~ January 1876


Women activists have returned to their patterns of antebellum activities seeking the vote and other civil rights. Workers and farmers will make economic issues part of the campaign this year. Discord stirred up by the Civil War continues to stir partisan politics and will also play a major role in the year’s elections. Americans look at world-wide events in new ways.

January 1– Saturday– New York City– Hundreds of people are walking about or riding in carriages well into the early hours of the morning, celebrating the coming of the New Year and the arrival of the Centennial of American independence.

January 1– Saturday– Berlin, Germany– The Reichsbank opens for business.

January 2– Sunday– New York City– The New York Times reports that workers at a shoe factory in Lynn, Massachusetts, are protesting a severe reduction in their wages.

January 5– Wednesday– Belmont, Ohio– Local farmers who are owed a great deal of money by a local businessman named A. C. Williamson who has fled to Canada, raid Williamson’s factory and store, carrying off everything of value. When the local sheriff attempts to stop them, the farmers lock up the sheriff and his deputies.

January 6– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– Representative James G. Blaine of Maine, a leading Republican and potential presidential candidate, opposes granting amnesty to the 750 former Confederate leaders, particularly those educated at West Point or Anapolis.


James G Blaine


January 10– Monday– New York City– A large number of workers gather at Cooper Institute to hear a speech from 84 year old Mr Peter Cooper, manufacturer, inventor and philanthropist. Cooper calls for action by the federal government to American industry and provide jobs for the unemployment. The audience reacts with enthusiasm.

January 10– Monday– Washington, D.C.– Congress Blaine expresses opposition to Jeff Davis, former president of the Confederacy, receiving amnesty, declaring that Davis was responsible for the mistreatment of Union prisoners held at the infamous Andersonville, Georgia, prison camp.

January 11– New York City– The New York Times reports that a number of government jobs held by Republican veterans of the Union Army have been given to Democratic Confederate veterans instead.

January 11– Tuesday– San Francisco, California– Birth of Jack London, novelist, journalist and social activist, involved with socialist politics from 1896 to 1916. [Dies November 22, 1916.]


Jack London


January 12– Wednesday– Washington, D.C.– The House Judiciary Committee considers a bill to limit the president to one term in office.

January 13– Thursday– New York City– The New York Times attacks the Democratic Party for its efforts at an amnesty bill as a way to bring former Confederates, who remain hostile to the federal government, back into politics.

January 14– Friday– Washington, D. C.– Congress receives a petition signed by 22,626 women and girls in Utah asking for admission of Utah as a state, repeal of the federal law banning polygamy, and relief from “unjust and law-breaking officials forced upon us by the Government.”

January 15– Saturday– Greeneville, Tennessee– Eliza McCardle Johnson, widow of former President Andrew Johnson, dies at age 75.

January 16– Sunday– Lynn, Massachusetts– Reports indicate that the strike of shoemakers may spread to close most or all of the factories.

January 17– Monday– Boston, Massachusetts– The state legislature begins consideration of abolishing the death penalty as well as ending imprisonment for debt.

January 17– Monday– Jersey City, New Jersey– Birth of Frank Hague, politician who will hold a number of elected offices and run Democratic machine politics in the state for decades with a reputation for menacing conduct. [Dies January 1, 1956.] [For a biography and analysis, see A Cycle of Power by Richard Connors (1971) and The Statesman and The Boss by George Rapport (1961).]

January 17– Monday– Caprera Island, Italy– The 68 year old Giuseppe Garibaldi, the hero of Italian unification, still meets with visitors from England and France, speaking to them in their own languages.

January 17– Monday– Prague, Austrian-Hungarian Empire [now Czech Republic]– Birth of Olga Fastrova, author, editor, translator, educator and pioneering journalist. [Dies August 8, 1965.]


Matilda Joslyn Gage


January 18– Tuesday– Albany, New York– Matilda Joslyn Gage and Lillie Divereux Blake testify before the state legislature’s judiciary committee calling on the legislature to enfranchise the women of New York state to vote in federal elections, citing the “humanizing influence” of women and declaring that the political party which grants woman suffrage will win the national elections in November.

January 18– Tuesday– New York City– The New York Times reports that the Universal Peace Union met last evening at the Rose Hill Methodist Chapel. Presentations included an account of treaty violations leading to war with the Modoc people in 1872-73 and a reflection on the duties of a Christian to work for peace. It was announced that Phebe Coffin Hanaford [1829– 1921], the Universalist minister will speak at the next meeting. [The Universal Peace Union was founded by Alfred Love in 1866; see, Alfred H Love and the Universal Peace Union by Robert Doherty (1962).]

January 19– Wednesday– New York City– About 55 representatives of working people hold a meeting calling for the formation of a new labor party, protection of the 8 hour work day and other measures in the interests of workers.

January 20– Thursday– Madrid, Spain– General elections to the Cortes Generales are held. At stake are all 391 seats in the Congress of Deputies. Conservatives win 329 seats, liberals 49 seats and other parties 13 seats. Of eligible voters, 58.9% vote. Antonio Canovas del Castillo, age 48, secures a second term as prime minister.

January 21– Friday– New York City– The New York Times reports that when three citizens complained about a black man delivering their mail and demanding that a white man take over the job, the post master informed them that if they find their mail carrier objectionable, they ought not to use the U S mails.

January 21– Friday– Washington, D.C.– President Grant updates the House of Representatives regarding relations with Spain in regard to Cuba.

January 21– Friday– London, England– The British Anti-Slavery Society requests that Her Majesty’s government help settle the problems of Cuba where rebels have been fighting for independence from Spain since 1868.

January 24– Monday– St Paul, Minnesota– Reports say that large quantities of gold can be found in the Black Hills of the Dakotas. [The lands are holy to the Sioux and relegated to their control by a treaty made in 1868. The prospectors are trespassing but the army does nothing to stop them.]


Aaron Augustus Sargent


January 25– Tuesday– Washington, D.C.– Senator Aaron Augustus Sargent of California presents a petition signed by a large number of women asking for the creation of a local government for the District of Columbia which will give women the right to vote. The senator asserts that the “great movement of woman suffrage” will prevail and is “making progress day by day.” Further, he declares, the example of Wyoming Territory which gave women the right to vote in 1869 is “indorsed by the judiciary, by the press and by the people generally” and is an example to be followed.

January 25– Tuesday– Vienna, Austria– A dispatch says that the Sultan of Turkey intends to reject Austria’s proposal to settle the Ottoman Empire’s debts to various European powers.

January 26– Tuesday– Boston, Massachusetts– The Massachusetts Woman’s Suffrage Association concludes its two day convention. Julia Ward Howe and Reverend James Freeman Clarke made key presentations.

January 26– Wednesday– Rome, Italy– Garibaldi meets with surviving veterans of his campaigns. Visiting Englishmen and Americans greet Garibaldi with enthusiasm.

January 27– Thursday– Trenton, New Jersey– The State Temperance Alliance holds a large meeting, dominated by women active in the cause, and makes recommendations to voters on temperance issues both at the sate and national levels.

January 28–Friday– Boston, Massachusetts–Helen Benson Garrison, wife of William Lloyd Garrison dies at age 64 from pneumonia.

January 28– Friday– London, England– Government sources here and in Berlin report that it is expected that Queen Victoria will visit with the German Imperial Court during her trip on the European continent.


Queen Victoria


January 29– Saturday– New York City– “Mr. Blaine has just done and said his utmost to tear asunder the half-healed lacerations of our body politic, as recently rent and torn by intestine convulsions. Standing at the brink of that gulf which was about to be opened in our history, President Lincoln could but express the hope, in his first inaugural address, that ‘the mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, would yet swell the chorus of the Union when again touched,’ as he believed they would be, ‘by the better angels of our nature.’ But Mr. Blaine cannot find it in his heart to utter a prayer like this, or to breathe an invocation to ‘the better angels of our nature.’ He brings the vials of wrath, filled to the brim with the quintessence of sectional hate, and publicly breaks them over the heads of sixty-one members of the House of Representatives in the presence of the whole country.” ~ Frank Leslies Weekly.

January 29– Saturday– Ottawa, Ontario, Canada– The Canadian Centennial Commission has reached final agreement with the United States Commissioners regarding Canada’s display at this summer’s celebration in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

January 29– Saturday– the Wairau electorate, New Zealand– The last day of five weeks of polling throughout the country takes place here. As political parties do not yet exist in the country, precise numbers of political opinions are unavailable; however, the current government wins enough seats to remain in power.

After-effects of War ~ Immigration 1920

Immigration (U.S.):


The Great War is over. Large numbers of immigrants come from Italy and Canada. While the pattern of mostly men of working age continues we see a significant percentage increase of immigrants with job skills.

> 430,001 immigrants enter the United States:

> 22.1% come from Italy;

> 20.9% come from Canada;

> 12.2% come from Mexico;

> 11.2% come from Greece, Spain and Portugal combined;

> 8.9% come from Great Britain;

> 5.7% come from France, Belgium, Netherlands and Switzerland combined;

> 4.7% come from Central and South America, excluding Mexico;

> 3.1% come from Sweden, Norway and Denmark combined;

> 2.2% come from Ireland;

> 2.2% come from Japan;

> 1.3% come Austria, Hungary and neighboring states, excluding Germany, the Soviet Union and Poland;

> 1.2% come from Turkey;

> 1.1% come from Poland;

> 0.9% come from the Balkans;

> 0.5% come from China;

1.8% come from other regions and other countries.


> Sex and age:

> 42.4% are female;

> 57.6% are male;

> 71.5% are between the ages of 16 and 44;

> 19.0% are under age 16;

9.5% are age 45 and over.

immigrant ship photo-e

> Occupations by major categories:

> 40.2% have no occupation–this includes children;

> 19.4% have general labor occupations;

> 13.0% have skilled craft occupations;

> 8.7% have domestic work occupations;

> 6.4% have agricultural occupations;

> 4.3% have service occupations;

> 3.3% have clerical occupations;

> 2.5% have professional occupations;

> 2.2% have managerial occupations.

In Spite of War They Come~Immigration 1916

Immigration (U.S.):


The Great War in Europe significantly reduces immigration to the United States. Far fewer people are coming from the major warring powers– Germany, Austria, Russia, France, Great Britain– and over 100,000 coming from Canada and over 80,000 arriving from southern Europe. The pattern which has not changed is the predominance of young men with few job skills.

> 298,826 immigrants enter the United States;

> 33.9% come from Canada;

> 15.6% come from Portugal, Spain and Greece;

> 11.3% come from Italy;

> 6.2% come from Mexico;

> 5.8% come from Central and South America (excluding Mexico);

> 5.4% come from Great Britain;

> 4.9% come from Scandinavia;

> 3.1% come from Eastern and Central Europe, including Germany, Poland, Austria & Hungary;

> 2.9% come from Northwestern Europe (France, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands);

> 2.9% come from Japan;

> 2.9% come from Ireland;

> 2.6% come from the Russian Empire;

2.5% come from other countries and regions

Immigrants Arriving at Ellis Island

24 Jul 1915 — Original caption: 7/24/15-Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island on the S.S. Prince Frederick Wilhelm. — Image by © Bettmann/CORBIS

> Sex and age:

> 38.9% are female

> 61.1% are male;

> 15.7% are under age 14;

> 73.9% are between the ages of 14 and 44;

10.4% are age 45 and older.


> Occupations by major groups include:

> 35.0% have no occupation–this includes children;

> 19.2% are general laborers;

> 12.0% are skilled craft workers;

> 11.1% are farmers and agricultural laborers;

> 9.8% are domestic workers;

> 3.7% are service workers;

> 3.3% are clerical workers;

> 3.0% are professional workers;

> 2.9% are commercial workers

Headed for New Life~Immigration 1912

Immigration (U.S.):


Better than three quarter of a million immigrants arrive in the United States, the largest numbers being men between the ages of 14 and 44, primarily from eastern or southern Europe, either unskilled or with agrarian work skills.

> 838,172 immigrants enter the United States:

> 21.3% come from the Austria-Hungary Empire;

> 19.3% come from the Russian Empire;

> 18.7% come from Italy;

> 6.9% come from Greece, Spain, Portugal combined;

> 6.8% come from Great Britain;

> 3.2% come from Sweden, Norway and Denmark combined;

> 3.0% come from Ireland;

> 2.7% come from Germany;

> 2.7% come from France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland combined;

> 2.5% come from the Balkans;

> 1.5% come from China

[The numbers from Poland are included in part among Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary as each of these powers controls part of Poland.]

immigrant ship photo-c

> Sex and age:

> 36.8% are female;

> 63.2% are male;

> 77.2% are between 14 and 44 years of age;

> 13.6% are below age 14;

9.2% are age 45 and over


> occupations:

> 27.5% have no occupation– this includes children;

> 22.8% have agricultural occupations;

> 16.4% have general labor occupations;

> 13.8% have domestic work occupations:

> 12.8% have skilled craft occupations;

> 1.7% have managerial occupations;

> 1.6% have clerical occupations;

> 1.6% have service occupations;

> 1.3% have professional occupations;

> 0.5% have miscellaneous occupations.

Seeking a Better Life~Immigration 1896


Immigration (U.S.):

Well over a quarter of a million immigrants come during the year, many from southern or eastern Europe, mostly males between ages 15 to 40 and mostly unskilled.

> 343,267 immigrants enter the United States:

> 19.8% come from Italy;

> 19.4% come from Central and Eastern Europe, including Poland;

> 14.9% come from the Russian Empire;

> 11.7% come from Ireland;

> 9.7% come from Scandinavia;

> 9.3% come from Germany;

> 7.2% come from Great Britain;

> 2.2% come from Northwest Europe (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland);

> 2.0% come from Central and South America, including Mexico;

> 1.5% come from Southern Europe (Portugal, Spain, Greece);

> 1.2% come from Turkey;

> 0.4% come from China;

> 0.3% come from Japan;

0.4% come from other regions and other countries.


> Sex and Age:

> 38.1% are female;

> 61.9% are male;

> 74.1% are between the ages of 15 and 40;

> 15.4% are under age 15;

10.5% are over age 40.


> Occupations by major categories:

> 35.9% have no occupation–this includes children;

> 26.6% are general laborers;

> 13.6% are skilled craft workers;

> 11.3% are domestic workers;

> 8.5% are farmers;

> 1.8% are commercial workers;

> 0.7% are professional workers;

> the remaining 1.6% have miscellaneous occupations.


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 108 other followers