Give Us Bread and Give Us Roses Too

The year 1912 begins with one of the coldest winters in the whole of the 20th century. In the United States it is a presidential election year. A Republican, William Taft, age 55, occupies the White House. However, his renomination seems not to be a certainty. Liberals in the party want “Fighting Bob” LaFollette, senator from Wisconsin, age 56 and well-known progressive reformer, to head the ticket. Former President Theodore Roosevelt, age 54, decides he wants to be back in political life. In the Democratic Party, the Speaker of the House, Champ Clark of Missouri, age 62, seems to have a strong early lead. However, the governor of New Jersey and former president of Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson, age 55, is poised to challenge Clark. William Jennings Bryan, age 52,who has been the standard bearer three times before and lost each time, most recently in 1908, is an outside possibility but could be a deal maker at the upcoming Democratic convention.

People’s movements are steaming along in places around the globe. China ends centuries of monarchy and creates a republic. Violent civil war rocks Ecuador. V I Lenin and the Bolsheviks bolt the main Russian socialist movement. In South Africa, Africans establish the African National Congress (“ANC”). The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (“NAACP”) is taking root and raising money even while the violence of lynching continues unabated. American women in the suffrage campaign debate the degree of political involvement which will help their cause. And workers in many places struggle for better wages and hours and safer conditions, from Australia to Portugal to England to Lawrence, Massachusetts where the newly formed International Workers of the World (“IWW”–organized in Chicago in 1905) enters the fray.

The powers do not hesitate to throw their weight around. The Russians intervene in Persia’s affairs. The Italians are fighting the Ottoman Turks as Italy tries to seize Libya (with the silent consent of the French). The United States sends its armed forces to China and to Ecuador to protect its business interests. On a more positive note, many major powers make a treaty commitment for the first time ever to police drug trafficking and legitimate medicinal drug trade.

A race by competing teams of explorers to reach the South Pole leads to great victory and painful defeat. A Wall Street crook fools a president. The widow of a famous writer is honored by the Czar of all the Russias. A famous American attorney himself needs a lawyer. People who will shape the 20th Century, both for good and ill, are born while notable 19th Century contributors die.

In the midst of record cold in the United States and Canada the year is of to quite a start.


January 1–Monday– Nanjing, China– Following three months of fighting and turmoil, leaders of fifteen of the country’s twenty-four provinces elect Sun Yat-sen, 45 years old, as provisional president of the new Republic of China. This marks the beginning of the end of over 2,000 years of imperial rule and the end of the power of the Quing dynasty which has ruled since 1644. Although Sun’s supporters control most of southern China, Yuan Shih-kai retains power in the north as the chief of the Imperial army in Beijing.

Dr Sun Yat-sen

January 1–Monday– Ambala, Punjab Province, India–Birth of Kim Philby who will become notorious as a spy for the Soviet Union. His father is Harry St John Philby, an author, explorer and British civil servant.

 January 1– Monday– Toronto, Canada–In municipal elections, Mayor George R Geary, facing no opponents, wins reelection by acclamation. Two incumbent members of the Board of Control are defeated. Noted Liberal Frank Spence loses his seat but is replaced by fellow Liberal Jesse McCarthy. J. J. Ward, considered a representative of labor also loses his seat.

 January 1–Monday– New York City– The NAACP, founded three years ago, issues its second annual report. The report lists active chapters in Boston and Chicago as well as here and receipts of $10,317.43 for the eight months ending in December, 1911. [That equals approximately $244,000 in current purchasing power.]

 January 2–Tuesday– Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada– Birth of Barbara Pentland, composer, musician and educator.

 January 2–Tuesday– Tabriz, Persia– With 4,000 Russian troops occupying the city to protect Russian interests, the Russian authorities execute eight Persian leaders who had supported the Constitutional Revolution between 1905 and 1907. Other such leaders had fled the city.

 January 2–Tuesday– New York City– Alfred D’Orsay Tennyson Dickens, age 66, son and biographer of the famous author Charles Dickens, dies during a lecture tour of the United States.

 January 3– Wednesday– Antarctica– The British explorer Robert Falcon Scott, determined to be the first to reach the South Pole, sets out from his base camp, taking four men with him and leaving three men at the base, even though the five headed for the Pole have supplies sufficient for a team of four men.


Robert Scott and members of his team

January 3–Wednesday– Canada–The Canadian Pacific Railway expands operations by leasing the Dominion Atlantic Railway in Nova Scotia.

 January 3– Wednesday– Disraeli, Quebec, Canada– Birth of Louise Marguerite Renaude Lapointe, one of the first Canadian women to build a career in journalism and who will serve as a senator from 1971 to 1987.

 January 4– Thursday– Columbus, Ohio– Wind velocity is measured at 50 mph.

 January 5–Friday– Prague, Austro-Hungarian Empire–At the International Party Conference, Vladimir Ilich Lenin and the Bolshevik Party break away from the rest of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party.

 January 5– Friday–Nanjing, China– Dr. Sun Yat-sen issues the “Manifesto from the Republic of China to All Friendly Nations,” signaling a major change in Chinese foreign policy with a promise to end the isolationism of the Manchu Emperors and “to rejoin China with the international community.” On the same day, he meets with woman’s suffrage activist Lin Zongsu and pledges to allow women the right to vote in the new republic.

 January 5–Friday– Melbourne, Victoria, Australia– Birth of Doris Jessie Carter, athlete who in the 1936 Olympics in Berlin will become the first Australian woman to make it into the Olympic finals.

 January 5–Friday– New York City– After a year of peace, new gang violence erupts in the city’s Chinatown as the vice-president of the Hip Sing Tong is killed in a shootout at a gambling hall.

 January 6– Saturday– New Mexico is admitted as the 47th state in the Union.

 January 6–Saturday– Deerfield, Michigan– Birth of Amos Kairouz a/k/a Danny Thomas, American comedian, television actor, and founder of St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. His parents are immigrants from Lebanon.

 January 6– Saturday– Frankfurt, Germany– At a meeting of the Geological Association of Germany, Alfred Wegener first presents the theory of continental drift, reading his paper, “Die Herausbildung der Grossformen der Erdinde (Kontinente und Ozeane) auf geophysikalischer Grundlage” (“The geophysical basis of the evolution of large-scale features of the earth’s crust”).

 January 6–Saturday– Bordeaux, France–Birth of Jacques Ellul, philosopher, sociologist, law professor and Christian anarchist.

 January 6–Saturday– Sydney, Australia–The first aircraft crash in the country occurs between Mount Druitt and Rooty Hill.

 January 7– Sunday– The Red Sea outside of Kunfida (now Al Qunfudhah in Saudi Arabia)– Seven Turkish gunboats are sunk by three Italian warships as hostilities begun last September continue.

 January 7– Sunday– Tehran, Persia– The American businessman W Morgan Shuster resigns as Treasurer-General of Persia, bringing to an end to Russia’s military intervention in Persia. In return for his resignation, the Russians guarantee safe passage through occupied territory for Shuster and his family.

 January 7–Sunday– Westfied, New Jersey– Birth of Charles Addams, cartoonist.

 January 7– Sunday– Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England– Dr. Sophia Louisa Jex-Blake, an English physician, teacher and feminist, dies two weeks away from her 72nd birthday. She was one of the first women to practice medicine in the United Kingdom, a leading campaigner for medical education for women and involved in founding two medical schools for women, one in London and the other in Edinburgh, where she also started a women’s hospital.

Dr Sophia Jex-Blake


January 8– Monday– Bloemfontein, South Africa–John Dube, Pixley ka Isaka Seme and Sol Plaatiealong with a number of the chiefs of indigenous peoples, people’s representatives, and church representatives form the African National Congress [the ANC] to bring all Africans together to work for liberation and freedom. From its inception the ANC represents both traditional and modern elements, from tribal chiefs to church and community bodies and educated black professionals, though women will only be admitted as affiliate members and only after 1930.

 January 8– Monday– Port Maitland, Nova Scotia, Canada– Birth of Lawrence Walsh, U.S. federal prosecutor who will gain notoriety during his investigation the Iran-Contra affair.

 January 8– Monday– Santurce, Puerto Rico– Birth of Jose Ferrer, film star and director.

 January 8– Monday– Washington, D. C.– The United States Monetary Commission presents its plan to Congress to establish what will become the Federal Reserve System.

 January 9– Tuesday– Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania– The National Weather Service reports a maximum wind velocity of 56 mph.

 January 9– Tuesday– New York City–The seven story Equitable Building, New York City’s first skyscraper, completed in 1870, is destroyed by a fast moving early morning fire. The offices of three of the nation’s largest financial institutions, including Equitable Life, and those of many law firms, are destroyed. Fireproof vaults protect several billion dollars of securities, stocks and bonds from destruction. Had the fire occurred later in the day, the city would have seen loss of life as it did in the Triangle Shirtwaist fire in March of last year. Urban fire departments remain ill-prepared to fight fires in tall buildings.

 January 9– Tuesday– Washington, D.C.– The Democratic National Committee announces that this year’s presidential nominating convention will be held in Baltimore beginning on June 25.

 January10– Wednesday– River Medway, England–Lieutenant Commander Charles Samson successfully takes off in an airplane from a platform constructed over the deck of battleship HMS Africa moored here. It is the United Kingdom’s first such takeoff by an airplane from a ship.

 January 11–Thursday– Lawrence, Massachusetts–Women weavers, mostly immigrants, at Everett Cotton Mills realize that the company has reduced their pay by 32 cents and they stop their looms and leave the mill, shouting “short pay, short pay!” and thereby begin what will become know as “the Bread and Roses strike.” [The women earn a little less than $9.00 a week for nearly 60 hours of work. This equals about $209 in current purchasing value.]

 January 11–Thursday– The Black Sea– The Russian passenger steamer Russ, on its way to Odessa, sinks with 172 people on board. Among the dead is the Czar’s new Consul General, Carl Anseff, and his family.

January 12– Friday– Germany– The first round of the German parliamentary election is held today with 208 seats in the Reichstag at stake.

 January 12– Friday– London, England– The General Post Office of the British government takes complete control of the national telephone system, leaving only the United States as the sole major industrialized nation in which the network is privately owned.

 January 12–Friday– Lawrence, Massachusetts–Almost 10,00 workers in area textile plants walk out on strike as thousands more join the 1750 who walked out yesterday. At the Washington Mills, the workers turn off the power, cut belts on machines and break light bulbs as they walk out. Half of the strikers are women.

 January 12–Friday– Washta, Iowa– In the midst of one of coldest winters on record in the United States, the lowest temperature ever measured in the state is reached at -47°F, while in Pipestone, Minnesota, a low record is set -40°F. In Duluth, Minnesota, the temperature has averaged -19°F since New Year’s Day.

 January 13–Saturday– New York City– Speaking at Bryant Hall, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, the I.W.W. organizer, encourages striking waiters to refuse tip-taking and instead to demand a living wage from the hotel and restaurant proprietors. The idea provokes considerable debate among the strikers, many of whom are immigrants, and the final vote is unanimous against accepting gratuities.

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn


January 13– Saturday– Lawrence, Massachusetts– The Evening Tribune reports that “It is felt that the worst uprising in the city has reached its climax and that the trouble will now gradually simmer down to normal conditions.”

 January 13–Saturday– Oakland, Maryland– As a cold wave sweeps the Atlantic states, Maryland measures its lowest temperature ever, -40°F.

 January 13–Saturday– Bangkok, Siam– A group of seven army officers, dissatisfied with the reign of the new King Rama VI, in the second year of his reign, and with his absolutist regime, lavish life style and his favoritism toward his royal guards, decide to overthrow the King and begin to plot a palace coup.

 January 14–Sunday– Shanghai, China– Tao Chengzhang, a Chinese revolutionary who criticized Sun Yat-sen, is murdered in his bed in the Sainte-Marie Hospital.

 January 14–Sunday– Wahoo, Nebraska– Birth of Tillie Lerner Olsen, author and feminist.

 January 14– Sunday– Waterford, Virginia– Outside of town, Mrs Charlton Chamberlin, a farm wife, records in her diary that this morning the low temperature stood at -25°F, in the barn her horses are covered with frost and in her cellar even a layer of heavy blankets has not kept her apples from freezing.

 January 15– Monday– Ecuador–The battleship USS Maryland arrives to protect American interests during the violence of the civil war..

 January 15– Monday– Paris, France– Birth of Michael Jean-Pierre Debre who will serve in the French Resistance during the Second World War and as the first Prime Minister of the Fifth French Republic from 1959 to 1962.

 January 15– Monday– Toronto, Canada– The harbor is frozen solid with no ship traffic able to move.

 January 15– Monday– Washington, D.C.– The Senate votes 58-8 to discuss arbitration treaties publicly rather than in closed sessions. Peace advocates see this as a step forward.

 January 15– Monday– Lawrence, Massachusetts–Authorities arrest 36 strikers for throwing snowballs at police officers and militiamen. Organizers of the IWW establish twenty-four hours a day picketing of the mills. The Evening Tribune reports that “Authorities have the situation well in hand.”

State militia confront unarmed strikers--Lawrence, Massachusetts


January 15– Monday– Boston, Massachusetts– The governor orders five additional companies of state militia to Lawrence “to suppress the rioting, to preserve order and to protect property.”

 January 16–Tuesday– Ankara, Turkey– The Sultan Abdul Hamid II on his own initiative dissolves the Turkish Chamber of Deputies. Engaged in an expensive and bloody war with Italy since the end of September, 1911, attempting to repel the Italian invasion of Libya, an Ottoman province, the Sultan appears angry and frustrated with the Chamber.

 January 16–Tuesday– Beijing, China– An attempt is made on the life of Yuan Shih-kai. Three bombs are thrown at him as he returns from an audience at the Imperial Palace. Yuan is unhurt, but twenty people around him are injured.

 January 16–Tuesday– Antarctica– As the British Antarctic Expedition approaches the South Pole, Captain Robert Scott writes in his journal that the party discovered “the remains of a camp; sledge tracks and ski tracks going and coming and the clear trace of dogs’ paws- many dogs. This told us the whole story. The Norwegians have forestalled us and are first at the Pole.”

 January 17–Wednesday– Antarctica–British polar explorer Robert F Scott and a team of four become the second expeditionary group to reach the South Pole as they find with certainty that the Norwegian Ronald Amundsen and his team reached the goal before them. Scott writes in his journal, “The Pole. Yes, but under very different circumstances from those expected. We have had a horrible day . . . . Great God! this is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have laboured to it without the reward of priority. Well, it is something to have got here. . . . Now for the run home and a desperate struggle. I wonder if we can do it.”

 January 17– Wednesday– Lawrence, Massachusetts– At the train station about 3000 strikers and supporters cheer the arrival of “Smiling Joe” Ettor, 26 years old and well known labor organizer and IWW activist.

Smiling Joe Ettor in the center


January 18–Thursday– Brisbane, Queensland, Australia– Members of the Australian Tramway Employees Association are dismissed from their jobs when they wear union badges to work. Although the Brisbane tramways are owned by the General Electric Company of the United Kingdom, they are managed by Joseph Stillman Badger, an American, who is responsible for the firing of these workers. Later he will refuse to negotiate with the Queensland main union body, the Australian Labour Federation. The terminated workers and supporters march to Brisbane Trades Hall where a meeting is held. In the evening 10,000 people gather in Market Square to protest the company’s action.

 January 18– Thursday– Yaguachi, Ecuador– Over 1,000 people are killed in fighting between troops from the Quito national government and the Guayaquil rebel government.

 January 18– Thursday– Roanne, France– Birth of David Rousset, writer and political activist who will survive the Buchenwald concentration camp during the Second World War.

 January 18–Thursday– Tientsin, China– American troops occupy the city to protect American interests. The United States is concerned about political instability in China.

 January 18– Thursday– London, England– The British Miners’ Federation releases the final tally on a strike vote with 445,801 in favor and 115,921 opposed. The strike, aimed at securing a minimum wage for coal miners, is scheduled begin on March 1.

January 18– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– Acting with the assurances of several U S Army doctors that the prisoner is terminally ill with Bright’s disease and will soon die if he remains in prison, President Taft pardons Charles W Morse. Morse is a 55 year old Wall Street speculator who has served only one year of a 15 year sentence for violations of federal banking laws. [Upon his release from the federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, Morse immediately departs for a health spa in Europe. Later it will be discovered that Morse faked his symptoms by drinking soapy water combined with some chemicals. He will return to the United States, re-engage in questionable business activity and only die in 1933.]

 January 19– Friday– New York City– The National Weather Service reports a maximum wind velocity of 52 mph.

 January 19– Friday– Saint Petersburg, Russia– Birth of Leonid Kantorovich, mathematician who will win the Nobel Prize in economics in 1975.

 January 19– Friday– Antarctica– Exhausted, saddened and with greatly limited supplies, Robert Scott and his four fellow explorers set off on the 900 mile journey northward to return to their base.

 January 20– Saturday– Germany– The second round of Reichstag elections begins with 77 seats at stake.

 January 20–Saturday– Lawrence, Massachusetts– Police detectives find a stash of dynamite in an empty room in back of Marad Dye Works and arrest seven people, two of them women.

 January 21– Sunday– Neisse, Germany (now Nysa, Poland)– Birth of Konrad Emil Bloch, biochemist who will win the 1964 Nobel Prize in medicine.

 January 21–Sunday– New York City– The New York Herald begins presenting in weekly serial form Joseph Conrad’s novel, Chance, which will run for nine weeks and brings Conrad some significant income.

 January 22– Monday– Hamilton, Georgia–A white mob lynches three black men and one black woman.

 January 22– Monday– Key West, Florida– The first passenger train on the newly completed Florida Overseas Railroad arrives from Palm Beach with the railroad’s owner, Henry Morrison Flagler, age 82, among the riders. He tells a cheering crowd of 10,000 people that “Now I can die happy. My dream is fulfilled.” The project to connect the islands of the Florida Keys has taken six years to lay a 169 miles of track, creating landfills and building bridges as it moved along. Flagler, who has spent most of his life and over $50,000,000 developing Florida, financed the project himself. [He will die in May of 1913 and the railroad will go out of business in 1935.]

 January 22– Monday– Lawrence, Massachusetts–Almost 22,000 workers are now on strike. Business in town is at a standstill.

 January 22– Monday– Nanjing, China– Sun Yat-sen and Yuan Shih-kai complete negotiations on the unification of the Republic of China, with Dr. Sun agreeing to yield the presidency to Yuan upon the abdication of the emperor.

 January 23–Tuesday– The Hague, The Netherlands– For the first time ever, a number of countries sign a treaty to control drug trade. The International Opium Convention, signed by China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Russia, Siam, the United States and the United Kingdom, provides that the signatories “shall use their best endeavors to control, or to cause to be controlled, all persons manufacturing, importing, selling, distributing, and exporting morphine, cocaine, and their respective salts, as well as the buildings in which these persons carry such an industry or trade.” Other countries are invited to agree to the terms later.

 January 24– Wednesday– North Head, Washington– Maximum wind velocity reaches 72 mph.

 January 24– Wednesday– Lawrence, Massachusetts– At the train station thousands of strikers, their families and supporters cheer the arrival of “Big Bill” Haywood, age 42 and well known labor organizer and IWW activist. In a speech before Haywood’s arrival Joseph Ettor warns the strikers to beware of Pinkerton detectives who may act as agent provocateurs to discredit the workers.

 January 25– Thursday– Guayaquil, Ecuador– General Pedro Montero, who had been proclaimed President of Ecuador on December 29, 1911, by rebelling Ecuadorian troops, is sentenced to 16 years in prison. When the sentence is announced, the crowd outside the courthouse nosily protests that the sentence is too light. A number of people rush in, shoot Montero to death, and carry his corpse outside, where others behead and then burn the body.

 January 25–Thursday– Germany– Voting in elections for the Reichstag concludes today with the Socialists having the largest number of seats, winning 100, and the Radical and National Liberal parties having won 44 and 47, respectively, and the (Catholic) Centre Party taking 91 seats. The results make possible a majority coalition of groups hostile to or ambivalent about the ruling elites of the German Empire; however, distrust and in-fighting among liberals and progressives will, for the most part, leave the government of Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg free to do as it wishes.

 January 25–Thursday– Bay of Whales, Antarctica– The Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen and his team of four men arrive back at their base, along with eleven surviving dogs. They started with 52 sled dogs.

 January 26–Friday– Beijing, China– A group of 47 generals and commanders of the Imperial Army, all of whom had pledged their allegiance to the monarchy earlier in this month, sign a petition to the Emperor and the regent, asking that the dynasty give way to a republic under Yuan Shih-kai.

 January 27– Saturday– Lawrence, Massachusetts– Benoit Clothing Company, a local store, runs advertisements pledging 10% of each days sales to be given to relief of the strikers.

 January 28–Sunday– Newark, New Jersey– Birth of Sidney Lens, author, labor organizer and political activist.

 January 28–Sunday– Nanjing, China– The Lin-shih ts’an-i-yuan, also known as the Nanking Assembly and the first legislature for the Republic of China, convenes with representatives from all of the provinces.

 January 28– Sunday– Quito, Ecuador– A mob storms the prison where former President Eloy Alfaro and his brothers Flavio and Medardo are being held as prisoners of war since their capture six days ago, and lynches them.

 January 28–Sunday– Cody, Wyoming–Birth of Jackson Pollock, American abstract expressionist painter.

 January 29– Monday– Los Angeles, California– Attorney Clarence Darrow is indicted by a grand jury on charges of attempted bribery of a juror in the case of the McNamara brothers, James and John, who were on trial eight weeks ago for the bombing of the Los Angeles Times in October of 1910.

Clarence Darrow


January 29– Monday– Chicago, Illinois– At a meeting of the “No Vote, No Tax League”–a women’s tax resistance group–an intense debate begins when Miss Belle Squire and Dr Cornelia De Bey urge the group to endorse Teddy Roosevelt for President of the United States. Dr De Bay declares that “When he sees that votes for women is a winning issue he will embrace it.” However, the proposal is defeated by a 2-to1 margin.

Dr Cornelia De Bey


January 29– Monday– Pierce City, Missouri– Birth of Martha Wright Griffiths, lawyer and judge. She will become the first woman elected to the United States Congress from Michigan as a member of the Democratic Party and the first woman to serve on the powerful House Committee on Ways and Means. She will also be the person most responsible for including the prohibition of sex discrimination under Title VII in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and will finish her distinguished career becoming the first woman elected as Lieutenant Governor of Michigan.

Representative Martha Griffiths


January 29– Monday– Lawrence, Massachusetts–Police and strikers clash. Annie Lo Pizza, a striker, is shot and killed. The Evening Tribune opines that while strikers appear more confident than ever, “the chaos which prevailed at the early stages of the strike has returned and it seems as if drastic efforts would be necessary to once again restore order. It is possible that the city will be placed under martial law.” In response to the threats of the mayor and business owners, Joseph Ettor declares, “Fine! We will win the strike even if they erect scaffolds on the streets.”

 January 29– Monday– Lisbon, Portugal– A general strike cripples the city as newspapers, stores and theaters are closed and no streetcars run. The government blames strikers for several bombings.

 January 30– Tuesday– New York City–Birth of Barbara Tuchman, historian.

 January 30–Tuesday– Chicago, Illinois–In an interview with the Evening Post, former President Theodore Roosevelt goes on record as saying that he would accept nomination for the presidency, though he is not actively seek a return to the White House. The 53 year old Roosevelt has been hunting big game in Africa and lecturing in Europe since leaving office in March of 1909 but is beginning to drift apart from his old friend President Taft.


White House portrait of Roosevelt, 1903

January 30–Tuesday– Lawrence, Massachusetts–Soldiers bayonet and kill a 16 year old boy who is not a striker. Also, Joseph Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti, IWW labor organizers, are arrested and charged as “accessories” in the murder of Annie Lo Pizza.

 January 30–Tuesday– Washington, D. C.– Mrs Lillian M N Stevens, National President of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, and Mrs Mary Harris Armour, of the Georgia WCTU, testify before the Senate Judiciary Committee and encourage the passage of a prohibition amendment to the federal constitution.

 January 30– Tuesday– Brisbane, Queensland, Australia– The members of all the trade unions in the city go out on a general strike not just for the right to wear a badge but for the more basic right to join a union.

 January 30– Tuesday– Antarctica– Roald Amundsen and the crew of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition leave Antarctica on board the ship Fram, bound for Buenos Aires, Argentina..

 January 30–Tuesday– London, England– Florence St. John, born Margaret Florence Greig, singer and actress, dies at age 56. Her career included burlesque, music halls, comedy, operettas and opera.

 January 30–Tuesday– St Petersburg, Russia– Czar Nicholas II grants a pension of 10,000 roubles per year to Sophia Tolstoy, the widow of Count Leo Tolstoy who died fourteen months ago. [This equaled about $5000 American at the time and about $116,000 in contemporary (2011) buying power.]


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