Monthly Archives: January 2019

Immigration ~ Chapter Five

Woman making American Flag

Woman making American Flag

In 1881, London, England, is the world’s largest and most populous city with a little over, 3,300,000 residents. Great Britain has a total population approaching 30,000,000. Queen Victoria, age 62, is in the 44th year of her reign. Benjamin Disraeli, former Prime Minister, dies. British authorities jail Irish leader Charles Parnell for his encouragement of Irish farmers to refuse to pay rent. British forces lose major battles in the First Boer War and Britain signs a treaty, recognizing the independence of the Transvaal Republic. Charles Darwin, in October, publishes his last scientific book the last before his death in the spring of 1882. Robert Louis Stevenson’s novel, Treasure Island, begins in serial form in the magazine Young Folks. The Cunard Line launches its first steel transatlantic liner.

In Russia, the reform-minded Tsar Alexander II, who had freed Russian serfs, is assassinated in March, killed by a bomb. His conservative son becomes Tsar Alexander III, and, among other things, begins a series of pogroms against Jews.


Tsar Alexander II

In the United States, President Garfield is mortally by a gunman in July and dies in September. The U. S. population is 53,000,000. Railroads are expanding rapidly and need large numbers of unskilled laborers. Clara Barton forms the American Association of the Red Cross. Dr. George Goodfellow performs the first laparotomy to remove a bullet. The first volume of The History of Woman Suffrage is published by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Helen Hunt Jackson publishes A Century of Dishonor, an expose of government mistreatment of American Indians. The eastern states suffer severe draught. The Pullman Company begins construction of a model factory town for its employees.


murder of President Garfield

In France, Louis Pasteur develops a vaccine to prevent anthrax in sheep and hog.

On December 8, fire destroys the Ringtheater in Vienna, Austria, killing 449 people. Dr. Eduard von Hofmann performs autopsies on the victim, determining that many died of carbon monoxide poisoning.

A new record is set when 669,431 immigrants, the first time more time half a million enter the United States.
31.4% come from the German Empire
18.7% come from Canada
12.2% come from Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland, combined
12.2% come from Great Britain
10.8% come from Ireland
4.2% come from the Austrian Empire
4.0% come from France, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, combined
2.3% come from Italy
1.7% come from China
0.8% come from Poland
0.7% come from the Russian Empire
0.3% come from Central and South America, including Mexico
0.2% come from Portugal, Spain, and Greece, combined
0.1% come from Australia and New Zealand
0.4% come from all other places, combined


38.6% are female
61.4% are male

67.8% are between the ages of 15 to 40
22.9% are under age 15
9.3% are over age 40

53.1% have no occupation
22.0% are general laborers
9.9% are skilled workers
8.6% are farmers
2.8% are servants
1.8% have some miscellaneous occupation
1.4% are commercial workers
0.4% are professionalsamerican-immigrants-from-the-uk-catch-their-first-sight-of-their-destination-c4464t

Immigration ~ Chapter 4

patriotic cartoon~Lincoln-flag

During 1863, 176,282 immigrants entered the United States, despite the on-going Civil War.

37.9% came from Great Britain
31.7% came from Ireland
18.8% came from the German states
4.1% came from China
2.0% came from Canada;
1.8% came from France, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, combined
1.8% came from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, combined
1.9% came from various other regions and countries.

brit warship 1860url
39.9% were female
60.1% were male

71.1% were between the ages of 15 and 40
18.7% were under age 15
10.2% were over age 40


49.6% had no occupation
23.1% were general laborers
12.1% were skilled craft workers
6.2% were farmers
4.6% were domestic workers
3.8% were commercial workers
0.6% were professional workers


Immigration ~ Chapter 3


The United States only began keeping records of the number of immigrants in 1820. In 1842 the number of immigrants exceeded 100,000 for the first time.


In 1842, 104,565 immigrants entered the United States.
49.1% came from Ireland
21.0% came from Great Britain
19.5% came from the German states
5.1& came from France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, and Switzerland combined
2.0% came from Canada
1.8% came from Central and South America, including Mexico
1.5% came from other countries

39.0% were female
61.0% were male


67.1% were between 15 and 40 in age
22.9% were under age 15
8.7% were over age 40
1.3% did not report their age

Industry - Tin Plate Workers - Swansea - 1912


54.5% had no occupation
14.4% were general laborers
13.1% were skilled laborers
11.7% were farmers
4.5% were commercial workers
1.2% were servants
0.6% were skilled professionals

Some Immigration History Page 2

Woman making American Flag

Woman making American Flag

In 1907 1,285,349 immigrants entered the United States

26.3% came from various parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
22.2% came from Italy
20.1% came from various parts of the Russian Empire
6.1% came from Great Britain
4.0% came from Portugal, Spain and Greece combined
3.9% came from Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland
2.9% came from various parts of the German Empire
2.7% came from Ireland
2.4% came from Japan
2.2% came from France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg combined
1.7% came from Latin America, including Mexico
1.5% came from Canada
4.1% came from various other countries

27.6% were female
72.4% were male

85.6% were between ages 14 to 44
10.8% were under age 14
3.6% were age 45 and older


26.2% farmers and farm laborers
22.9% general laborers
13.2% skilled craft workers
9.5% domestic workers
1.6% management and supervisors
0.9% clerical workers
0.9% professional and technical workers
23.8% declared no occupation


Some Immigration History ~ Page 1

Immigration to the United States in 1862immigrant ship photo-e
> despite the on-going war, 91,985 immigrants enter the United States:
> 30.0% come from the German states;
> 26.8% come from Great Britain;
> 25.4% come from Ireland;
> 4.8% come from France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Netherlands combined;
> 3.9% come from China;
> 3.6% come from Canada;
> 2.8% come from Sweden, Norway and Denmark combined;
> 0.8% come from Central and South America, excluding Mexico;
> 0.6% come from Italy;
> 0.5% come from Greece, Spain and Portugal combined;
> 0.2% come from Mexico;
> 0.2% come from the Austrian Empire;
> 0.1% come from Poland;
> 0.1% come from the Russian Empire;
> 0.2%% come from other regions and other countries.
> Sex and age:
> 41.6% are female;
> 58.4% are male;
> 73.0% are between 15 and 40 years of age;
> 18.0% are under age 15;
> 9.0% are over age 40.
> Occupations by major categories:
> 54.9% have no occupation–this includes children;
> 15.5% have general labor occupations;
> 10.5% have skilled craft occupations;
> 8.1% have agricultural occupations;
> 6.8% have commercial occupations;
> 3.2% have domestic work occupations;
> 0.7% have professional occupations;
> 0.3% have miscellaneous occupations

in a move aimed at restricting Chinese immigration, California imposes a tax of $2.50 per month, per person on all people of Asian descent [this would be about $57.70 in today’s money]

Woman making American Flag

Woman making American Flag