A Retrospective of 1862~Part Two

Immigration (U.S.):
> despite the on-going war, 91,985 immigrants enter the United States:
> 30.0% come from the German states;
> 26.8% come from Great Britain;
> 25.4% come from Ireland;
> 4.8% come from France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Netherlands combined;
> 3.9% come from China;
> 3.6% come from Canada;
> 2.8% come from Sweden, Norway and Denmark combined;
> 0.8% come from Central and South America, excluding Mexico;
> 0.6% come from Italy;
> 0.5% come from Greece, Spain and Portugal combined;
> 0.2% come from Mexico;
> 0.2% come from the Austrian Empire;
> 0.1% come from Poland;
> 0.1% come from the Russian Empire;
> 0.2%% come from other regions and other countries.
> Sex and age:
> 41.6% are female;
> 58.4% are male;
> 73.0% are between 15 and 40 years of age;
> 18.0% are under age 15;
> 9.0% are over age 40.
> Occupations by major categories:
> 54.9% have no occupation–this includes children;
> 15.5% have general labor occupations;
> 10.5% have skilled craft occupations;
> 8.1% have agricultural occupations;
> 6.8% have commercial occupations;
> 3.2% have domestic work occupations;
> 0.7% have professional occupations;
> 0.3% have miscellaneous occupations

> in a move aimed at restricting Chinese immigration, California imposes a tax of $2.50 per month, per person on all people of Asian descent [this would be about $57.70 in today’s money]

Journalism:
> Samuel L Clemens begins writing for The Territorial Enterprise in Virginia City, Nevada Territory;
> James Russell Lowell begins writing for The North American Review

Samuel Clemens a/k/a Mark Twain

Samuel Clemens a/k/a Mark Twain

Medicine & Health:
> in Canada, smallpox sweeps through Fort Victoria area and down the length of the northwest coast, killing an estimated 200,000 First Nation people;
> Hermann Snellen, a 28 year old Dutch opthalmologist, publishes the Snellen chart for testing visual acuity.
> ergotism, a disease cause by fungus in rye, breaks out in Finland where rye bread is a diet staple of peasants and urban poor
>Dr Louis Elsberg opens the first public clinic to treat diseases of the throat
>in France Dr Edouard Raynaud publishes a paper on the cardiovascular disorder which will come to be called by his name

Military:
> as of June 30th, 673,124 men are on active duty in the U S military;
> the writer Ambrose Bierce, only 20 years old, is commissioned a first lieutenant and joins the staff of General William Bradcock Hazen. as a topographical engineer
> in Arizona, Cochise emerges as a brilliant military leader of the Apache people and will hinder and delay settlement by European Americans for the next ten years

Religion:
>the American Bible Society of New York City distributes thousands of pocket editions of the Bible to soldiers

Science & Technology:
> Brown & Sharpe, a Rhode Island company pioneering in making modern machine tools, produce the first universal milling machine
> Alexander Borodin, age 29, the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman, becomes professor of chemistry at the Academy of Medicine in St Petersburg, Russia, and this year publishes the results of important experiments with benzoyl chloride; [he will soon begin his career in music as well];

Alexander Borodin

Alexander Borodin

> the 30 year old Julius von Sachs, a German botanist, shows that starch is the product of photosynthesis
> the first American open-hearth furnace for use in making steel begins operation

Social Movements:
> in the tiny Kingdom of Monaco the first Monte Carlo gambling casino opens
>Swiss philanthropist Henri Dunant, age 34, publishes a pamphlet in French urging the creation of non-military volunteer societies to aid wounded on battlefields; he will become a key person in the creation of the International Red Cross and the Geneva Conventions on the Conduct of warfare

Henry Dunant

Henry Dunant

Sports and Exercise:
>trotting-style horse races continue to be popular both in the North and the South; a new race track opens in New York City

Transportation:
>the Illinois-Central Railroad with miles of track running north-south provides great help to the Union army
>Ben Holladay, age 42, Kentucky-born and living in California, buys up the bankrupt Russell, Majors and Wadell company which went broke financing the now defunct Pony Express; Holladay now controls a monopoly on carrying mail and passengers between the Pacific coast and Missouri; over the next four years he will make a fortune before selling out in anticipation of the success of railroads to cross the Great Plains; however, he will die at age27 in 1887, impoverished by the Panic of 1873

Workers and Employment:
> in Charleston, South Carolina, in late July, at a slave auction, one entire family of a man, age 28, a woman, age 24, and their child, age 6, are sold for $3,060; one man, age 24, is sold for $1,365; one woman, age 20, with her infant, are sold for $1,120; a boy, age14, brings $955 on the auction block; six men, ranging in age from 20 to 38 years and in various degrees of health and strength, average $749 each.[The family of three sold for the equivalent of $70,600 in current dollars; the six men averaged a modern value of $17,300 each.]

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