A Third Party Will Reshape the 1912 Election

The year begins on a Monday. Around the world, leaders include Queen Wilhelmina of Netherlands, age 31, ruling since 1890; Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia, age 67, ruling since 1889; Emperor Meiji of Japan, age 59, ruling since 1867; Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, age 81, ruling since 1848; Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, age 53, ruling since 1888; Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire, age 67, ruling since 1909; Czar Nicholas II of Russia, age 43, reigning since 1894; King Albert I of Belgium, age 36, ruling since 1909; King Frederick VIII of Denmark, age 68, ruling since 1906; King George I of Greece, age 66, ruling since 1863; King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy, age 42, ruling since 1900; King Haakon VII of Norway, age 39, ruling since 1905; King Alfonso XIII of Spain, age 25, ruling since 1886; King Gustaf V of Sweden, age 53, ruling since 1907; King George V of Great Britain, age 46, reigning since 1910, his current Prime Minister is Herbert Asquith, age 59, in office since 1908; Prime Minister Louis Botha of South Africa, age 49, in office since 1910; Prime Minister Andrew Fisher of Australia, age 49, in office since 1910; Prime Minister Robert Borden of Canada, age 57, in office since October, 1911; President Arthur Barclay of Liberia, age 57, in office since 1904; President Armand Fallieres of France, age 70, in office since 1906; President Manuel de Arriaga of Portugal, age 71,in office since August, 1911; President Jose Miguel Gomez of Cuba, age 53, in office since 1909; President Francisco Madero of Mexico, age 38, in office since November, 1911; President William Howard Taft of the United States, age 54, in office since 1909; President Roque Saenz Pena of Argentina, age 60, in office since 1910; President Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca of Brazil, age 56, in office since 1910; President Ramon Barros Luco, age 76, in office since, 1910; President Augusto B Leguia Salcedo of Peru, age 48, in office since 1908; President Juan Vicente Gomez of Venezuela, age 54, in office since 1908.


England’s King George


Mexico endures internal turmoil. Italy and Turkey are at war with each other. On-going revolution promises major changes in China. Unrest continues within Russia and with other nations such as Russia and the United States experiencing tension over Russian treatment of Jewish people. Journalists around the world await news from competing expeditions of explorers in Antarctica. Scientists have developed a model of the atom. Excavation of the Panama Canal, begun in the spring of 1904, continues with 30,269,349 cubic yards removed this year.

The population of the United States is estimated at 95,410,500 people, of whom 48.6% are female, 29.9% are age 14 and under, 4.4% are over age 65, 47% live in urban areas [which the Census Bureau defines as places with 2500 or more residents]. Among minority groups, there are 10,595,000 African Americans; 319,216 Native Americans living on reservations; 72,157 persons of Japanese descent; 71,531 persons of Chinese descent. Population density is 32.08 persons per square mile.


In education, 18,182,937 or 72.2% of children of school age attend public elementary and secondary schools. Of the 547,289 public school teachers, 79.0% are women. Public school expenditures will total $404,868,000. The 594 American colleges and universities will confer 39,408 bachelors degrees, 24.9% of them to women, 3,035 masters degrees, 27.0% of them to women, and 500 doctoral degrees, only 12.8% of them to women. Of these colleges and universities, 109 are for women, 144 for men, and 341 for both women and men with 186,624 undergraduate students and 11,656 graduate students.

Of major religious groups, there are 15,016,000 Roman Catholics; 5,261,000 Methodists; 2,446,000 Southern Baptists; 1,353,000 Presbyterians; 66,000 Seventh Day Adventists.


Railroads operate 371,238 miles of track over which 62,262 engines pull 2,229,163 freight cars and 51,583 passenger cars. As the year begins, 1,209 street and elevated railway companies are operating 91,457 electric trolley cars over 41,028.5 miles of track.

Mail delivery is handled by 58,729 post offices which deliver 17,588,658,000 pieces of all kinds of mail, sell 9,929,173,000 stamps and bring a total of $246,744,015, yet total expenditures reach $248,525,450. Railroads provide the fastest way to move mail. Telegraph offices number 25,392, operating 1,517,000 miles of wire to carry an estimated 90,000,000 messages this year. There are 10,059,603 telephones or approximately 105 phones for every 1,000 people. There are 10,872,101 miles of telephone wire to carry an average of 23,483,770 calls per day. Telephone companies employ 123,439 workers to serve the needs of 4,474,171 paying subscribers, an increase of over 440,000 since last year. There are 2600 daily newspapers with a total average daily circulation of 24,111,977.

In the course of the year, lynchings will take the lives of 61 black people and 7 white people.

Exports from the United States to other countries will total $2,327,000,000 while imports will reach $1,749,000,000, thus creating a favorable balance of trade of $577,000,000. The largest amounts of exports will go to Canada (27.8%), the United Kingdom (24.2%) and Germany (13.2%). The greatest amounts of imports will come from Canada (31.4%), the United Kingdom (15.6%), Germany (9.8%) and France (7.2%). Imports will include 887,747,747 pounds of coffee and 101,406816 ponds of tea.


The 6,430,000 farms utilize 894,209,000 acres and employ 10,162,000 family members and an additional 3,397,000 hired farm hands to work the land. They will produce 3,124,746,000 bushels of corn, 14,313,015 bales of cotton, 695,944,444 pounds of rice, 723,840,000 pounds of cane sugar.

In the course of the year 3,635 workers will die in railroad accidents and another 142,442 will be injured or maimed. Fatal accidents will kill 2,419 coal miners, 661 in various metal mines, and 213 in quarry accidents. There remains much talk about the 146 textile workers who died in the Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire in New York City on March 25th of last year but as 1912 begins neither the federal government nor most state governments nor major metropolitan fire departments have taken any significant steps to prevent another such catastrophe or make plans to deal with fires in the increasing number of tall buildings. About 2.4 million workers belong to labor unions.

The Coast Guard will deal with the wrecks of 328 vessels involving total loss and the deaths of 195 persons, either along the coasts or rivers of the United States.

The year will see the production of 187,571,808 gallons of distilled alcoholic beverages and 62,176,694 gallons of fermented liquors.

Oil wells yield 222,113,218 barrels of crude oil. Mines yield 57,017,614 long tons of iron ore, 75,398,369 long tons of anthracite coal, 401,803,934 long tons of bituminous coal, 4,271,562 troy ounces of gold, 67,601,111 troy ounces of silver, 31,133968 barrels of salt, 323,907 short tons of zinc. Mills produce 24,656,841 long tons of finished rolled steel products, 31,251,303 long tons of crude steel, 65,607,000 pounds of aluminum.

Industry - Tin Plate Workers - Swansea - 1912


Military personnel on active duty number 92,121 in the Army, 87,346 in the Navy, and 9,696 in the Marine Corps. An estimated 824,000 veterans live in civilian life, 37% of whom are age 65 to 69 and 25% are age 70 and older. Widows of veterans number approximately 322,000.

The federal government employs 38,555 people within the District of Columbia and an additional 361,595 other persons across the states and territories. Active duty military personnel include 92,121 in the Army, 51,357 in the Navy and 9,610 in the Marine Corps. The government will take in $692,609,000 while spending $689,881,000, creating a budget surplus of $2,728,000; however, the total national debt stands at $1,193,839,000. The government will issue 36,198 patents and 121,824 copyrights.

The second session of the 62nd Congress began on December 4, 1911 with 228 Democrats, 161 Republicans and 1 third party member in the House of Representatives with 51 Republicans and 41 Democrats in the Senate. James “Champ” Clark, age 61, Democrat from Missouri, serves as Speaker of the House.

Incumbent President William Howard confidently expects to be re-elected. However, his predecessor Theodore Roosevelt is making up his mind to once again seek the Republican nomination. Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin also intends to seek nomination.


On the Democratic side, Speaker Champ Clark, Congressman Oscar Underwood of Alabama, Governor Judson Harmon of Ohio, Governor Thomas Marshall of Indiana, and Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey intend to seek the Democratic nomination. The hopes for a Democratic win are buoyed by the strong showing in the 1910 mid-term elections.


The socialists and the prohibitionists also plan to run candidates while few, if any, people foresee a split in the Republican Party creating a new third party.

Six states– Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Idaho, Washington and California– have by this year enfranchised women who total 1.3 million registered voters. Suffrage activists are determined to make woman suffrage a major campaign issue.


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