July ~ Election Year 1852

american-flag-pictures-8-622x415

Frederick Douglass, former slave, calls into question the American vision in a dramatic Fourth of July speech. President Fillmore is busy, including having to deal with a leak to the press. Abolitionists do not mourn the late Henry Clay. Dissatisfaction with the two major parties seems to create opportunity for third party movements. Temperance is an issue which will grow in significance over the next seventy years. Great Britain undergoes a significant political change.

July 1– Thursday– New York City– “Mrs. Margaret Freeland of Syracuse was recently arrested upon a warrant issued on complaint of Emanuel Rosendale, a rum-seller, charging her with forcing an entrance to his house, and with stones and clubs smashing his doors and windows, breaking his tumblers and bottles, and turning over his whiskey barrels and spilling their contents. Great excitement was produced by this novel case. It seems that the husband of Mrs. Freeland is a drunkard, that he is in the habit of abusing his wife, turning her out of doors, &c., and this was carried so far that the Police have frequently found it necessary to interfere to put a stop to his ill treatment of his family. Rosendale the complainant, furnished Freeland with the liquor which turned him into a demon. Mrs. Freeland had frequently told him of her sufferings and besought him to refrain from giving her husband the poison. But alas! she appealed to a heart of stone. He disregarded her entreaties and spurned her from his door. Driven to desperation she armed herself, broke into the house, drove out the base-hearted landlord and proceeded upon the work of destruction. She was brought before the Court and demanded a trial. The citizens employed C. B. Sedgwick, Esq., as her counsel, and prepared to justify her assault upon legal grounds. Rosendale, being at once arrested on complaint of T. L. Carson for selling liquor unlawfully, and feeling the force of the storm that was gathering over his head, appeared before the Justice, withdrew his complaint against Mrs. Freeland, paid the costs, and gave bail on the complaint of Mr. Carson, to appear at the General Sessions, and answer to an indictment should there be one found. Mrs. Freeland is said to be ‘the pious mother of a fine family of children, and a highly respectable member of the Episcopal Church.’” ~ The Lily

temperance activists 2163

temperance activists

 

July 1– Thursday– Washington, D.C. – “Great was my surprise to observe this morning in one of the public journals a statement of what purports to be a proposition, jointly signed by Her Britannic Majesty’s minister here and the Secretary of State, for the adjustment of certain claims to territory between Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and the Mosquito Indians. I have caused immediate inquiry to be made into the origin of this highly improper publication, and shall omit no proper or legal means for bringing it to light. Whether it shall turn out to have been caused by unfaithfulness or breach of duty in any officer of this Government, high or low, or by a violation of diplomatic confidence, the appropriate remedy will be immediately applied, as being due not only to this Government, but to other governments. And I hold this communication to be especially proper to be made immediately by me to the Senate, after what has transpired on this subject, that the Senate may be perfectly assured that no information asked by it has been withheld and at the same time permitted to be published to the world. This publication can not be considered otherwise than as a breach of official duty by some officer of the Government or a gross violation of the confidence necessary always to be reposed in the representatives of other nations. An occurrence of this kind can not but weaken the faith so desirable to be preserved between different governments and to injure the negotiations now pending, and it merits the severest reprobation.” ~ Message to the Senate from President Fillmore.

July 2– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– “An announcement of [Henry] Clay’s death. He was a brilliant orator, and exceedingly attractive and magnetic in social life, but utterly devoid of principle, and one who has done more than any other man to extend and perpetuate slavery, and render popular the accursed doctrine of ‘compromise.’ Death has its uses; and never is this more clearly seen than in the removal of such a man from a world which he has only cursed by his bad example. In his removal, the colored population of the country, both bond and free, have lost their most insidious and influential persecutor.” ~ The Liberator. [Clay died on June 29, 1852.]

July 2– Friday– Washington, D.C.– “By an act of Congress approved on the 10th day of February, 1852, an appropriation of $6,000 was made for the relief of American citizens then lately imprisoned and pardoned by the Queen of Spain, intended to provide for the return of such of the Cuban prisoners as were citizens of the United States who had been transported to Spain and there pardoned by the Spanish Government. It will be observed that no provision was made for such foreigners or aliens as were engaged in the Cuban expedition, and who had shared the fate of American citizens, for whose relief the said act was intended to provide. I now transmit a report from the First Comptroller, with accompanying papers, from which it will be perceived that fifteen foreigners were connected with that expedition, who were also pardoned by the Queen of Spain, and have been transported to the United States under a contract made with our consul, at an expense of $1,013.34, for the payment of which no provision has been made by law. The consul having evidently acted with good intentions, the claim is submitted for the consideration of Congress.” ~ Message to Congress from President Fillmore. [The $1,013.14 would equal $32,000 today, using the Consumer Price Index.]

Millard_Fillmore_by_Brady_Studio_1855-65-crop

President Fillmore

 

July 5– Monday– Rochester, New York– “What, to the American slave, is your 4th of July? I answer; a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim. To him, your celebration is a sham; your boasted liberty, an unholy license; your national greatness, swelling vanity; your sounds of rejoicing are empty and heartless; your denunciation of tyrants, brass fronted impudence; your shouts of liberty and equality, hollow mockery; your prayers and hymns, your sermons and thanksgivings, with all your religious parade and solemnity, are, to him, mere bombast, fraud, deception, impiety, and hypocrisy-a thin veil to cover up crimes which would disgrace a nation of savages. There is not a nation on the earth guilty of practices more shocking and bloody than are the people of the United States, at this very hour. Go where you may, search where you will, roam through all the monarchies and despotisms of the Old World, travel through South America, search out every abuse, and when you have found the last, lay your facts by the side of the everyday practices of this nation, and you will say with me, that, for revolting barbarity and shameless hypocrisy, America reigns without a rival.” ~ Speech by Frederick Douglass on the meaning of the Fourth of July.

Frederick-Douglass-Speaking

Douglass at the podium

 

July 8– Thursday– Montreal, Quebec, Canada– A fire breaks out which will consume 11,000 houses.

July 15– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– “The National Era will keep its readers advised of the movements of Parties, their Principles, Purposes, and Prospects; and their Position, especially as relates to the Question of Slavery. Persons subscribing for six months from the 1st of July, will receive the paper till the 1st of January, thus securing a full view of the entire Campaign, its results, and its bearings upon the preliminary movements in the next session of Congress. Twelve copies of the paper will be sent for the six months for $9 – the person making up the club entitling himself to an extra copy; or, For the five months from July 1st to December 1st, covering the campaign and its results, twelve copies will be sent for $7.50 – the person making up the club being entitled to an extra copy. The record of Mr. Pierce, which we publish this week, will be republished in the early part of next month, for the benefit of those subscribers who may commence on the first of July. It shall be our aim to furnish impartially the important facts in relation to all the contending Parties. Will not our friends who regard the Era as qualified to spread correct political information and disseminate sound political sentiments, do what they can, by the formation of clubs and otherwise, to secure it still larger access to the public mind? We must rely upon their well-directed efforts. An uncompromising opponent of the Pro-Slavery policy of the old political organizations, it still expects to obtain a fair hearing from the liberal men who continue to support them, though under protest.” ~ The National Era.

July 16– Friday–Rochester, New York– “Slave Hunters. We understand that some specimens of these loathsome excrescences of the human race, made their appearance in Detroit last week. But there they met a boundary they dare not pass in search of slave property. IF any of them aspire after the honors that graced the Austrian woman-whipper in London, we feelingly invite them on Her Majesty’s free soil.” ~ Frederick Douglass’ Paper.

July 23– Friday– Rochester, New York– “Sir, we are in the midst of a revolution. The two great parties are striving to convert this free Government into a slaveholding, a slave-breeding Republic. Those powers which were delegated to secure liberty are now exerted to overthrow freedom and the Constitution. It becomes every lover of freedom, every Christian, every man, to stand forth in defense of popular rights in defense of the rights of the free States, of the institutions under which we live, in defense of our national character.” ~ Speech by Joshua Giddings in the House of Representatives on June 23rd, reprinted in today’s issue of Frederick Douglass’ Paper.

Giddings_brady_1955-65rr

Joshua Giddings

 

July 26– Monday– Washington, D.C.– President Fillmore submits to the Senate information on the determination of the boundary between Mexico and the United States.

July 29– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– “We trust that the Pittsburgh Convention will restrict its platform on the subject of Slavery to the topics of which we have spoken, and thus attract to its standard the noble and ardent spirits who seek to limit and sectionalize Slavery, and bring the National Government to use its influence actively on the side of Liberty. Notwithstanding the passage of the Compromise measures, the friends of Slavery are actively plotting to diffuse it over new and virgin soil. The issue presented is similar to that of 1848, and should be resisted by a similar platform of principles to prevent the National Government from aiding, by its action or connivance, the establishment of more Slave States of Slave Territories. Accepting this issue, the Pittsburgh Convention should adopt a similar platform to that of 1848, and seek by practicable means to divorce the Government from all connection with, or responsibility for, Slavery. Especially should this be pursued now, when the old parties have resolved to ‘resist’ agitation, and ‘acquiesce’ in the Compromise measures adopted by the last Congress. In regard to other questions, we trust the Convention will take a decisive stand for cheap postage for the people; retrenchment of the expenses and patronage of the Federal Government; the election, so far as practicable, of all civil officers; free grants of land to actual settlers on our public lands; the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Law; constitutional appropriations for River and Harbor Improvements; and declare the right of every nation to choose its own Government, and especially the duty of free nations to protest against and prevent the intervention of despots to suppress republican or constitutional Government. Such a platform will attract a large number of votes, and spread dismay into the ranks of the two old parties, which have blinked these questions, and taken no manly ground in regard to them.” ~ The National Era.

July 30– Friday– Rochester, New York– “I have time now to say but a word. It is evident that the Vermont friends of freedom mean to support John P. Hale for the Presidency. That is their intention now, subject to the decision of the National Convention, August 11th, at Pittsburgh. In your paper of July 16th, your corresponding Editor, John Thomas, regards Hale as unsound on the slavery question; because, ‘acknowledging its LEGAL claims, he would but REGULATE its manifestations.’Is it even so? Is that Mr. Hale’s position? The friends of freedom in this section think that it is not so. I have not the documents on hand to meet them. Probably Mr. Thomas can lay his hands on the proof. Will he do so, and let us see what is, as speedily as possible? I am welcomed here. I preached three times in this town last Sabbath, July 18th, and last evening. Monday farmers from the hay fields filled the Town House to hear about the position of the Liberty Party, as understood in the State of New York.” ~ Letter to the editor from Mr J R Johnson in today’s issue of Frederick Douglass’ Paper.

July 30– Friday– Princeton, Wisconsin– Birth of Emma Millinda Gillett, educator, feminist, and lawyer who along with Ellen Spencer Mussey will found the Washington College of Law in Washington, D.C. in 1896 and serve as its dean from 1913 to 1923. [Dies January 23, 1927.]

Emma_Gillett

Emma Gillett

 

July 31– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “I communicate to the Senate herewith, for its constitutional action thereon, nineteen treaties negotiated by commissioners on the part of the United States with various tribes of Indians in the Territory of Oregon, accompanied by a letter to me from the Secretary of the Interior and certain documents having reference thereto.” ~ Message to the Senate from President Fillmore.

July 31– Saturday– London, England– In a general election for all 654 seats in Parliament’s House of Commons, the Conservatives win 330 seats and the Whigs win 324 seats. [This particular general election constitutes a watershed in formation of the modern political parties of Great Britain. Following 1852, the Tory/Conservative party becomes mostly the party of the rural aristocracy, while the Whig/Liberal party becomes the party of the rising urban bourgeois in Britain. The results of the election are extremely close in terms of both the popular vote and number of seats won by the main two parties. See, Party and Politics, 1830-1852 (1989) by Robert Stewart.]

Advertisements
Post a comment or leave a trackback: Trackback URL.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: