A Retrospective of 1862~Part One

Agriculture, Food & Drink:
>between July 1st, 1861 and June 30th, 1862, the U S exported 37,000,000 bushels of wheat, worth $43,000,000; this is a new U S record.
>in England, Crosse & Blackwell introduce canned soups
> in New York City, 19 year old Charles Gulden begins making and selling his Gulden’s Mustard
> to help finance the war, the Federal government imposes a tax on beer at $1 per barrel
> swayed by Admiral Andrew Hull Foote, the naval hero of Fort Henry, Fort Donelson & Island #10 and himself an ardent temperance advocate, the U S Navy abolishes its traditional rum ration for sailors
> Great Britain suffers major crop failures

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Art & Music:
>Augustus Egg ~ Traveling Companions
>Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres ~The Turkish Bath
>Edouard Manet
~Concert in the Tuileries Gardens
~Lola de Valence
~Mlle. Victorine Meurent in the Costume of an Espada
~The Street Singer

French painter Edouard Manet

French painter Edouard Manet

>Moritz von Schwind ~ The Honeymoon
>James McNeill Whistler ~ The White Girl
>Ludwig Ritter von Kochel, an Austrian educator, scientist and musicologist, 62 years of age, publishes his Catalogue of Mozart’s Works or “The Kochel Catalog,”a pioneering scholarly work
>Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray wins the Prix de Rome in the Musical Composition category.
>The Saint Petersburg Conservatory is founded by Anton Rubinstein.
>Edvard Grieg gives his first concert in his home town of Bergen, Norway.
>Stephen Heller and Charles Halle perform Mozart’s E-flat concerto for two pianos at The Crystal Palace in London, England
>the scenes from Goethe’s Faust set to music by Robert Schumann, who died in 1856, receive a premiere performance in Cologne, Germany

>New books published this year include
>Aleardo Aleardi, Canto Politico
>Matthew Arnold’s On Translating Homer: Last Words, a reply to F. W. Newman’s Homeric Translation in Theory and Practice, 1861, itself a reply to Arnold’s On Translating Homer, published that year
>Mary Elizabeth Braddon’s Lady Audley’s Secret
>Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Last Poems, are posthumously published in an edition prepared by her husband, Robert Browning
>The Rise, Progress and Decline of Secession by Reverend William G. Brownlow, from Kentucky, becomes a best seller in the North
>Last Poems by A. H. Clough, published posthumously with a memoir by F. T. Palgrave
>No Name by Wilkie Collins
>Recollections of the Lakes and the Lake Poets by Thomas De Quincey
>The House of the Dead by Fyodor Dostoevsky
>The History of the Intellectual Development of Europe by William Draper
>Salammbo by Gustave Flaubert
>Sister Philomene by Edmond & Jules de Goncourt
>Les Miserables by Victor Hugo

Victor Hugo

Victor Hugo

>Henrik Ibsen’s Love’s Comedy
>Julia Kavanagh’s French Women of Letters
>Henry Kingsley’s Ravenshoe
>Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Tales of a Wayside Inn, which includes “Paul Revere’s Ride”
>George MacDonald’s David Elginbrod
>Modern Love by George Meredith
>A Chaplet of Verses by Adelaide Ann Procter and illustrated by Richard Doyle [Proctor, an unmarried philanthropist and social reformer and always in frail health will die early in 1864 at age 38; some modern scholars believe she was a lesbian]
>Goblin Market and Other Poems by Christiana Georgina Rossetti
>John Ruskin’s Unto This Last
>Elizabeth Stoddard’s The Morgesons
>William Makepeace Thackeray’s The Adventures of Philip
>Fathers and Sons by Ivan Turgenv;
>Artemus Ward, His Book by Artemus Ward (pen name of the humorist Charles Farrar Browne)
>John Greenleaf Whittier’s The Furnace Blast

>two novels, John Brent and Edwin Brothertoft, both by Theodore Winthrop, are published posthumously this year and become best sellers. Winthrop himself, an ardent anti-slavery man and officer in the Union Army, had been killed in battle in June, 1861; during his life no publisher was interested in his work. His sister, Laura Winthrop Johnson, will see to the publication of some of his other work and his books will do well for a decade.

>this year finds the reclusive Emily Dickinson, age 32, in her period of greatest poetic productivity; her poem “Safe in their Alabaster Chambers” under the title “The Sleeping” is published in the Springfield Republican this year; it is during this year that she first makes contact with Thomas Wentworth Higginson who encourages her to write

>Nikolai Chernyshevsky is imprisoned in St Petersburg, Russia, and begins his novel What Is To Be Done?

>Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, a 37 year old German, begins writing about homosexuality under the pseudonym of “Numa Numantius”.

Business & Commerce:
>in New York City, the 59 year old Irish-American millionaire Alexander T Stewart builds and opens the largest retail store in the world. His steel-and-stone “Palace”occupies a full block at Broadway and 10th Street. The eight-storey building has a distinctive cast-iron front, glass dome skylight, central court, grand stairway leading up from the spacious ground floor and elevator cars for access to higher floors. The design and construction cost close to $3,000,000. It employs up to 2,000 people. The establishment has nineteen departments including silks, dress goods, carpets and toys.
>John Rockefeller, age 23, invests $4000 in an oil refining business which will eventually become the Standard Oil Company of Ohio [his investment would equal about $92,300 today; by 1894, Standard Oil of Ohio was worth about $41,000,000 or today about $1.11 billion]
>in Boston, several entrepreneurs found John Hancock Life Insurance Company
> the 3 year old Equitable Life Assurance Company, founded by Henry B Hyde, writes a record-breaking $2,000,000 of new life insurance policies [this would equal about 46.1 million dollars of business today]
>for the twelve months from July 1st, 1861 to June 30th, 1862, the U S government spent $394,368,100 for the War Department; $42,668,000 for the Navy Department; $853,000 for veterans’ compensation and pensions.
>in England, particularly in areas such as Lancashire, textile mills reduce production or shut down because they cannot receive shipments of Southern cotton

>in London, 18 year old Arthur Lasenby Liberty enters the employ of a merchant on Regent Street; in 1875 he will establish Liberty of London department store

>Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts, introduces a gymnastics course for women;> the first female student is accepted into Mount Allison University in Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada
>New colleges founded include:
~University of Maine at Orono

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