Monthly Archives: June 2012

What Passingbells~July, 1862~the first week

Just a bit more than a half-century after the American Civil War, the madness of war envelops most of the world. A young English officer writes poetry about the Western Front.

Anthem For Doomed Youth

What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?

Only the monstrous anger of the guns.

Only the stuttering rifles’ rapid rattle

Can patter out their hasty orisons.

No mockeries now for them; no prayers nor bells;

Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs,

The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells;

And bugles calling for them from sad shires.

What candles may be held to speed them all?

Not in the hands of boys, but in their eyes

Shall shine the holy glimmers of good-byes.

The pallor of girls’ brows shall be their pall;

Their flowers the tenderness of patient minds,

And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds.

– Wilfred Owen

In July of 1862 more than 1600 soldiers, Union and Confederate, will be killed or mortally wounded, on average more than 52 deaths per day. Injured will be more than 3 times that number. And July merely serves as a prelude to the atrocious losses coming in August and September.

 As the month begins, Confederate forces have ended the string of Union victories. In Virginia, Jackson and Lee have made names for themselves and raised Southern hopes. In Mississippi, Tennessee and South Carolina, rebels have stalemated or repulsed Yankee advances, despite the fact that as the month begins, Union forces have more than 650,000 soldiers and sailors under arms while the Confederacy has approximately 170,000 fighters under arms.

 Women in the United States mourn dead young soldiers and worry about sons and husbands far from home. Polish immigrant Dr Maria Zakrzewska pioneers the work of women in medicine as she opens a teaching hospital in Boston. A mourning Queen Victoria, still deeply grieving the December death of her husband, quietly marries off her second daughter. The brutal murder of a housemaid in Scotland creates a sensation. A male author offers a book telling women all that they need to know about motherhood and child care. An English author creates a story to amuse a ten year old named Alice.

 In the midst of the bloodshed in Virginia and the failure of Union forces to take Richmond, General McClellan advises President Lincoln on how to run the war and the government while General Lee advises President Davis that his forces are now too weak to push McClellan back further. A visionary President Lincoln signs legislation establishing a transcontinental railroad and making provision for land grant colleges, both of which will have far-reaching effects on an eventually reunited nation.

 The Independence Day celebrations cause George Templeton Strong to worry afresh about European intervention, William Lloyd Garrison and others to mourn rather than celebrate and the eloquent Frederick Douglass to declare that the war is a struggle between slavery and freedom and to again chastise the Federal government for failing to use eager black volunteers.

 In Russia the Tsar grants some freedom of the press to Jews. In New Zealand the Parliament meets in the new capital


July– Rochester, New York– In Douglass’ Monthly, Frederick Douglass writes of the continued refusal of the Federal government to utilize the services of willing black people. “Though thus repelled and insulted, the Negro persists in his devotion to the Government, and will serve it with a pickaxe if he cannot with a pistol, a spade if he cannot with a sword. In all this the Negro is wise. He can see what wise men have failed to see, that however tortuous and dark may be the present conduct of the Government, by the essential nature of things, this war is a war between slavery and freedom, that whether our rulers know it or not, wish it not, they are striking a blow for the destruction of slavery.”

Battle of Malvern Hill as depicted in Harpers Weekly

July 1– Tuesday– Malvern Hill, Virginia–In the culmination of the series of battles which began on June 25th and will be called “the Seven Days Campaign,” General Lee’s Confederate forces rout the Union troops under General McClellan and save Richmond. However, the fighting in these seven days costs the Confederacy 20,141 dead, wounded and missing while Federal casualties amount to 15,849. McClellan successfully withdraws and Lee decides no to pursue him.

July 1– Tuesday– Malvern Hill, Virginia– Yankee soldier Elisha Hunt Rhodes records his perception of today’s battle. “O the horrors of this day’s work, but at last we have stopped the Rebel advance, and instead of following us they are fleeing to Richmond. The battle of today is beyond description. The enemy advanced through fields of wheat . . . . Our gun boat threw shell over our heads and into the Rebel lines.” Today alone Federal casualties total 2100 and Confederate casualties total 5650.

 July 1– Tuesday– Washington, D.C.– President Lincoln signs into law a bill creating the Union Pacific Company which will receive federal money to build a railroad from Nebraska to Utah.


Dr Maria Zakrzewska

July 1– Tuesday– Boston, Massachusetts–Dr Maria Zakrzewska opens the New England Hospital for Women and Children.

 July 1– Booneville, Mississippi– Union troops under the command of 31 year old Colonel Philip Sheridan, a career officer determined to make a name for himself, defeat a Confederate force, losing only 1 dead while killing more than 60 Confederate soldiers.

 July 1– Tuesday– East Cowes, the Isle of Wight, Great Britain– In a private ceremony at Osborne House, the royal residence here, 19 year old Princess Alice, second daughter of Queen Victoria, marries Prince Ludwig of Hesse. Because the Queen is still in morning for her late husband, it is a very subdued affair.


Princess Alice, Queen Victoria’s second daughter

July 1– Tuesday– St Petersburg, Russia– Tsar Alexander II gives permission for Jewish people to publish books.

 July 2– Wednesday– New York City– George Templeton evaluates international relations. “Our European news is bad. France and England are itching to intervene and sustain the slave-breeding woman-floggers of Charleston and New Orleans and Richmond in their rebellion. I never expected much from France, but the political immorality of England, as revealed by her press, confounds me. I cannot understand or explain it. If her sense of national right and wrong be so utterly perverted as it seems, she will surely be punished before many generations have passed away.”

 July 2– Wednesday– Washington–President Lincoln signs into law the Morrill Land Grant Act which creates land-grant colleges to teach agricultural and mechanical sciences across the United States. He signs as well a law prohibiting polygamy in U S territories and a law requiring loyalty oaths from every government official.

 July 2– Wednesday– London, England– Birth of William Henry Bragg, English physicist, chemist and mathematician who will win the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics.

 July 3– Thursday– New York City– The New York Times reports that an elderly woman reputedly of 107 years of age was buried on Monday. She came from Monteith, Scotland, and had lived with her son in Philadelphia since 1800. “She was remarkably temperate, and up to within five years retained possession of all her faculties with the exception of her power of smelling.”

July 3– Thursday– Richmond, Virginia– John Jones, government clerk, reports on casualties. “Our wounded are now coming in fast, under the direction of the Ambulance Committee. . . . There are fifty hospitals in the city, fast filling with the sick and wounded. I have seen men in my office and walking in the streets, whosearms have been amputated within the last three days. The realization of a great victory seems to give them strength.”

July 3– Charleston, South Carolina– in her diary, Mary Chesnut records painful news of deaths and laments the war’s disruption of society. “Arrived at Mrs. McMahan’s at the wrong moment. Mrs. Bartow was reading to the stricken mother an account of the death of her son. The letter was written by a man who was standing by him when he was shot through the head. ‘My God!’ he said; that was all, and he fell dead. James Taylor was color-bearer. He was shot three times before he gave in. Then he said, as he handed the colors to the man next him, ‘You see I can’t stand it any longer,’ and dropped stone dead. He was only seventeen years old. . . . Have been reading The Potiphar Papers by Curtis. Can this be a picture of New York socially? If it were not for this horrid war, how nice it would be here. We might lead such a pleasant life. This is the most perfectly appointed establishment – such beautiful grounds, lowers, and fruits; indeed, all that heart could wish; such delightful dinners, such pleasant drives, such jolly talks, such charming people; but this horrid war poisons everything.” [ The Potiphar Papers by George W. Curtis, a New York writer, is a satire on fashionable society and published in 1853. Curtis is married to Anna Shaw, the sister of Robert Gould Shaw.]

July 4– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– On this 86th anniversary of American independence, the city celebrates with patriotic speeches, music programs, balloon rides, fireworks and a regatta on the Charles River. In the various boat races, the first prize of $75 is won by a Mr James Hammell, of Pittsburgh, in the single-scull category.

July 4– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts–The Liberator contains numerous comments about the national holiday. People ought to gather for the purpose “of recalling to the mind and impressing upon the heart of the people the great ‘self-evident truths, that all men are created equal.’” Another comment includes reference to the “four million of slaves yet to be emancipated.” As to “the most awful civil war that the world has ever seen . . . . Is it a day for boasting and revelry, or for sackcloth and ashes?”

July 4– Friday– Himrods Corners, New York– Frederick Douglass delivers a lengthy and brilliant Independence Day speech. In it, he declares, “This is already an old war The statesmanship at Washington with all its admitted wisdom and sagacity, utterly failed . . . to comprehend the nature and extent of this rebellion. Mr Lincoln and his Cabinet . . . have fought the rebels with the Olive branch. The people must teach them to fight them with the sword.” In the last part of the speech, Douglass returns to slavery as the cause of the war and complete abolition as the only way to end it. “This slavery begotten and slavery sustained, and slavery animated war, has now cost this nation more than a hundred thousand lives, and more than five hundred millions of treasure. . . . By urging upon the nation the necessity and duty of putting an end to slavery, you put an end to the war, and put an end to the cause of the war, and make any repetition of it impossible.”

July 4– Friday– Front Royal, Virginia– Robert Gould Shaw writes to his mother, talking at length about General Fremont’s resignation from the army. He reports that some officers believe “that there is a set of men in power who are bound to hunt down every prominent and popular anti-slavery man, and that Fremont’s difficulties are to be attributed to them. All the Western men . . . are in a great rage with government. . . . What we want is his [Fremont’s] ‘d__n the expense’ spirit, don’t you think so? If we only went in for sink or swim, we should finish the thing up.” He observes about McClellan’s recent defeat that “we can look for something exciting from England and France . . . if we have suffered such a defeat as is as present supposed.”

Lewis Carroll


July 4– Friday– Thames River, near Oxford, England–Charles Dodgson (a/k/a Lewis Carroll) entertains 10 year old Alice Liddell and her sisters on a boat trip from Oxford to Godstow by improvising the story that becomes Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.

July 5– Saturday– New York City– Harper’s Weekly carries and advertisement of interest to mothers. “JUST PUBLISHED—Price 50 cents. Free by mail on receipt of the price, “Advice to a Mother on the Management of Her Offspring in Infancy, Childhood, and Youth.” By Pye Henry Chavasse, M.D. This little volume answers over three hundred questions, which none but a mother would think of asking, concerning the management of children from birth till they arrive at the age of puberty. If we mistake not, the information conveyed covers all the cases that can, by any possibility, arise respecting the numerous ills that lie in wait for children. The book is written in a popular form, and cannot but prove acceptable to mothers and nurses.” [Price would equal about $11.50 today.]

 July 5– Saturday– Richmond, Virginia– General Lee advises President Davis that his forces are too reduced in number to again immediately engage General McClellan’s Federal troops. [Since June 1st the Confederate forces in Virginia have lost about 5200 killed and three times that number wounded.]

July 5– Saturday– Hilton Head, South Carolina– Union soldier Christian C Lobinger records the day’s beverage and meat. “Captain Templeton purchased a good portion of . . . Whiskey for the Company and I never saw whiskey drank that had such a good effect as on this occasion – the very medicine needed for the men under the circumstances (though I don’t approve of using it as a beverage) – W. H. Lewis and I . . . bought some roast turkey canned . . . so we had roast turkey for dinner– rather a luxury in the army and few soldiers can boast of eating the same.”

July 6– Sunday– New York City– George Templeton Strong evaluates the French government. “Louis Napoleon is tempted to intervene . . . and thinks he will secure recognition of his dynasty by active hostility to free institutions. It seems an unreasonable, impractical motive, not at all in the style of that most wily and wary potentate.”

July 7– Monday– Harrison’s Landing, Virginia– From his headquarters General McClellan sends a letter to President Lincoln, giving the President unsolicited advice on policy, particularly on the slavery question. “Neither confiscation of property, political executions of persons, territorial organization of States, or forcible abolition of slavery should be contemplated for a moment. In prosecuting the war all private property and unarmed persons should be strictly protected, subject only to the necessity of military operations. All private property taken for military use should be paid or receipted for; pillage and waste should be treated as high crimes; all unnecessary trespass sternly prohibited, and offensive demeanor by the military towards citizens promptly rebuked.”

July 7– Monday– near Richmond, Virginia– A young man serving under Stonewall Jackson writes to his mother. “I can’t comprehend the reason you give for secession that the North and the South did not love each other. With what cruel hatred do the most pious people of the North regard the Southern Rebels– ‘Rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft.’ The pious and highly conservative Dr. Engles . . . Consigns the South to Execration! Malignant fanaticism fills the best minds in the north. The Christians of the North are as much justifiable for Supporting this war as the pious Catholics were for supporting the Inquisition.”

July 7– Monday– Glasgow, Scotland– Upon returning home with his family from several days of holiday, John Fleming, a well-to-do and respected accountant, finds 35 year old Jess McPherson, a servant, murdered in her room. Her half-dressed body rests beside her bed, showing signs of being brutally attacked by someone using a cleaver. The case will quickly become a sensation in the British Isles and the United States.


Wellington, New Zealand~government buildings

July 7– Monday– Wellington, New Zealand– The Parliament meets here for the first time.


Streets Paved with Gold: Immigration and the Civil War, 1860 to 1865

Following the outbreak of the Great Famine in Ireland in 1845, the failure of the European revolutions of 1848 and the discovery of gold in California in 1849, the United States received waves of immigrants between 1845 and 1855. In 1860, as the United States went through a bitter and divisive election and began to splinter into disunion, immigration declined and then fell precipitously during 1861 and 1862. However, by 1863, the numbers rose significantly and through the end of the war, the country was again becoming a nation of immigrants.

German immigrants, mid-19th century

 Immigration in 1860:

>153,640 immigrants enter the United States:

> 35.4% come from the German states;

> 31.6% come from Ireland;

> 19.4% come from Great Britain;

> 3.6% come from China;

> 3.4% come from France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Switzerland combined;

> 2.9% come from Canada;

> 1.2% come Central and South America, including Mexico;

> 0.7% come from Spain, Portugal and Greece combined;

> 0.7% come from Italy;

> 0.5% come from Norway, Sweden and Denmark combined;

> 0.6% come other regions and other countries.

Sex and age:

> 41.4% are female;

> 74.5% are between the ages of 15 and 40;

> 15.9% are under age 15;

> 9.6% are over age 40

Occupations by general categories:

> 52.3% have no occupation– this includes children;

> 17.4% have general labor occupations;

> 12.1% have agricultural occupations;

> 10.8% have skilled craft occupations;

> 6.2% have commercial occupations;

> 0.8% have domestic work occupations;

> 0.4% have professional occupations.



Immigration in 1861:

> 91,918 immigrants enter the United States, a 40% reduction from the previous year:

> 34.4% come from the German states;

> 25.9% come from Ireland;

> 21.4% come from Great Britain;

> 8.2% come from China;

> 4.1% come from France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland combined;

> 2,2% come from Canada;

> 0.9% come from Italy;

> 0.9% come from Denmark, Sweden and Norway combined;

> 0.6% come from Central and South America, including Mexico;

> 0.5% come from Greece, Spain and Portugal combined;

> 0.9% come from other regions and other countries.

Sex and age:

> 42.9% are female;

> 72.3% are between the ages of 15 and 40;

> 16.8% are under age 15;

> 10.9% are over age 40.

Occupations by general categories:

> 53.9% have no occupation– this includes children;

> 17.2% have general labor occupations;

> 10.4% have agricultural occupations;

> 10.3% have skilled craft occupations;

> 6.8% have commercial occupations;

> 0.6% have domestic work occupations;

> 0.6% have professional occupations;

> 0.2% have miscellaneous occupations.


Immigrants arriving at port of Philadelphia


Immigration in 1862:

> 91,985 immigrants enter the United States:

> 30.0% come from the German states;

> 26.8% come from Great Britain;

> 25.4% come from Ireland;

> 4.8% come from France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Netherlands combined;

> 3.9% come from China;

> 3.6% come from Canada;

> 2.8% come from Sweden, Norway and Denmark combined;

> 0.8% come from Central and South America, excluding Mexico;

> 0.6% come from Italy;

> 0.5% come from Greece, Spain and Portugal combined;

> 0.2% come from Mexico;

> 0.2% come from the Austrian Empire;

> 0.1% come from Poland;

> 0.1% come from the Russian Empire;

> 0.2%% come from other regions and other countries.

> Sex and age:

> 41.6% are female;

> 73.0% are between 15 and 40 years of age;

> 18.0% are under age 15;

> 9.0% are over age 40.

> Occupations by major categories:

> 54.9% have no occupation–this includes children;

> 15.5% have general labor occupations;

> 10.5% have skilled craft occupations;

> 8.1% have agricultural occupations;

> 6.8% have commercial occupations;

> 3.2% have domestic work occupations;

> 0.7% have professional occupations;

> 0.3% have miscellaneous occupations


Irish immigrants serving in the Union Army attend Catholic mass


Immigration in 1863:

> 176,282 immigrants enter the United States this year, almost double last year’s number and despite the on-going war:

> 37.9% come from Great Britain;

> 31.7% come from Ireland;

> 18.8% come from Germany;

> 4.1% come from China;

> 2.0% come from Canada;

> 1.8% come from France, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland combined;

> 1.8% come from Sweden, Norway and Denmark combined;

> 0.6% come from Italy, Greece, Spain and Portugal combined;

> 0.4% come from Central & South America, including Mexico;

> 0.1% come from the Russian Empire, Poland and the Austrian Empire combined.

> 0.8% come from various other regions and countries.

Sex and age:

> 39.9% are female;

> 71.1% are between the ages of 15 and 40;

> 18.7% are under age 15;

> 10.2% are over age 40.

> Occupations by Major Groups:

> 49.6% have no occupation– this includes children;

> 23.1% have general labor occupations;

> 12.1% have skilled craft occupations;

> 6.2% have agricultural occupations;

> 4.6% have domestic work occupations;

> 3.8% have commercial occupations;

> 0.6% have professional occupations.


Immigration in 1864:

> 193,418 immigrants enter the United States, more than double the number of 1862 and despite the continuing Civil War:

> 32.8% come from Ireland;

> 29.6% come from Germany;

> 27.6% come from Great Britain;

> 2.9% come from France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland combined;

> 1.9% come from Canada;

> 1.5% come from China;

> 1.5% come from Sweden, Denmark and Norway combined;

> 0.9% come from Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Greece combined

> 0.5% come from Central and South America, including Mexico;

> 0.8% come from other regions and other countries.

> Sex and age:

> 40.6% are female;

> 68.5% are between the ages of 15 and 40;

> 18.9% are under age 15;

> 12.6% are over age 40.

> Occupations by major categories:

> 48.1% have no occupation–this includes children;

> 21.7% have general labor occupations;

> 11.9% have skilled craft occupations;

> 7.0% have domestic work occupations;

> 6.2% have agricultural occupations;

> 4.3% have commercial occupations;

> 0.5% have professional occupations;

> 0.3% have miscellaneous occupations.


Irish immigrants on the ship Mersey


Immigration in 1865:

> 248,120 immigrants enter the United States, better than 2.5 times the number of 1862:

> 33.6% come from Germany;

> 33.2% come from Great Britain;

> 11.9% come from Ireland;

> 8.7% come from Canada;

> 3.2% come from France, Switzerland, Belgium, and the Netherlands combined;

> 2.9% come from Sweden, Norway and Denmark combined;

> 1.2% come from China;

> 0.8% come from Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Greece combined;

> 0.5% come from Central and South America, including Mexico;

> 0.5% come from the Russian Empire, Poland, and Austrian Empire combined;

> 3.5% come from other regions and other countries or their country of origin was not properly reported by immigration authorities.

> Sex and age:

> 40.1% are female;

> 61.1% are between the ages of 15 and 40;

> 22.7% are over age 40;

> 16.2% are under age 15.

> Occupations by major categories:

> 56.2% have no occupation–this includes children;

> 15.7% have general labor occupations;

> 11.7% have skilled craft occupations;

> 7.0% have agricultural occupations;

> 4.4% have commercial occupations;

> 3.2% have domestic work occupations;

> 0.6% have professional occupations;

> 1.2% have miscellaneous occupations.



Who Are These Americans? The Census of 1860

Who are these Americans?

As the reader watches the war relentlessly grind on through the summer of 1862, she may ask herself, “Who are these Americans, engaging in this blood bath?” This is the first of an occasional series looking at the United States and the people on the eve of and during the Civil War.

One of the best sources for a statistical profile is the census of 1860. The Constitution of the United States in Article One, Section 2, Sub-section 3 mandates the taking of the census. “The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct.”

Seal of the Census Bureau

Because Congress began meeting under the Constitution in 1789, the first census was undertaken in 1790 and subsequently every ten years.

According to the 1860 Census, the total population of the United States is 31,443,321 persons. Of the total population, there are 3,953,760 slaves and 487,970 free persons of color. There are 5,155,608 families in the country, of whom only 8% own slaves. Native Americans account for only 30,673 persons; however, this number includes only those who live in cities, towns or among white settlers. These persons are labeled “Civilized Indians.” The census estimates that there are 205,400 Native Americans who live in traditional fashion among their own nations. [There is no exact way to determine Native American population prior to European conquest but several reliable authors suggest that it may well have been 3 and 7 million in what would become the 48 contiguous states.]

About 13% of the total population were born outside of the United States.

Census Bureau Processing Center–mid nineteenth century

The median age is 19.4 years; 15.4% of the population is under age 5; 6.0% of the population is over age 60.

Women constitute 49.1% of the total population. For every 100 women between the ages of 20 and 40 there are 21.2 live births

Only 19.7% live in urban areas. Of those urban areas there only 2 with populations over 500,000; 1 with a population between 250,000 and 500,000; 6 with populations between 100,000 and 250,000; 7 with populations between 50,000 to 100,000; 19 with populations between 25,000 and 50,000 and 58 with populations between 10,000 to 25,000. On averaged there are 10.6 persons per square mile of territory.

The largest cities are:

New York, New York– 805,651

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– 585,529

Brooklyn, New York– 266,061

Baltimore, Maryland– 212,418

Boston, Massachusetts– 177,812

New Orleans, Louisiana– 168,675

Cincinnati, Ohio– 161,014

St Louis, Missouri– 150,773

Chicago, Illinois– 109,260

Buffalo, New York– 81,129

Newark, New Jersey– 71,914

Louisville, Kentucky– 68,033

Albany, New York– 62,367

Washington, D.C.– 61,122

San Francisco, California– 59,802

one of the questionaire pages from the 1860 census

The states which will join the Confederacy include Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. The border states of Kentucky and Missouri will fracture and for a time each will have two state governments–one claiming to be part of the Confederacy and one claiming to be part of the Union. The western part of Virginia will break away and come into the Union as the state of West Virginia.

In the states which will join the Confederacy, of the total population in each state, that of Alabama is 45% slave, of Arkansas 26% are slaves, in Florida 44% are slaves, likewise in Georgia 44% are slaves, in Louisiana 47% are slaves, in Mississippi 55% are slaves, in North Carolina 33% are slaves, in South Carolina 57% are slaves, in Virginia 31% are slaves, in Texas 30% are slaves and in Tennessee 25% are slaves.

map of slave distribution based on 1860 census

Likewise in these states, the white male population between the ages of 18 and 45 is Alabama– 99,967; Arkansas– 65,231; Florida– 15,739; Georgia– 111,005; Louisiana– 83,456; Mississippi– 70,295; North Carolina– 115,369; South Carolina– 55,046; Texas– 92,145; Tennessee– 159, 353; and Virginia– 196,587.

In the most populous states which will remain loyal to the Union, the white male population between the ages of 18 and 45 is New York– 796,881; Ohio– 459,534; Pennsylvania– 555,172; Indiana– 265,295; Illinois– 375,026; Massachusetts– 258,419; Michigan– 164,007; California– 169,975; Iowa– 139,316; Connecticut– 94,411.

There are in the nation 65 medical schools and 54,543 physicians; 8,132 nurses [predominantly men but not totally]; 5,606 dentists and 271 midwives [mostly likely there are more, often skilled women who serve their local communities, not always for pay and who would not report the work as an occupation].

Women volunteers with the Sanitary Commission

The 387 daily newspapers have a circulation reaching 1,480,000 readers. Newspapers, magazines, books, flyers and posters are generated by 23,166 printers. Mail service is provided by 28,498 post offices. Telegraph operators number 1,956. The fairly new occupation of “photographer” has 504 practitioners. There are 6,010 book binders and 1,861 booksellers and stationers.

Of the labor force,

– 6.2 million work in agriculture

– 1.9 million in manufacturing and construction

– 940,000 in domestic service

– 170,000 in mining

– 50,000 in forestry and fisheries

In addition to the millions who work in agriculture, providing food and drink to the growing population includes the work of 40,070 grocers; 30,103 butchers; 19,001 bakers; 13,263 bar keepers; 6,307 brewers; 6,293 confectioners; 2,551 distillers; 2,261 saloon keepers; 129 wine makers.

Mining yields $4,000,000 worth of gold [in period dollars] and 9,057,000 tons of bituminous coal.

California gold miner

Railroads operate 30,626 miles of track and employ 33,567 workers. Other transportation and related workers include 34,824 teamsters; 7,553 steamboatmen; 112,357 blacksmiths; 12,728 harness makers; 10,180 coach makers; 32,693 wheelwrights; 13,392 ship’s carpenters; 2,632 boat builders; 21,640 carters; 234 ferrymen; 67,360 mariners; 2,359 sail makers; 12,756 saddlers;

Keeping the nation clothed and groomed are 101,868 “tailors and tailoresses”; 90,198 seamstresses; 38,633 laundresses; 36,178 weavers; 25,723 milliners; 11,647 hatters; 11,140 barbers; 10,175 jewelers; 4,547 watch makers; 3,120 corset makers; 2,478 shoemakers; 761 shirt makers; 753 glovers; 444 ladies “hair workers”; 419 hoop skirt makers; 261 sewing machine operators.

college women in a biology class

In education, 62.0% of white males between the ages of 5 and 19 are enrolled in school and 57.2% of while females between the ages of 5 and 19 are enrolled in school being taught by 110,469 teachers. There are somewhere between 300 and 400 colleges. The census does not enumerate them until the 1870 census. In the antebellum period there are a number of so-called “ladies-seminaries” which sometimes function at the collegiate level and others which offer basically a high school level program and some which are what would later be called “finishing schools” where well-to-do young girls are taught manners and proper “lady-like” activities. [Of today’s colleges and universities, 182 were founded before 1861 and 161 of those began as church-related colleges. ]The 1860 census lists 2500 professors and 49,993 students. There are also 5,625 music teachers.

In religion, there are 1.7 million Methodists, 0.6 million Baptists and 0.3 million Presbyterians. Clergy of all faiths total 37,329.

Rev Charles Finney–one of the most popular preachers of the period. He considered slave-owning to be a sin and refused to preach in the antebellum South

Cigarette smoking grows in popularity; Virginia and North Carolina have a total of 348 factories producing cigarettes.

Business is carried out by 124,485 clerks without typewriters or photocopiers. Slave traders, referred to in the census as “Negro traders,” number 111. However, nationwide there are 1,348 auctioneers, of whom 31.9% live in slave holding states, some of whom certainly sold slaves periodically and in the slave holding states there are 33,085 “overseers.” In period terminology, this includes people who would later come to be called “job foreman” and other such titles. But in 1860 the term predominantly signifies overseers of slaves. Only 18,610 persons in the free states are listed under this job title.

Of note there are 33,103 lawyers in the entire country which equals approximately 1 lawyer for every 950 persons. [In 1990 it will be 1 lawyer for every 330 persons, higher in places like Washington, D.C. where it will be 1 lawyer for every 25 persons.]

young lawyer Lincoln

Fortune’s Favor~June, 1862~the fourth week

The month of June concludes with some of the worst fighting yet seen. However, by the beginning of July it will become clear that Lee has lifted the siege of the Richmond area. Lee and Jackson continue to grow in popularity with southerners. Union General Butler is increasingly unpopular with the people of Louisiana. Sarah Morgan compares the situation under Butler’s occupation to that of “the bitterness of slavery.”

Soldiers such as Elisha Hunt Rhodes begin to wonder about McClellan’s ability while some civilians in the North optimistically, but wrongly, expect part of McClellan’s army to be in Richmond. McClellan, unable to accept any responsibility for his own mistakes, blames the President for Confederate success. President Lincoln expresses his determination to pursue the war, calls for many more volunteers and demonstrates his wit with reporters. The North sees the formation of Union League clubs which will become politically important after the war.

The New York Times compares the adventure of Napoleon III in Mexico to that of Napoleon Bonaparte in Russia in 1812 and predicts the same result.


McClellan versus Lee

June 24– Tuesday– Jersey City, New Jersey– When asked by reporters why he went to West Point to see the elderly General Winfield Scott, President Lincoln replies, “Now, I can only remark that it had nothing whatever to do with making or unmaking any general in the country. The Secretary of War, you know, holds a pretty tight rein on the press, so that they shall not tell more than they ought to; and I’m afraid that if I blab too much, he might draw a tight rein on me.”

 June 24– Tuesday– Richmond, Virginia– In his diary government clerk John B Jones praises Lee and Jackson. “This is the harbinger of success, and I predict acareer of glory for Lee, and for our country! There are some vaguerumors about the approach of Stonewall Jackson’s army; but no one knowsanything about it, and but few believe it. Recent Northern papers say he is approaching Winchester, and I see they are intrenching in the valley to guard against his terrible blows. This is capital!”

 June 25– Wednesday– East of Richmond, Virginia– Federal and Confederate forces engage in the first day of fighting in what will be called “The Seven Days Campaign.” Today’s exchange takes the lives of 51 Union soldiers and 40 rebel soldiers, relatively small loss compared to what is coming.

 June 25– Wednesday– Pekin, Illinois– The first Union League, a club of upper middle class men interested in promoting loyalty to the Union cause, is formed.

 June 26– Thursday– Mechanicsville, Virginia– In the second day of battle around the Richmond area, a Confederate attack is repelled by Union forces. The Confederates losses of dead, wounded and missing total 1484 compared to the Federal total of 361 dead, wounded and missing.


Confederate hospital during this campaign

June 26– Thursday– Richmond, Virginia– Citizens hear canon fire for much of the day. John B Jones takes this as a sure sign of Confederate victory. “The business is upon earth, where many a Yankee will breathe his last this night! McClellan must be thunderstruck at this unexpected opening of a decisive battle. Our own people, and even our own general officers, except those who were to participate in the attack, were uninformed of Lee’s grand purpose, until the booming of Jackson’s guns were heard far on our left.”

 June 27– Friday– New York City– The New York Times reports that the news of the French defeat in Mexico on May 5th comes slowly into Europe and ponders how France will respond. “We notice in some of the European journals, rumors, ill-defined, it is true, that the French Emperor is accumulating sea transportation for an immense military force, cavalry and infantry. We also notice that the Paris correspondent of the Independance Belge states that the development of Napoleon’s designs will soon startle the world. . . . We cannot believe, under the circumstances, that so far as France is concerned, all is to settle down into a peaceful calm. And if the storm does burst forth, will its force be directed against Mexico, England or the United States; or, in favor of the Southern Confederacy, as some venture to whisper? In any event, we believe that the evil star of Napoleon III. like that of his uncle when he went to Moscow, has risen, and will, in the regular order of nature, culminate at no distant day.”


President Lincoln

June 27– Friday– Washington, D.C.– President Lincoln accepts General Fremont’s resignation.

 June 27– Friday– Gaines Mill, Virginia– General Lee’s forces successfully relieve the Union pressure on Richmond in a bloody battle that causes General McClellan to withdraw. Federal casualties amount to 6,837 killed, injured and missing while Lee’s total approximately 8,750. As the day ends the Union army begins to move back toward the James River although McClellan held back about half of his force, keeping them in reserve rather than attempting to blunt or counter Lee’s attack.

 June 27– Friday– Whitby, Ontario, Canada– Birth of Georgina May Campbell who as May Irwin will become an actress, singer and popular vaudeville star.


May Irwin in a stage costume

June 28– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– President Lincoln sends a private letter to Secretary of State Seward about the state of the war and his intentions. “I expect to maintain this contest until successful, or till I die, or am conquered, or my term expires, or Congress or the country forsakes me.”

 June 28– Saturday– Union army headquarters near the James River, Virginia– General McClellan sends a nasty telegram to President Lincoln in which he blames his defeat yesterday on the Lincoln Administration because “my force was too small.” McClellan does not say anything about the 20,000 troops he kept in reserve.

artillery mounted on a flatcar which became more common as the war continued

June 29– Sunday– Savage Station, Virginia– General Robert E. Lee changes the technology of warfare by mounting artillery on a railway car and having it pushed into combat by a locomotive on the Richmond and York River line.

 June 29– Sunday– Charles City Crossroads, Virginia– In disgust, Elisha Hunt Rhodes notes in his diary, “Well, the Grand Army is on the retreat. . . . General McClellan determined to raise the siege of Richmond and fall back to the James River.”


typical tent camp

June 29– Sunday– Baton Rouge, Louisiana– Sarah Morgan writes in her diary about her present situation under Union occupation, complaining in particular about General Butler who had several men arrested. “We all felt so helpless, so powerless under the hand of our tyrant, the man who swore to uphold the Constitution and the laws, who is professedly only fighting to give us all Liberty, the birthright of every American, and who, nevertheless, has ground us down to a state where we would not reduce our Negroes, who tortures and sneers at us, and rules us with an iron hand! Ah! Liberty! what a humbug! I would rather belong to England or France, than to the North! Bondage, woman that I am, I can never stand! Even now, the Northern papers . . . taunt us with our subjection . . . . Ah, truly! this is the bitterness of slavery, to be insulted and reviled by cowards who are safe at home and enjoy the protection of the laws, while we, captive and overpowered, dare not raise our voices to throw back the insult, and are governed by the despotism of one man, whose word is our law!”

 June 30– Monday– New York City– Mr Daniel Dodge writes to the Pennsylvania politician Joseph H. Scranton, commenting about General McClellan. “The only hope I have in the absence of reliable information is that the strategy of our young Napoleon has taken his left wing into Richmond while he made a show of falling back with his right wing. Time will show.”

 June 30– Monday– Washington, D.C.– President Lincoln calls for 150,000 additional troops.

 June 30– Monday– East of Richmond, Virginia– Confederate forces under General Lee fail in an attempt to cut General McClellan’s Union army in half.

Fortune’s Favor~June, 1862~the third week

Nurses working for the Sanitary Commission

As the war drags on into its fifteenth month women continue to feel its effects. Southerner Sarah Morgan laments the war’s increase of feelings of hate and anger in women. Varina Howell Davis receives the gift of a lead pencil from her husband, President Jeff Davis, who notes that such writing tools are in short supply. Just as many other women, North and South, a group of Roman Catholic nuns come to Virginia to provide nursing care for injured and sick soldiers. Among Quakers women lead in the adoption of a statement which recognizes that slavery is the cause of the war and immediate abolition of slavery the only cure.

Bitter fighting in South Carolina ends in a loss for Federal forces. General John Fremont resigns in anger from the Union Army while criticism of McClellan increases. New Englander Elisha Hunt Rhodes prays that God may cause men in the regiment to repent. New York City raises more money for the Sanitary commission. New legislation bans slavery in any U S territory, thus terminating the provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and rebuffing the Southern assertion that slave-owners have a constitutionally protected right to bring slaves into any territory.

President Lincoln asks Congress for money to assist Mexico in paying its debts. The Harpers Weekly takes a decidedly pro-French position, asserting that Napoleon’s conduct is honorable.

In Europe, the recently elected prime minister of Romania is assassinated. Karl Marx, in exile in England, writes to Frederick Engels about Darwinian theory in human socirty,

Map of Secessionville battle


June 16– Monday– James Island [known as “Secessionville”], South Carolina– Outside of Charleston, Confederate soldiers repel a Union attack with a loss of 203 dead, wounded and missing, while inflicting a total of 683 casualties on the Federal force. Two immigrant brothers who came from Scotland in the 1850’s are both heroes in the fight, Alexander Campbell for the Union, James Campbell for the Confederacy. Both survive today’s fight and only learn later of the other’s presence. Pennsylvania soldier Christian Lobinger describes what he saw. “The battle raged furiously several hours and by scores here for the first time in my life I saw the terrible effects of War. Our boys made several bayonet charges . . . and finally with terrible slaughters and a loss of about 100 we were defeated and compelled to retreat.”

 June 16– Monday– Baton Rouge, Louisiana– Sarah Morgan confides to her diary. “This war has brought out wicked, malignant feelings that I did not believe could dwell in woman’s heart. I see some of the holiest eyes, so holy one would think the very spirit of charity lived in them, and all Christian meekness, go off in a mad tirade of abuse and say, with the holy eyes wondrously changed, ‘I hope God will send down plague, yellow fever, famine, on these vile Yankees, and that not one will escape death.’ O, what unutterable horror that remark causes me as often as I hear it! I think of the many mothers, wives, and sisters who wait as anxiously, pray as fervently in their faraway homes for their dear ones, as we do here; I fancy them waiting day after day for the footsteps that will never come, growing more sad, lonely, and heart-broken as the days wear on; I think of how awful it would be if one would say, ‘Your brothers are dead’; how it would crush all life and happiness out of me; and I say, ‘God forgive these poor women! They know not what they say!’”

 June 16– Monday– Isle of Wight, England– The Cowes and Newport Railway opens the first section of passenger line on the island between the two towns of its title, a stretch of 4.5 miles or 7.2 km.

June 17– Tuesday– New York City– George Templeton Strong takes the political temperature. “McClellan seems to make no progress. . . . I have a lively faith in old Abe Lincoln. There will be no personal intrigue in his Cabinet, ‘not if he knows it.’”

 June 17– Tuesday– Shenandoah Valley, Virginia– General John C Fremont, age 49, full of anti-slavery sentiment and angry at being placed under General John Pope, to whom he is senior, submits his resignation.

Karl Marx & his daughter Jenny, London, England, c1865


June 18– Wednesday– London, England– Karl Marx writes to his friend Frederick Engels. After lamenting his poverty and inability to earn money, Marx turns to an interesting analysis. “I’m amused that Darwin, at whom I’ve been taking another look, should say that he also applies the ‘Malthusian’ theory to plants and animals, as though in Mr Malthus’s case the whole thing didn’t lie in its not being applied to plants and animals, but only — with its geometric progression — to humans as against plants and animals. It is remarkable how Darwin rediscovers, among the beasts and plants, the society of England with its division of labor, competition, opening up of new markets, ‘inventions’ and Malthusian ‘struggle for existence’. It is Hobbes’ bellum omnium contra omnes and is reminiscent of Hegel’s Phenomenology, in which civil society figures as an ‘intellectual animal kingdom’, whereas, in Darwin, the animal kingdom figures as civil society.”

 June 19– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– President Lincoln signs into law a bill forbidding slavery in all U. S Territories.

 June 19– Thursday– Richmond, Virginia– President Jeff Davis writes to his wife, Varina Howell Davis, who is with their children in the safety of Raleigh, North Carolina. President Davis is recently returned from visiting them. “Kiss my dear children whose sweet faces I last saw in sleep, and from whose door I turned reluctantly in the morning upon your announcing ‘all sound’ with a manner thatwarned me against waking them. I left a soft pencil for you on your mantel piece, having noticed you had none. I hope you found it as they are rare with us now.”


Wedding picture of Varina & Jeff Davis

June 20– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– In the Liberator, a lengthy article recounts the tenth annual meeting of Progressive Friends, held at Longwood, Pennsylvania. In Quaker fashion the meeting, which included Lucretia Mott and John Greenleaf Whittier, issued a “Testimony on the Rebellion” which concludes that “The cause of this bloody civil strife, therefore, being the enslavement of four million of the inhabitants of the land, there is but one sure method of bringing it to an end, and making at least partial atonement for our great iniquity. It is to Abolish Slavery Without Delay.”

 June 20– Friday– Bucharest, Romania– As he leaves Parliament, Prime Minister Barbu Catargiu, age 54, is shot and killed by an unknown assailant. He has been in office less than two months.

Prime Minister Catargiu

 June 21– Saturday– New York City– Harper’s Weekly sizes up the turbulent situation in Mexico in a decidedly pro-French position. “The truth of the matter is simply this. Napoleon wants to see Mexico peaceful, and an active consumer of French wines, silks, and other manufactures. To achieve this end he is willing to lend the strongest and best party in Mexico the use of a few thousand French soldiers. . . . . Indeed, if we are not mistaken, the Government of the Emperor has already made known to Mr. Lincoln that the French expedition against Mexico has no other object than the restoration and protection of a stable native Government in that country, and that the Emperor seeks and ardently desires the co-operation of the United States.”

June 22- Sunday– Fair Oaks, Virginia– Elisha Hunt Rhodes describes the Sabbath observance. “Our Chaplain preached this morning from the word ‘Gospel.’ The sermon was excellent and I trust will do some good. We have Christian men in the Regiment, but there are many who take no interest in religious matters. I trust that God’s spirit will move upon their hearts and turn them to repentance.”


Elizabeth Ann Seton, founder of the Sisters of Charity

June 22– Sunday– Fort Monroe, Virginia–Thirty of Elizabeth Seton’s Sisters of Charity, Roman Catholic nuns, arrive to nurse Union sick and injured.

 June 23– Monday– New York City– In his diary George Templeton Strong records some good news. “Tonight to concert at Academy of Music. It was got up spontaneously by the young men of the Mercantile Society Library for the benefit of the Sanitary Commission. Tolerable house. Guess we shall net $1,000 and upwards.” [This would be about $23,100 today.]

 June 23– Monday– Washington, D.C.– President Lincoln submits to the Senate for review and possible ratification a treaty with Mexico which would provide financial assistance in the amount of $11,000,000 to help Mexico pay its debt to European powers. The President includes correspondence from Mr Corwin, the American Minister in Mexico. [The amount would equal about $254million today.]

Fortune’s Favor~June, 1862~the second week

In the second week of June, the fighting in Virginia grows in intensity. Mary Chesnut complains that General Lee is the “King of Spades” who does too much digging and pulling back to suit her. Jeb Stuart’s cavalry literally rides rings around McClellan’s army, showing that fortune favors the bold. Stonewall Jackson’s “foot cavalry” wears out boots and bests Union forces. An insightful rebel soldier acknowledges that in this war as in all wars the truth is distorted by both sides. Another Confederate soldier describes barbarities committed by Federal troops in the Shenandoah Valley.

In Kansas a state official is impeached for misfeasance in office. Congressman Owen Lovejoy, ardent abolitionist, tells a lecture audience in New York City that they must support President Lincoln and should expect bold anti-slavery action from the President. George Templeton Strong describes the boldness and dedication of his wife. The Liberator announces a bold step by women who are establishing their own civil rights publication. The American minister to Peru reports on Latin American desires and expectations for the United States to protect its neighbors from European intervention.

Battle of Cross Keys, Virginia

June 8– Sunday– Cross Keys, Virginia– Confederate forces repel a Union attack Confederate losses total 288 dead, wounded or missing while the Federal casualties amount to 684 dead, wounded or missing.

 June 9– Monday– Port Republic, Virginia–General Jackson’s Confederate soldiers beat General Fremont’s forces. Federal casualties total 1,018; Confederates lose 804 dead, wounded and missing. Since March 22nd Jackson’s troops have marched over 675 miles and fought five battles, each time successfully beating larger Union forces.

 June 9– Monday– New Bern, North Carolina– George Whitman writes to his mother describing how his regiment decided to keep its battle-torn flag rather than trade it for a new one sent by the City of New York. “It has 15 or 20 bullet holes in it and the staff was shot into at Newbern, and we think a great deal of it.”

June 9– Monday– Quebec, Canada– Newspapers here report the anticipated arrival of 24,000 or more British soldiers in Canada. Rumors say that their presence is to protect against the presumed on-going threat of invasion from the United States or, perhaps, to intervene in the American civil war.


Confederate soldiers in camp

June 10– Tuesday– Staunton, Virginia– Confederate soldier Isaac Smith writes to his friend Colonel G. Q. Tompkins, also in the Confederate Army. Smith frankly evaluates the war. “Your sentiments harmonize more nearly with mine, than those of any one else, & I read your statement of occurrences & remarks upon them, with a consciousness that I am reading truths, & not monstrous exaggerations- The utter disregard for truth, which permits both sides in every contest great or small, to claim a magnificent victory; & for justice, which aggravates every slight irregularity on either side, into a monstrous outrage & crime, illustrates forcibly the degrading tendency of the war– an approach to truth may be attained from the public prints only by a careful study of details in the accounts of both sides, & deducing conclusions– upon general statements nothing can be founded.”

June 10– Tuesday– Lima, Peru–Christopher Robinson, U S Minister, reports to Secretary of State Seward that the Peruvian government expects a reunited U S government to “interpose an inseparable barrier to the scourge of European despotism.”

 June 11– Wednesday– Washington, D. C.– This evening at White House, President Lincoln meets informally with Senator Orville Browning of Illinois, Mr Marshal Lamon, a friend of the president, and General James Wadsworth, an anti-slavery man from New York state, to discuss the history and operation of the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law in District of Columbia.

Violet Florence Martin


June 11– Wednesday– Connemara, County Galway, Ireland– Birth of Violet Florence Martin, suffragette and author under the pen name of “Martin Ross.”

 June 12– Thursday– New York City– George Templeton Strong writes of Ellie, his wife, and her interest in nursing Union sick and wounded. “Her capacity of unselfishness and intense desire to employ it constitute a ‘call’ to this humane and patriotic womanly work . . . which I cannot but hear, though unwillingly.”


Owen Lovejoy

June 12– Thursday– New York City– A crowd comes to Cooper Union to hear Congressman Owen Lovejoy speak to the Emancipation League. Lovejoy, now age 51, is an abolitionist, a conductor on the underground railroad, a Congregational minister and, since 1857, a Republican representative from Illinois. He first rose to prominence in November of 1837 when pro-slavery men killed his brother, the out-spoken abolitionist editor Elijah P Lovejoy. Owen Lovejoy declares that President Lincoln will come out for emancipation. “If the President does not move as rapidly as you desire, if he is over scrupulous of forms, it is some compensation to know that the Commander and Chief of more than half a million of soldiers, and who is frequently under the necessity of acting without authority of law, will take no undue advantage of the power . . . that is placed in his hands. . . . . Let us, then, give the President a cordial, loyal and sympathizing support. Never has a President, not even Washington, been beset with so many trials and difficulties as environ him. The wonder is not that he should make mistakes, but that he should make so few. I no more doubt his Anti-Slavery integrity, his ultimate Anti-Slavery action, than I do my own.” The audience applauds heartily.

June 12– Thursday– Richmond, Virginia– About 1200 cavalry soldiers under the command of General James Ewell Brown (Jeb) Stuart set out on a reconnaissance mission to determine the strength of McClellan’s Federal forces.


General Jeb Stuart

June 12– Thursday– Topeka, Kansas– The state Senate convicts John Winter Robinson, Kansas Secretary of State, and removes him from office for misfeasance in a bond scandal, thus making him the first state executive branch official to be impeached and removed from office in United States history.

 June 13– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– The Liberator announces the forthcoming commencement of a publication dedicated to women’s issues. It will be called the Woman’s Journal. “It appears strange that women , constituting one half of humanity, should have no organ in America, especiallydevoted to the promotion of their interests. . . . The motto of the proposed Journal is: “Equal Rights for all Mankind” . . . . contributors [are] already secured, including Lydia Maria Child, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips.”


Lydia Maria Child

June 13– Friday– Newtown, Virginia– Robert Gould Shaw writes to his mother. “On the whole, our men show very little of the vices common in armies that have been some time in the field. They write so often to their families, and get so many letters from home, that it must have a good influence on them.”

 June 14– Saturday– Columbia, South Carolina– Mary Chesnut diaries her view of the war news. “Johnston badly wounded. Lee is King of Spades. They are all once more digging for dear life. Unless we can reenforce Stonewall, the game is up. Our chiefs contrive to dampen and destroy the enthusiasm of all who go near them. So much entrenching and falling back destroys the morale of any army. This everlasting retreating, it kills the hearts of the men. Then we are scant of powder. James Chesnut [her husband] is awfully proud of Le Conte’s powder manufactory here. Le Conte knows how to do it. James Chesnut provides him the means to carry out his plans.”

 June 14– Saturday– Kinnegad, Ireland–Birth of John J. Glennon, who will become Roman Catholic Archbishop of Saint Louis, Missouri in 1903.

 June 15– Sunday– Mt Meridian, Virginia– Jedediah Hotchkiss writes to his wife Sara Hotchkiss, complaining about the brutality of “Dutch” troops serving under Union General Fremont. [Most likely they were German-speaking immigrants.] “The men of Fremont are Dutch– of the very worst sort, they have plundered the country wherever they have been, they stripped the houses at Cross Keys completely, taking all the drapes of the ladies, breaking up the dishes &c &c. They wrapped up their dead in the blankets, carpets, quilts &c that they had taken from the houses – they were very brutal to the women in language, and stole everything they could get hold of. They came up ‘spoiling for a fight and a good many of them spoiled after the fight’ as General Ewell says.”

June 15– Sunday– Richmond, Virginia– Jeb Stuart’s cavalry return, having ridden completely around McClellan’s forces, avoiding capture, gathering intelligence for General Lee and boosting Southern morale.