Tag Archives: American society

The Election of 1852

Woman making American Flag

Election day took place on Tuesday, November 2, 1852. The Democrat Franklin Pierce won the presidency, beating the Whig candidate Winfield Scott and Free Soil candidate John Hale. There were 4,539,713 people registered to vote, accounting for only 18.2% of the total population. Women could not vote, thus excluding almost half of the population. Male slaves and the majority of free black men were also excluded as were most all Native Americans. Many states also required a man to own property in order to register to vote. Of the men eligible to vote, about 69.6% actually did so.

Winfield Scott received 1,386,942 votes, 43.9% of those cast. However, he carried only Kentucky, Massachusetts, Tennessee and Vermont.

Franklin Pierce received 1,607,510 votes, 50.8% of those cast. He carried the 27 other states but by narrow margins in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Michigan, New York, North Carolina and Ohio. In Ohio he won by only 47.8% of the votes because the Free Soil Party with its anti-slavery platform won 9.0% of the vote, thereby costing Scott the state and its 23 votes in the Electoral College.

John Hale received 155,799 votes. The Free Soil Party did well in Massachusetts (22.2% of the vote), Vermont (19.6%), Wisconsin (13.6%) and New Hampshire (13.0%) with a respectable showing in Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, New York, Ohio and Rhode Island (all Northern states).

Several smaller third parties won a combined total of 11,480 votes.

1852-presidential-election-poster-whig

The Democrats called Winfield Scott “Fuss ‘n Feathers,” a prima donna with a penchant for fancy uniforms resulting in a “Reign of Epaulets” and described him as “weak, conceited, foolish, a blustering disciple of gunpowder” and hostile to immigrants.

The Whigs labeled Franklin Pierce “the Fainting General” [like Scott he had commanded troops in war against Mexico, 1846 to 48]. They posed the question “Who is Franklin Pierce?” to suggest he was an unknown with not proven track record of political service. They attacked the Democratic Party as “the do-nothing school of politicians” who were not interested in American free workers, concerned first and foremost with the propertied interests of the South.

Real issues concerned the Compromise of 1850 and enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act. These matters in particular helped to make this the last election in which the Whig Party participated as it floundered and dissolved with Southern Whigs joining the pro-slavery Democratic Party and Northern Whigs either joining a third party movement or, like Attorney Abraham Lincoln in Illinois, joining the new Republican Party.

1852democraticposter

The publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 2 volume book form in March of the year added fuel to the fiery debate about slavery. Also the year saw the death of two major political figures– Henry Clay of Kentucky on June 29th and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts on October 24th, nine days before the election.

Based on the states carried, Pierce received 254 votes in the Electoral College while Scott received only 42. Additionally, the Democrats won 3 additional seats in the Senate and an additional 19 in the House of Representatives.

The fate of the Whig Party in 1852 and the four following years causes me to wonder if this year and the next four will see a similar dissolution of the Republican Party. Could it be that the current Republican candidate has headed the party of Lincoln into a train wreck?

The Tyrant at the Gates

lady-lib

Trump, the tyrant at the gates

“Do you remember, your President Nixon? / Do you remember, the bills you have to pay / or even yesterday?” — David Bowie “Young Americans,” March 1975

It was an extraordinary thing to behold. A candidate for a major American political party stood on the stage at an American university during a televised debate and threatened to jail his opponent if he won the presidency.

This is what Third World despots do before their countries spiral into civil war. As an electoral gambit, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump asked voters to endorse his political vendetta by promising that a guilty verdict for his Democratic opponent will be baked into whatever investigation his attorney general and special prosecutor hired to do the actual dirty work come up with.

It was a monumental display of his ignorance of U.S. history or the constitutional limits on presidential power. It was also a peek into what Mr. Trump’s governing style would be if ever given the opportunity to run our democracy into the ground as efficiently as the casinos and other businesses he’s failed at over the decades. He’s an autocrat unmoored from any sense of constitutional reality or history.

With morally dubious enablers like New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie and former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani cheering him on, Donald Trump would transform the Oval Office into a venue for score-settling that wouldn’t stop with jailing Hillary Clinton.

Is there any doubt that the birther fever he has temporarily set aside would return, backed by the full fury of presidential authority? Within minutes of being sworn in, Donald Trump will order his Justice Department to begin scouring the academic and personal records of his predecessor for proof that he was the undercover Muslim operative born in Kenya the vindictive new president always believed him to be.

The autocratic style that has made him a terrible businessman, but a successful reality TV star, was on full display over a weekend that would have shattered a more conventional candidate’s sanity and political career. Mr. Trump’s use of four women from the Clintons’ past as stage props to highlight their exploitation of women was so grotesque and hypocritical that it was impossible to come up with a precedent in American history.

Even before the 11-year-old tape of Donald Trump’s sexual assault braggadocio became the weekend’s big story, the candidate had already declared his independence from any notion of judicial fairness on Friday by relitigating the 1989 Central Park Five case when he pronounced the exonerated men guilty as originally charged.

Though the five men received a settlement from New York City for $41 million for convictions that sent them to jail for as long as 12 years when they were teenagers for a brutal gang rape they did not commit, Mr. Trump still refuses to be swayed by the confession of the actual rapist or the DNA evidence. He stands by his original full-page ad in New York newspapers calling for the restoration of the death penalty so that it could be used on the five teenagers who were coerced by the police into the confessions despite the lack of physical evidence.

Mr. Trump has proved himself impervious to facts and laws that don’t fit his preconceived notion of justice. For him, justice is merely an extension of a brutal, all-encompassing will to power. The law is nothing more than what he says it is and the U.S. Constitution merely a wish list of conventional legal niceties he’s free to ignore.

As Donald Trump glowered and paced the stage Sunday night looking for any advantage over a foe he senses has already beaten him, the only thing he felt he could reasonably offer the American people in exchange for their precious votes was the promise of a return to the days when President Richard Nixon used government agencies to pursue vendettas. His was a promise to jail Hillary Clinton by hook or crook. It is morally indistinguishable from his insistence that the Central Park Five are guilty despite the evidence.

The scary thing is that such perversions of justice and blatant abuses of power do appeal to a segment of voters nostalgic for the kind of leadership Mr. Trump is willing to offer.

There are Americans who want to be ruled by a democratically elected despot who will patrol Washington on their behalf, rounding up and jailing those they believe once mocked and marginalized them. These are the people Donald Trump is depending on to turn out on Nov. 8 in sufficient numbers to plunge us into the Dark Ages.

September ~ Election Year 1864

Woman making American Flag

General Sherman captures Atlanta and thereby provides a great boost to Lincoln’s campaign. Supporters such as Reverend Finney and George Templeton Strong feel increasingly optimistic about Lincoln’s re-election, the end of slavery and the conclusion of the war. On the international stage, Canada moves toward unification and the First International is formed in London, both events having effect upon the United States well into the twentieth century.

September 1– Thursday– Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada– Twenty-three delegates representing Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada [a union of Upper and Lower Canada created in 1841, now roughly equal to the provinces of Ontario and Quebec] meet to open a conference to consider the first steps toward confederation and the formation of modern Canada.

September 2– Friday– Atlanta, Georgia– Mayor James Calhoun and a small delegation ride out toward Union lines with a white flag to surrender. When they met a contingent of Federal troops Mayor Calhoun hands them a letter for General Sherman which simply says, “Sir: The fortune of war has placed Atlanta in your hands. As mayor of the city I ask protection of non-combatants and private property.” By early afternoon, Union troops reach downtown, occupy the city hall and raise the flag of the United States which has not flown there in over three years.

1-cartoon-election-of-1864-granger

September 3– Saturday– Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia– “Atlanta is ours and fairly won.” ~ Telegram from General Sherman to President Lincoln and the War Department.

September 3– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “New York City is shouting for McClellan, and there is a forced effort elsewhere to get a favorable response to the almost traitorous proceeding at Chicago. As usual, some timid Union men are alarmed, and there are some . . . who falter, and another set, like Greeley, who have an uneasy, lingering hope that they can yet have an opportunity to make a new candidate. But this will soon be over. The Chicago platform is unpatriotic, almost treasonable to the Union. The issue is made up. It is whether a war shall be made against Lincoln to get peace with Jeff Davis. Those who met at Chicago prefer hostility to Lincoln rather than to Davis. Such is extreme partisanism [sic]. . . This is the demon of party– the days of its worst form– a terrible spirit, which in its excess leads men to rejoice in the calamities of their country and to mourn its triumphs. Strange, and wayward, and unaccountable are men. While the facts are as I have stated, I cannot think these men are destitute of love of country; but they permit party prejudices and party antagonisms to absorb their better natures.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

September 3– Saturday– Stephenson’s Depot, Virginia– “We learn by the late papers that McClellan & Pendleton are the nominees of the Chicago Convention – I have not seen the Platform – but think it must be a peace one – Pendleton is a southern man in principle & it is thought he will be for peace – everything indicates a strong peace movement in the North & they may succeed in electing their candidates.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Jedediah Hotchkiss to his wife Sara.

7-copperheads-banner

September 4– Sunday– New York City– Women working as seamstresses, making garments for Union soldiers, petition the Federal government for a fair wage for their work.

September 5– Monday– Atlanta, Georgia– “I think the military prospect is brightening and Mr. Lincoln will be re-elected, but, even if McClellan should be chosen, unless he repudiates every act and word of his past life, his course cannot be essentially different. It is quite remarkable how diametrically opposed McClellan’s course has been to that advocated by the present peace faction of the Democratic party.” ~ Letter from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife Frances.

September 8– Thursday– Orange, New Jersey– “I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, informing me of my nomination by the Democratic National Convention, recently held at Chicago, as their candidate at the next election for President of the United States. It is unnecessary for me to say to you that this nomination comes to me unsought. I am happy to know that when the nomination was made, the record of my public life was kept in view. . . . The existence of more than one Government over the region which once owned our flag is incompatible with the peace, the power, and the happiness of the people. The preservation of our Union was the sole avowed object for which the war was commenced. It should have been conducted for that object only and in accordance with those principles which I took occasion to declare in active service. Thus conducted, the work of reconciliation would have been easy, and we might have reaped the benefits of our many victories on land and sea. . . . A vast majority of our people, whether in the army and navy or at home, would, as I would, hail with unbounded joy the permanent restoration of peace, on the basis of the Union under the Constitution without the effusion of another drop of blood. But no peace can be permanent without union. . . . Believing that the views here expressed are those of the Convention and the people you represent, I accept the nomination. I realize the weight of the responsibility to be borne, should the people ratify your choice. Conscious of my own weakness, I can only seek fervently the guidance of the Ruler of the Universe, and, relying on His all-powerful aid, do my best to restore union and peace to a suffering people, and to establish and guard their liberties and rights.” ~ Letter from George B. McClellan to the Democratic National Committee, accepting the nomination.

September 9– Friday– New York City– “McClellan’s letter of acceptance is in the morning papers. Will it help much? It is made up of platitudes floating in mucilage, without a single plain word against treason and rebellion. It has no ring of true metal, and no suggestion of magnetic power in word, phrase, or thought. . . . Now that Atlanta has fallen, rebel newspapers discover that it was not worth holding and declare that Sherman’s occupation of it is quite a blow top the Federal cause and equivalent to a rebel victory. Nothing is so characteristic of Southerners as brag (self-assertion, tall talking, and loud lying).” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

1864-jeff-davis-nightmare-1765w

September 9– Friday– New York City– “I have no doubt but the enemy are exceedingly anxious to hold out until after the Presidential election. They have many hopes from its effects. They hope a counter-revolution. They hope the election of the peace candidate. . . . Our peace friends, if they expect peace from separation, are much mistaken. It would be but the beginning of war, with thousands of Northern men joining the South because of our disgrace in allowing separation. To have ‘peace on any terms,’ the South would demand the restoration of their slaves already freed; they would demand indemnity for losses sustained, and they would demand a treaty which would make the North slave-hunters for the South; they would demand pay for the restoration of every slave escaped to the North.” ~ Letter from Union General Ulysses S Grant to Elihu B Washburne, Republican Congressman from Illinois and a strong supporter of President Lincoln, quoted in today’s New York Times.

September 9– Friday– Washington, D.C.– “The success of Sherman at Atlanta, following on that of Farragut at Mobile, has very much discomposed the opposition. They had planned for a great and onward demonstration for their candidate and platform, but our naval and army successes have embarrassed them exceedingly. General McClellan, in his letter of acceptance, has sent out a different and much more creditable and patriotic set of principles than the convention which nominated him; but the two are wholly irreconcilable.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

September 13– Tuesday– New York City– “A great and decisive battle may be fought in Virginia before this week ends. There will be a murder grim and great, for Lee’s hungry cohorts will fight their best. Hundreds or thousands of men, enlisted to maintain and enforce the law of the land, will perish by the violence of masterful rebels. Our Copperheads . . . Peace Democrats and the candidates and leaders, McClellan and George H Pendleton . . . are answerable for the death of every national soldier who dies in his duty.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

1864-lincoln-poster

September 13– Tuesday– Oberlin, Ohio– ” We are progressing hopefully & I think surely to the total extinction of slavery & to the subjugation of the rebel territory. Our army & navy are victorious & the end can not be far distant. It is a great wheel & at least appears to people abroad to move slowly. But in fact progress has been astonishingly rapid. To us who know what has to be done & what has been accomplished the changes have been unparalleled in the world’s history both in magnitude & in rapidity. We are now once more & I trust for the last time to have a political contest with the sympathies with rebellion at the north. I feel confident that the right will triumph & that in this political triumph that corrupt party [the Democratic] that was so long in league with the slave power had every thing in [the ] wrong way, will be finally used up.” ~ Letter from Reverend Charles G Finney to Robert and Elizabeth Best.

September 15– Thursday– New York City– “It seems impossible for the Democratic party to get rid of the idea that the main and everlasting aim and end of its existence is the defense of Slavery. Don Quixote was not more eager to rush to the aid and risk his life in the defense of forlorn and abused damsels of high degree, than the Democratic party has been at all times, and it seems still is, to rush to the defense of the old hag and harlot of Slavery.” ~ New York Times.

September 17–Saturday–Nahant, Massachusetts–John C Fremont withdraws as a candidate for president.

September 17– Saturday– New York City– “It’s certainly hard to vote for sustaining an Administration of which Stanton is a member. . . . Still it is a plain duty to uphold Lincoln, even with this millstone round his neck, as against the Chicago platform, McClellan and Pendleton.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

1864-nyin0305640297d12w

September 17– Saturday– Rochester, New York– “I, like many other radical men, freely criticized, in private and in public, the actions and utterances of Mr. Lincoln, and withheld from him my support. That possibility is now no longer conceivable; it is now plain that this country is to be governed or misgoverned during the next four years, either by the Republican Party represented in the person of Abraham Lincoln, or by the (miscalled) Democratic Party, represented by George B. McClellan. With this alternative clearly before us, all hesitation ought to cease, and every man who wishes well to the slave and to the country should at once rally with all the warmth and earnestness of his nature to the support of Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, and to the utter defeat and political annihilation of McClellan and Pendleton; for the election of the latter, with their well known antecedents, declared sentiments, and the policy avowed in the Chicago platform, would be the heaviest calamity of these years of war and blood, since it would upon the instant sacrifice and wantonly cast away everything valuable, purchased so dearly by the precious blood of our brave sons and brothers on the battlefield for the perfect liberty and permanent peace of a common country.” ~ Letter from Frederick Douglass to William Lloyd Garrison.

September 20– Tuesday– New York City– “Hurrah for Sheridan and Sherman! If Grant can but do as well as his lieutenants have done, the rebellion will be played out before November. The military value of this victory is great but it is worth still more as influencing the political campaign and contributing to the determination of the fearful issue that campaign is to decide: nationality or anarchy.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

September 21– Wednesday– New York City– “Sheridan seems doing much to help our defense. His victory of the 19th grows bigger and higher as we learn more about it and about his way of following it up. It was a hard-fought battle, decided at last by a heavy cavalry charge.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

lincoln-johnson-poster-g64

September 21– Wednesday– Washington, D. C.– “The victory of Sheridan has a party-political influence. It is not gratifying to the opponents of the Administration. Some who want to rejoice in it feel it difficult to do so, because they are conscious that it strengthens the Administration, to which they are opposed. The partisan feeling begins to show itself strongly among men of whom it was not expected. . . . Some attempt is made by the Richmond papers to help the cause of McClellan by an affectation of dread of his superior military attainments and abilities and his greater zeal for the Union. The effort is so bald, so manifestly intended for their sympathizing friends, that no one can be deceived by it. There was a time when such stuff had a market in the North, but that time has gone by.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

September 23– Friday– Augusta, Georgia–”The doctrine of self government I suppose of course to be right and yet our Southern people do not appear to have learned the art, even if they had the right granted them. Where is there more power exercised than is displayed in the manner in which our Generals are ‘relieved’? But as to the doctrine of slavery altho I have read very few abolition books (Uncle Tom’s Cabin making most impression) nor have I read many pro slavery books, yet the idea has gradually become more and more fixed in my mind that the institution of slavery is not right . . . . During my comparatively short life, spent wholly under Southern skies, I have known of and heard too much of its demoralizing influence to consider the institution a blessing.” ~ Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas.

hith-lincoln-reelection-1864-lincoln-campaign-poster-e

September 25– Sunday– McMinnville, Tennessee– “With Sherman’s success in Georgia– Farragut’s at Mobile– Sheridan’s in the Shenandoah Valley—the death of General Morgan and other minor successes of the Federals—it is no wonder we feel gloomy. . . . Well, it grows harder and harder with us, oh! I dread this coming winter. . . . Great Heaven! when shall we have rest and peace? Will it ever come in our day? I am becoming a sad-souled woman– full of secret sorrows– full of heart-burnings, full of longing for the great and good– full of impatience and repining at the chains, the iron chains of everyday circumstance which bind me back from all that my better nature aspires to!” ~ Journal of Lucy Virginia French.

September 28– Wednesday– London, England– A varied assortment of leftists and radicals from England, Ireland, France, Germany, Poland and Italy meet at St Martin’s Hall. They form the International Workingmen’s Association [a/k/a The First International, which will function in various states of turmoil until 1876].

Late September ~ Election Year 1876

Woman making American Flag

By the end of September, the race for president is intensely competitive. With five weeks to go before election day, the Democrats have high hopes of winning the presidency.

Around the world, warfare and strife draw little attention from Americans. The Ottoman sultan was deposed in May and his nephew Abdul Hamid II now rules and will remain on the throne until 1909. The new sultan faced rebellion in the Balkans from Bulgarians and Serbs but now the bloody repression by Turkey is complete. British newspapers and a booklet by former prime minister William Gladstone stir up anger against Turkey as the atrocities come to light. Ethiopia and Egypt are engaged a year-long war. In Europe, Russia has a standing army of 3,360,000 soldiers; Germany, 2,800,000 soldiers; France, 412,000 soldiers; Great Britain, 113,000 soldiers. However, Britain has the most powerful navy in the world, with 248 warships and 54,400 sailors. In November, 1875, Britain obtained control of the Suez Canal by purchasing all the shares owned by the Khedive of Egypt who was deeply in debt.

King Leopold II of Belgium hosts the Brussels Geographic Conference on the subject of colonizing and exploring central Africa and leads the formation of the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Africa, which will primarily benefit the imperialist aims of European powers.

The defeat of General Custer in June created much anti-Indian feeling and U S Army operations on the Great Plains continue against a number of Native American nations. In Arizona Territory many Chiricahua Apaches are forced on to a reservation; however, a band of warriors led by Geronimo, age 47, flee into Mexico and will carry on guerrilla warfare against Mexicans and Americans for the next ten years. Military personnel on active duty include 28,565 in the Army, 10,046 in the Navy and 1,980 in the Marine Corps.

1876

The Republican ticket is headed by Rutherford Hayes (age 54) and William Wheeler (age 57). Hayes, a native of Ohio, is a graduate of Kenyon College, a lawyer, politician, served in the Union Army and in Congress, and is governor of Ohio. His support at the convention came from men such as John Sherman, James Garfield and Carl Schurz. Wheeler, a native of New York, is a lawyer and politician, a recent childless widower, his wife having died only a few months ago, and a relative unknown selected as a compromise candidate by rival Republican factions.

imagesv2q1tzmt

The Democratic ticket is headed by Samuel Tilden (age 62) and Thomas Hendricks (age 57). Tilden, a native of New York, is a lawyer, activist in Democratic politics, reformer of New York City politics and has served as governor of the state since the election of 1874. Hendricks, born in Ohio, has lived in Indiana since being age 1, graduated from Hanover College, is a lawyer, served in the U S Senate from 1863 to 1869 where he constantly criticized Lincoln’s Administration and opposed emancipation as well as the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, and became governor of Indiana.

Republican strategy & campaign issues: Denouncing the Democrats; support for civil rights; promise to fulfill pledges to Union Civil War veterans; support protective tariffs; see that public land is divided and distributed to homesteaders, not railroads and big corporations; “waving the bloody shirt” by continuing to blame the Democrats for causing the Civil War, keeping the war as key issue in front of veterans and those who lost loved ones. “Not every Democrat was a rebel, but every rebel was a Democrat. Every man that tried to destroy this nation was a Democrat. Every man that loved slavery better than liberty was a Democrat.”

1876-evils

“What the South most needs is peace, and peace depends upon the supremacy of law. There can be no enduring peace, if the constitutional rights of any portion of the people are habitually disregarded. A division of political parties, resting merely upon distinctions of race, or upon sectional lines, is always unfortunate, and may be disastrous.” ~ Rutherford B. Hayes.

Former slave and abolitionist Frederick Douglass supports the Republican ticket. Republican literature includes portraits of Lucy Webb Hayes, age 45, active Methodist and temperance advocate, mother of 5 children who survived to adulthood and 3 who died in infancy, and helped establish a home for the orphans of soldiers at Xenia, Ohio, while her husband was governor of Ohio.

tilden_and_hendricks_campaign_poster

Democratic strategy and campaign issues: Advocacy of honest, efficient government as opposed to the Grant administration’s corruption; an end to “the rapacity of carpetbag tyrannies” in the South; restrict immigration from Asia, particularly China; tariff reform; opposition to land grants to railroads; civil service reform; ending Reconstruction by the withdrawal of Federal troops from the states of the former Confederacy. “Sound currency, An Honest Administration, Economy & Reform Will Bring Prosperity.”

“I have always thought that only as a Democrat, reflecting Jefferson and Jackson, could justice ever be done the people because, at this moment in history, ours is the only party which is even faintly responsive to the force of ideas.” ~ Samuel Tilden.

Third Party candidates:

Greenback Party~ Peter Cooper and Samuel F. Cary. Cooper, age 85, a New York native, is an inventor, industrialist, entrepreneur and philanthropist who seeks a balanced federal budget and relief for the poor. Cary, age 62, a native Ohio, is a graduate of Miami (Ohio) University, a lawyer, temperance advocate and politician.

Prohibition Party~ Green Clay Smith and Gideon T. Stewart. Smith, age 50, a native of Kentucky, is a graduate of Transylvania (Kentucky) University, a veteran of the Union Army, politician, lawyer, Baptist minister and temperance advocate. Stewart, age 52, born in New York, is an Ohio lawyer, newspaper owner and publisher, and active temperance advocate.

The American National Party~ James B. Walker and Donald Kirkpatrick. [Very little is known about these two men.]

1876 Election: The 'Reformed' Democratic Ticket of Hendricks-Tilden

1876 Election: The ‘Reformed’ Democratic Ticket of Hendricks-Tilden

Registered voters number 10,291,759– approximately 22.5% of the total population as women are not enfranchised. Less than 30% live in urban areas. Children age 14 and under constitute approximately 4.5% of the population and 0.5% of the population are age 60 and older. Women account for 49.4% of the population. Over 16% of the total population earn their living on farms while only 5.8% of the total population earn a living in manufacturing. The six New England states hold 8.8% of the population; New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania combined have 22.1% of the population; 10.3% live in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida combined; Texas has 2.0%; the three states of the Pacific coast combined have 1.7% of the total population.

In the Electoral College system, there are 369 votes this year and a candidate must have 185 of them to win the presidency. Based upon population, the states with the largest votes in the Electoral College are New York-35, Pennsylvania-29, Ohio-22, Illinois-21, Indiana-15, Missouri-15, Massachusetts-13, Kentucky-12, Tennessee-12, Michigan-12. The candidate who can win these states would be within 10 electoral votes of winning. Both major parties believe that they can do this.

July ~ Election Year 1920

american-flag-pictures-8-622x415

The Democrats nominate a liberal from Ohio. Palestine and Ireland are troublesome for Great Britain. Women seem to be making more gains in places other than the United States.

July 1– Thursday– Baton Rouge, Louisiana– The state legislature rejects the Nineteenth Amendment.

July 1– Thursday– Ottawa, Ontario, Canada– The Dominion Elections Act establishes uniform franchise and the right for women to be elected to parliament is made permanent.

July 1– Thursday– London, England– King George V names Sir Herbert Louis Samuel as the first British High Commissioner of Palestine.

NPG Ax39163; Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel by Walter Stoneman, for  James Russell & Sons

Sir Herbert L Samuel

 

July 3– Saturday–San Francisco, California– The platform of the Democratic Party favors joining the League of Nations, rules in the U S Senate “as will permit the prompt transaction of the nation’s legislative business,” revision of the tax code, reduction of tariffs, quick ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment “in time for all the women of the United States to participate in the fall election,” prohibition of child labor, vocational training in home economics, participation by women and federal and state employment services, larger appropriations for disabled veterans, improvement of roads, the use of motor vehicles to deliver the mail, improvement of inland waterways, acquisition of sources at home and abroad for petroleum and other minerals, self-government for Ireland and for Armenia, independence of the Philippines, statehood for Puerto Rico and prohibition of immigrants from Asia.

July 5– Monday– Franklin, New Hampshire– Birth of Mary Louise Hancock, politician and activist, known as the Queen Bee of the state’s politics.

July 6– Tuesday–San Francisco, California– The Democratic Convention closes after nominating James Cox for President on the 44th ballot. Franklin Delano Roosevelt is nominated by acclamation for Vice President. [Cox, age 50, a native of Ohio, is a journalist, publisher, liberal politician and served as Governor of Ohio from 1913 to 1915 and again from 1917 to 1921. Dies July 15, 1957.]

James_M__Cox_1920

James Cox

 

July 9– Friday– Quebec City, Canada– Louis-Alexandre Taschereau, age 53, a lawyer and a member of the Liberal Party, becomes premier of Quebec, replacing Sir Lomer Gouin

July 10– Saturday–Wilmington, North Carolina– Birth of David Brinkley, reporter and television journalist from 1943 to 1997. [Dies June 11, 2003.]

David_Brinkley_1962

David Brinkley

 

July 10– Saturday– San Francisco, California– Birth of Owen Chamberlain, physicist and advocate for peace and justice. [Wins the Nobel physics prize in1959. Dies February 28, 2006.]

July 10– Saturday– Ottawa, Ontario, Canada– Arthur Meighen, age 46, a lawyer and member of the Unionist Party, becomes prime minister, replacing Sir Robert Borden.

July 10– Saturday– Madrid, Spain– Donna Maria Eugenie de Montijo, widow of French Emperor Napoleon III, dies at age 94 while visiting family.

Empress_Eugenie_1880

Donna Maria Eugenie de Montijo

 

July 12– Monday– Montpelier, Vermont– Governor Percival Clement, Republican, declines to call a special legislative session to vote on ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.

July 12– Monday– Vicksburg, Mississippi– Birth of Beah Richards, African American actress. [Dies September 14, 2000.]

July 12– Monday– Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada– Pierre Berton, historian and author. [Dies November 30, 2004.]

July 12– Monday– Vilnius, Lithuania– Lithuania and the Soviet Union sign a peace treaty, recognizing Lithuania as an independent republic.

July 13– Tuesday– Jerusalem, Palestine– The Muslim-Christian Associations begin a two-day general strike protesting against the British mandate and the behavior of the British army.

July 14– Wednesday– Chicago, Illinois– The Farmer-Labor Party nominates Parley Christensen, a lawyer, educator and politician, age 51 [dies February 10, 1954] for President and Max Hayes for Vice President.

July 18– Sunday– Washington, D.C.– James M. Cox and Franklin Roosevelt confer with President Wilson at the White House.

414822

July 20– Tuesday– Boston, Massachusetts– Birth of Elliot L Richardson, diplomat, lawyer and politician who will hold four different cabinet posts under Presidents Nixon and Ford. [Dies December 31, 1999.]

July 21– Wednesday– Dublin, Ireland– Reports abound that Irish Nationalist and Loyalists are engaging in fighting in several cities and towns over the issue of Irish independence from Britain, though the Loyalists are supported by 1500 British Auxiliaries and 5800 British troops.

July 21– Wednesday– Kreminiecz, Ukraine, Soviet Union– Birth of Isaac Stern, violinist and conductor. [Dies September 22, 2001.]

July 22– Thursday– Omaha, Nebraska– Prohibition Party nominates Aaron S. Watkins for president and D. Leigh Colvin for vice-president

July 23– Friday– Indianapolis, Indiana– May Eliza Wright Sewall, educator, school administrator, suffrage activist, lecturer, author and pacifist, dies at age 76 from nephritis.

Sewall_May_Wright

July 23– Friday– London, England– British East Africa is renamed Kenya and designated a British crown colony with Major-General Edward Northey named by King George V as the first governor.

July 23– Friday– Belfast, Ireland– Fourteen die and one hundred are injured in fierce rioting.

July 24– Saturday– New York City– Birth of Bella Abzug, lawyer, social activist, feminist and member of Congress. [Dies March 31, 1998.]

Bella_Savitsky_Abzug

Bella Abzug

 

July 25– Sunday– London, England– Birth of Rosalind Franklin, chemist and molecular biologist. [Dies April 16, 1958.]

July 28– Wednesday– Bristol, England– The first women jury members in England are empaneled at the Bristol Quarter Sessions.

July 30– Friday– off Queenstown, IrelandBritish military detain Irish-born Bishop Daniel Mannix, Archbishop of Melbourne, Australia, onboard the RMS Baltic and prevent him from landing in Ireland.

RMS_Baltic

June ~ Election Year 1920

Woman making American Flag

The Republicans nominate a dark horse who likes women to whom he is not married. Henry Ford’s newspaper carries anti-Semitic articles. The Democratic National Convention opens at the end of the month. The propose Nineteenth Amendment is not yet ratified and the Republicans are not doing much do complete ratification.

June 1– Tuesday– Washington, D. C.– United States Supreme Court rules that state referenda are not part of the federal constitutional amendment process.

June 1– Tuesday– Mexico City, Mexico– Adolfo de la Huerta becomes president of Mexico.

Adolfo_de_la_Huerta

Adolfo de la Huerta

 

June 2– Wednesday– Dover, Delaware– The state legislature refuses to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment.

June 3– Thursday– New York City– The American Jewish Committee telegraphs automaker Henry Ford, age 58, protesting the anti-Semitic nature of the series entitled “The International Jew” which Ford has been running in the Dearborn [Michigan] Independent, a newspaper he owns.

June 5– Saturday– New York City– The Literary Digest poll puts Warren G. Harding eighth among Republican presidential candidates, below even Calvin Coolidge and William Howard Taft.

June 7– Monday– New York City– Harding visits his younger mistress, 23 year old Nan Britton.

Chicago_Coliseum

Chicago Coliseum

 

June 8– Tuesday– Chicago, Illinois– The Republican National Convention opens at the Coliseum with 984 voting delegates present. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, age 70, delivers the keynote address.

June 11– Friday– Chicago, Illinois– The Republican National Convention has adopted a platform which favors continuing intervention in Mexico, reduced taxation so as to not “needlessly repress enterprise and thrift,” protective tariffs, conservation of natural resources, exclusion of Asian immigrants, reducing the number and types of immigrants granted admission, denying free speech to aliens, the construction of highways, an end to lynching, quick ratification of the Woman Suffrage [Nineteenth] Amendment, enforcement of civil service laws, vocational and agricultural training, restriction of child labor and limitation on the hours of women working “in intensive industry,” no additional appropriations for disabled veterans, and which opposes the League of Nations, recognition of an Armenian state, and strikes by labor. It accuses the outgoing Wilson Administration of being unprepared for war and equally now unprepared for peace.

June 12– Saturday– Chicago, Illinois– The Republican National Convention closes, having taken ten rounds of balloting to nominate Warren G Harding for President. The decision on Harding as the choice was literally made in the early hours of the morning in a smoke-filled hotel room by party leaders, including six senior U S Senators. Harding, a native of Ohio, is 54 years old, a journalist, businessman and a member of the U S Senate since 1915. In the primaries he won only 4.54% of the total votes cast. While privately a heavy drinker, he publicly supports prohibition, favors big business and high protective tariffs, opposes the League of Nations and voted against the nomination of Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court. Married to Florence King De Wolfe, he has liaisons with two other women, one of whom– Nan Britton– bore his daughter in 1919.

BUTTON

June 12– Saturday– Chicago, Illinois– “Ours is not only a fortunate people but a very common-sensical people, with vision high, but their feet on the earth, with belief in themselves and faith in God. Whether enemies threaten from without or menaces arise from within, there is some indefinable voice saying, ‘Have confidence in the Republic! America will go on!’ Here is a temple of liberty no storms may shake, here are the altars of freedom no passions shall destroy. It was American in conception, American in its building, it shall be American in the fulfillment. Sectional once, we are all American now, and we mean to be all Americans to all the world. Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, my countrymen all: I would not be my natural self if I did not utter my consciousness of my limited ability to meet your full expectations, or to realize the aspirations within my own breast, but I will gladly give all that is in me, all of heart, soul and mind and abiding love of country, to service in our common cause. I can only pray to the Omnipotent God that I may be as worthy in service as I know myself to be faithful in thought and purpose. One can not give more. Mindful of the vast responsibilities, I must be frankly humble, but I have that confidence in the consideration and support of all true Americans which makes me wholly unafraid. With an unalterable faith and in a hopeful spirit, with a hymn of service in my heart, I pledge fidelity to our country and to God, and accept the nominations of the Republican Party for the Presidency of the United States.” ~ Letter from Warren G Harding, accepting the Republican nomination.

June 13– Sunday– Chicago, Illinois– Seymour Stedman, a lawyer, age 49, opens the campaign of the Socialist Party. He is the Party’s nominee for Vice-President. Eugene V Debs, the candidate for President, is in federal prison for speaking out against American entry into the European war in 1917.

tumblr_static_2ge2k0fng2jo4gok8gokwg0sc

Debs campaign button

 

June 20– Sunday– Chicago, Illinois– Violence erupts between white and black people. Grover Cleveland Redding, a black man, is arrested on various charges, including murder.

June 21– Monday– Marion, Ohio– Alice Paul, feminist and suffrage activist, meets with Warren G Harding, the Republican nominee for President. [Paul, 1885-1977, a native of New Jersey, is a lawyer, feminist, activist and organizer, founder of the National Woman’s Party, and served time in jail for a 1917 protest in front of the White House.]

June 22– Tuesday– Marion, Ohio– The Harding campaign announces that its slogan is “Back to Normal.”

June 23– Wednesday– New York City– Charles F Murphy, age 62, political boss of Tammany Hall, is indicted along with five others on federal charges.

June 25– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– Governor Calvin Coolidge, age 48, Republican nominee for Vice-President, announces that he will not pressure Vermont and Connecticut to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment.

June 26– Saturday– Dearborn, Michigan– The Dearborn Independent, owned by Henry Ford, begins publication of another series of anti-Semitic articles.

June 27– Sunday– Chicago, Illinois– Republican National Committee Chairman Will Hays meets privately with Carrie Fulton Phillips, a mistress of Warren G Harding. In return for annual payments from the Republican Party, Mrs Phillips agrees not to make public her love letters to and from Republican candidate Harding. [On July 29, 2014, approximately 1,000 pages of these letters are made public by the Library of Congress.] About Harding’s fondness for women Senator Boies Penrose Penrose, Republican from Pennsylvania, has said to other Republican leaders, “No worries about that! We’ll just throw a halo around his handsome head and everything will be all right.”

Portrait_of_Carrie_Fulton_Phillips

Carrie Fulton Phillips, one of Harding’s mistresses

 

June 27 – Sunday– Washington, D.C.– William Gibbs McAdoo, age 56 and married to Woodrow Wilson’s daughter, declares that he will accept the Democratic nomination for President if it is offered to him.

June 28– Monday– San Francisco, California– The Democratic National Convention opens in the Civic Auditorium with 1,091 voting delegates in attendance. It is the first time that a convention of either major party is held west of the Rocky Mountains. Almost 30% of the delegates arrive unpledged.

Civic-Auditorium-SFPLAAB-8224

San Francisco Civic Auditorium

 

June 29– Tuesday– Albany, New York– Dudley Field Malone, age 38, graduate of Fordham Law School and a liberal activist, is nominated by New York State branch of the Farmer-Labor Party for governor of the state.

June 29– Tuesday– London, England–Edward M House, age 62, foreign affairs advisor to President Wilson, tells British reporters that Harding and the Republicans may lose the election due to overconfidence, that if the Nineteenth Amendment is soon ratified it will send fifteen to twenty million women into the pool of voters, the next administration will ratify the Versailles Treaty, and any Republican or Democratic public support for the independence of Ireland “certainly would be unpleasant to Great Britain.”

Edward_M__House_in_1915

Edward M House

 

June 30– Wednesday– San Francisco, California– Franklin Delano Roosevelt places Al Smith in nomination for the Democratic standard bearer in the up-coming presidential race.

June 30– Wednesday– Jaffa, Palestine– British soldiers shoot and kill two Arab demonstrators.

Before Hillary, there was Belva

Woman making American Flag

Before Hillary Clinton, there was Belva Lockwood

Belva Ann Bennett McNall Lockwood, 1830– 1917, was a feminist, pacifist, suffragist, educator, lecturer, civil rights advocate, lawyer, the first woman to be admitted to practice in the U S Supreme Court, and a candidate for president of the United States in 1884 and again in 1888.

1879Lockwood

“Like Shakespeare’s Portia, Lockwood used wit, ingenuity, and sheer force of will to unsettle society’s conceptions of women as weak in body and mind. But Portia, to accomplish her mission, impersonated a man before revealing who she was. Lockwood, in contrast, used no disguise in tackling the prevailing notion that women and lawyering, no less politics, do not mix. Not only did she become the first woman admitted to the Bar of the Supreme Court, she ran twice for the office of President of the United States.”–Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, January 24, 2008.

Here is her platform for the 1884 campaign:

[Democratic Platform Committee take note. While some of these planks are not applicable to our contemporary situation, some are and the intent of the whole platform worthy of emulation. Any questions, ask Bernie!]

1. We pledge ourselves, if elected to power, so far as in us lies to do equal and exact justice to every class of our citizens, without distinction of color, sex, or nationality.

2. We shall recommend that the laws of the several states be so amended that women will be recognized as voters, and their property-rights made equal with that of the male population, to the end that they may become self-supporting rather than a dependent class.

3. It will be our earnest endeavor to revive the now lagging industries of the country by encouraging and strengthening our commercial relations with other countries, especially with the Central and South American States, whose wealth of productions are now largely diverted to England and other European countries, for lack of well-established steamship lines and railroad communications between these countries and our own; encourage exports by an effort to create a demand for our home productions; and to this end we deem that a moderate tariff-sufficient to protect the laboring classes, but not so high as to keep our goods out of the market-as most likely to conserve the best interests of our whole people. That is to say, we shall avoid as much as possible a high protective tariff on the one hand, and free trade on the other. We shall also endeavor, by all laudable means, to increase the wages of laboring man and women. Our protective system will be most earnestly exerted to protect the commonwealth of the country from venality and corruption in high places.

4. It will be our earnest effort to see that the solemn contract made with the soldiers of the country on enlistment into the United States service-viz.: that if disabled therein they should be pensioned-strictly carried out; and that without unnecessary expense and delay to them; and a re-enactment of the Arrears Act.

5. We shall discountenance by every legal means the liquor traffic, because its tendency is to demoralize the youth of the land, to lower the standard of morality among the people; and we do not believe that the revenue derived from it would feed and clothe the paupers that it makes, and the money expended on its account in the courts, workhouses, and prisons.

6. We believe that the only solution of the Indian question is, to break up all of their small principalities and chieftainships, that have ever presented the anomaly of small kingdoms scattered through a republic, and ever liable to break out in some unexpected locality, and which have been hitherto maintained at such great expense to the government, and treat the Indian like a rational human being, as we have the Negro– make him a citizen, amenable to the laws, and let him manage his own private affairs.

7. That it is but just that every protection granted to citizens of the United States by birth should also be secured to the citizens of the United States by adoption.

lockwood_belva_ann

8. We shall continue gradually to pay the public debt and to refund the balance, but not in such manner as to curtail the circulating medium of the country, so as to embarrass trade; but pledge ourselves that every dollar shall be paid in good time.

9. We oppose monopoly, the tendency of which is to make the rich richer, and the poor poorer, as opposed to the genius and welfare of republican institutions.

10. We shall endeavor to aid in every laudable way the work of educating the masses of the people, not only in book knowledge, but in physical, moral, and social culture, in such a manner as will tend to elevate the standard of American manhood and womanhood-that the individual may receive the highest possible development.

11. We recommend a uniform system of laws for the several states as desirable, as far as practicable; and especially the laws relating to the descent of property, marriage and divorce, and the limitation of contracts.

12. We will endeavor to maintain the peaceable relations which now exist between the various sections of our vast country, and strive to enter into a compact of peace with the other American as well as the European nations, in order that the peace which we now enjoy may become perpetual. We believe that war is a relic of barbarism belonging to the past, and should only be resorted to in the direst extremity.

13. That the dangers of a solid South or a solid North shall be averted by a strict regard to the interests of every section of the country, a fair distribution of public offices, and such a distribution of the public funds, for the increase of the facilities of inter-commercial relations, as will restore the South to her former industrial prestige, develop the exhaustless resources of the West, foster the iron, coal, and woolen interests of the Middle States, and revive the manufactures of the East.

14. We shall foster evil service, believing that a true civil service reform, honestly and candidly administered, will lift us out of the imputation of having become a nation of office seekers, and have a tendency to develop in candidates for office an earnest desire to make themselves worthy and capable of performing the duties of the office that they desire to fill; and, in order to make the reform a permanent one, recommend that it be engrafted into the Constitution of the United States.

15. It will be the policy of the Equal Rights party to see that the residue of the public domain is parceled out to actual settlers only, that the honest yeomanry of the land, and especially those who have fought to preserve it, shall enjoy its benefits.

bellalockwood

June ~ Election Year 1856

Woman making American Flag

The Democratic and the Republican parties hold their conventions and adopt their platforms. Talk about the dissolution of the country is heard, debate about slavery continues and civil war rages in Kansas, which worries some Northern women. Black people adopt a wait-and-see attitude about the candidates. New York lawyer and diarist George Templeton Strong is unimpressed by the Democratic candidate but worries that a Republican victory is a decade away. Cotton is key to the American economy.

June 1– Sunday– New York City– “The idea of dissolution and division is intolerable. Union is a necessity. Schism is ruin to both fragments of the nation. Do not our preponderance in material wealth, intelligence, and every element of political power enable us to assert that union must and shall exist, that there shall be no decomposition, that we will maintain the Union against Southern folly?” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

GeorgeTempletonStrong

George Templeton Strong

 

June 2– Monday– Cincinnati, Ohio– The Democratic National Convention opens at the Smith & Nixon Hall.

June 3– Tuesday– New York City– “Nominating convention of the Democracy parturient at Cincinnati and in puerperal convulsion. It may bring forth Pierce, Douglas, Buchanan, or somebody else, as our Southern rulers shall determine, and I doubt if the north be even yet sufficiently irritated to unite in defeating their nominee.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

June 4– Wednesday– Cincinnati, Ohio– The platform of the Democratic Party, in its key parts, asserts that the Federal government cannot carry on internal improvements, cannot interfere with slavery, should encourage immigration, fully enforce all the provisions of the Compromise of 1850, particularly the Fugitive Slave Act, support “progressive free trade throughout the world” and make every possible effort “to insure our ascendency in the Gulf of Mexico.”

Elizabeth-Hart-Jarvis-colt-mr-samuel-colt-portraits

Elizabeth Jarvis Colt & Samuel Colt

 

June 5– Thursday– Hartford, Connecticut– Inventor and industrialist Samuel Colt, age 41, weds Elizabeth Hart Jarvis, age 29, the daughter of an Episcopal clergyman. Their wedding cake is six feet high and decorated with fondant pistols and rifles. [When her husband dies in early 1862, Elizabeth will run the company until retiring in 1901. Upon her death on August 23, 1905, much of her wealth is bequeathed to various arts and charitable organizations.]

June 6– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts–”The Fugitive Slave Law and its Victims. This is the title of No. 18 of the series of Anti-Slavery Tracts. It has been prepared with the utmost carefulness and great labor by [Reverend] Samuel May, Jr, the General Agent of the Massachusetts Anti– Slavery Society, a copy of which every one, desirous of knowing what have been the operations of the Fugitive Slave Law, ‘that enactment of hell,’ should posses. It is a terrible record, which the people of this country should never allow to sleep in oblivion, until the disgraceful and bloody system of slavery is swept from our land, and with it, all Compromise Bills, all Constitutional Guarantees to Slavery, all Fugitive Slave Laws. It makes 48 pages, small type, and is sold at cost price– 5 cents single; 50 cents per dozen; $4 per hundred. For sale at the Anti-Slavery Office, 21 Cornhill.” ~ The Liberator. [Samuel J May, age 58, is a Unitarian minister, a graduate of Harvard and of Cambridge, a conductor on the underground railroad to help fugitive slaves escape to freedom, an advocate of peace, woman’s rights, and efficient public education, and pastors a Unitarian congregation in Syracuse, New York since 1845. He is an important influence upon his niece, Louisa May Alcott. On his life and work, see his own Some Recollections of Our Antislavery Conflict (1869) as well as Samuel Joseph May and the Dilemmas of the Liberal Persuasion, 1797-1871 (1991) by Donald Yacovone; The Jerry Rescue: the Fugitive Slave Law, Northern Rights, and the American Sectional Crisis (2016) by Angela F. Murphy.]

Samuel_Joseph_May

Reverend Samuel J May

 

June 6– Friday– Cincinnati, Ohio– The Democratic Convention concludes with James Buchanan the nominee after 17 rounds of balloting, supporters of President Pierce having early thrown their support to Senator Stephen A Douglas of Illinois. However, Douglas withdraws on the 16th ballot.Buchanan is a native of Pennsylvania, age65, a graduate of Dickinson College, an unmarried lawyer, wealthy with a personal fortune estimated at $300,000 [$8,640,000 in today’s money, using the Consumer Price Index], has served in both houses of Congress as well as in several diplomatic posts, sees the duty of the Federal government to protect the existence of slavery and joins Southerners in believing that abolitionist material may spur a slave insurrection. [On Buchanan, see James Buchanan and the Political Crisis of the 1850s (1996) edited by Michael J. Birkner.]

James_Buchanan

James Buchanan

 

June 8– Sunday– New York City– “It ought to be remembered that slavery, which lies at the bottom of Southern institutions, society, and property, which enables the Southern gentleman to buy comforts for his wife and food for his children, on which Southern girls marry, and families depend, and which is interwoven with and supports the whole fabric of Southern life, is condemned as a wrong and a sin by the whole civilized world. . . . The South has all the culture, civilization, intelligence, and progress of the nineteenth century against it, unanimous in declaring that it lives on oppression and robbery.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

June 9– Monday– Iowa City, Iowa – About 495 Mormon believers begin their journey heading west for Salt Lake City, Utah, carrying all their possessions in two-wheeled handcarts. They are mostly European immigrants too poor to afford horses or oxen. Twenty will die during this trip but the others arrive safely in Salt Lake City on Friday, September 26.

June 10– Tuesday– Peace Dale, Rhode Island– Birth of Caroline Hazard, author, and president of Wellesley College from 1899 to 1910. [Dies March 19, 1945.]

chazard

Caroline Hazard

 

June 12– Thursday– New York City– The North American Party Convention, composed of delegates who walked out of the American Party National Convention back in February, opens in the Apollo Rooms.

June 13– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– “The National Democratic Convention, last week, at Cincinnati, on the seventeenth ballot, unanimously agreed upon James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, as the Democratic candidate for the Presidency of the United States. On the third ballot, John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, was selected as the Democratic candidate for the Vice Presidency. The Convention endorsed filibustering and border ruffianism, in full. In spirit and purpose, it was an infernal conclave, and ‘hell from beneath’ was moved to ecstasy at its coming.” ~ The Liberator.

June 14– Saturday– New York City– “Smith and Nixon’s Hall, used by the Democratic Convention, is situated on Fourth street, Cincinnati, in a very central position as regards both the hotels and business of the city, and is placed on the ground floor, some eighty or ninety feet back from the street, (which prevents an exterior view being given,) thus securing great convenience of access, security in case of fire, and freedom from outside ‘noise and confusion.. It is seated with arms-chairs below and pews above, and seats comfortably over two thousand persons.” ~ Frank Leslie’s Weekly

smith & nixon hall

Smith & Nixon Hall

 

June 17– Tuesday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– The Republican National Convention opens in the Musical Fund Hall. This is the first national convention of the new party which was formed only two years ago. About 600 delegates are present, representing primarily the Northern states and the border states of Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky. Virginia is represented but no other Southern states have delegates present.

musical2

Musical Fund Hall

 

June 18– Wednesday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– The Republican Party adopts a platform which declares: “This Convention of Delegates, assembled in pursuance of a call addressed to the people of the United States, without regard to past political differences or divisions, who are opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; to the policy of the present Administration; to the extension of Slavery into Free Territory; in favor of the admission of Kansas as a Free State; of restoring the action of the Federal Government to the principles of Washington and Jefferson; and for the purpose of presenting candidates for the offices of President and Vice-President, do . . . . Resolve: That . . . we hold it to be a self-evident truth, that all men are endowed with the inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and that the primary object and ulterior design of our Federal Government were to secure these rights to all persons under its exclusive jurisdiction; that, as our Republican fathers . . . had abolished Slavery in all our National Territory, . . . it becomes our duty to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it for the purpose of establishing Slavery in the Territories of the United States by positive legislation, prohibiting its existence or extension therein. . . . That the Constitution confers upon Congress sovereign powers over the Territories of the United States for their government; and that in the exercise of this power, it is both the right and the imperative duty of Congress to prohibit in the Territories those twin relics of barbarism– Polygamy, and Slavery. . . . That . . . the dearest Constitutional rights of the people of Kansas have been fraudulently and violently taken from them. Their Territory has been invaded by an armed force; . . . . the offenders have been allowed to go unpunished; That all these things have been done with the knowledge, sanction, and procurement of the present National Administration . . . . Resolve, That Kansas should be immediately admitted as a state of this Union, with her present Free Constitution . . . . Resolve, That the highwayman’s plea, that ‘might makes right,’ embodied in the Ostend Circular [to seize Cuba by military force], was in every respect unworthy of American diplomacy, and would bring shame and dishonor . . . . Resolve, That a railroad to the Pacific Ocean by the most central and practicable route is imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country, and that the Federal Government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction . . . . Resolve, That appropriations by Congress for the improvement of rivers and harbors, of a national character, required for the accommodation and security of our existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution, and justified by the obligation of the Government to protect the lives and property of its citizens. Resolve, That we invite the affiliation and cooperation of the men of all parties, however differing from us in other respects, in support of the principles herein declared; and believing that the spirit of our institutions as well as the Constitution of our country, guarantees liberty of conscience and equality of rights among citizens, we oppose all legislation impairing their security.”

elizabeth marbury-01

Elizabeth Marbury

 

June 19– Thursday– New York City– Birth of Elizabeth Marbury, author, theatrical agent and Democratic Party activist. [Dies January 22, 1933.]

June 19– Thursday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– The Republican National Convention concludes with John C Fremont of California having secured the nomination on the 2nd round of balloting. Fremont, the son of a French emigre, was born in Savannah, Georgia, is 43 years old, has earned a reputation as a soldier and explorer, particularly for his role in seizing California from Mexico during the war of 1846. His marriage in October, 1841, to Jessie Benton, the daughter of Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, has given Fremont connections to money and politics. He served as one of the first two U S senators from California when it became a state and he has a reputation as an opponent of slavery. [The literature on Fremont and his wife is extensive; an interested reader can start with the following: John C Fremont, Western Pathfinder (1953) by Sanford Tousey; John C Fremont and the Republican Party (1930) by Ruhl J Bartlett; The Origin and Early History of the Republican Party (1906) by William Barnes; Fremont, the West’s Greatest Adventurer (1928) by Allan Nevins; Recollections of Elizabeth Benton Fremont, Daughter of the Pathfinder General John C Fremont and Jessie Benton Fremont, His Wife (1912) by Elizabeth Benton Fremont.]

JCFrémont

James C Fremont

 

June 20– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– “In answer to this call, quite a number of men and women met at 10, this forenoon. A Mrs Hibbard was chosen President, and several women Vice Presidents and Secretaries. Committees were appointed, and the Convention organized by appointing women to perform the work of the Convention. Two men, just escaped from the murderous hands of the Border Ruffians, were present, and addressed the meeting. The President made an interesting introductory address, appealing to the women of the State to come to the help of their outraged brothers and sisters in Kansas, and their two millions outraged sisters in a slavery worse than death. They propose to form a State Society, to aid their husbands, sons, brothers and fathers, in the present struggle. The excitement is deep and powerful all over northern Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan and Iowa. Three hundred men are now on their way through Iowa to the scene of conflict. A spirit of deep and bitter revenge is rising in the hearts of the people. The fugitives from the bowie-knives and rifles of the BorderRuffians, led on by Pierce and Co., are traversing all over this region, and their appeals sink deep into the heart. The clergy are beginning to see the legitimate and necessary fruits of their bitter and persevering opposition to anti-slavery, and their direct, Bible-support of slavery, But the end is not yet.” ~ Letter to William Lloyd Garrison from Henry C Wight, dated June 10th from Chicago, and printed in today’s issue of The Liberator.

June 20– Friday– New York City– Frustrated by the lack of cooperation from the Republican Party, the North American Party concludes their convention and nominates Fremont for President and Governor William F Johnston of Pennsylvania for Vice President, in expectation that William L Dayton, the Republican candidate, will withdraw in favor of Johnston.

June 21– Saturday– New York City– “The latest accounts from Kansas state that the free State forces had burned the town of Bernard, destroying from twelve to fifteen thousand dollars worth of property. The town of Franklin was captured by the abolitionists on the morning of the 4th instant after a desperate fight, in which three pro-slavery men were killed. Marshal Donaldson and four men were killed at Hickory Point on the 3rd instant. All these reports, however, require confirmation. Governor Shannon issued a proclamation on the 4th instant, ordering all the unauthorized military companies to disperse, and warning outside parties to keep away from the Territory, as he had sufficient force to enforce the laws and protect the citizens. We continue to receive dispatches from Kansas, which, although very contradictory, and evidently exaggerated, prove the existence of civil war there with all its attendant horrors. We await the receipt of our correspondence for an exposition of the true state of affairs.” ~ Frank Leslie’s Weekly

bleeding kansas-93748

violence in Kansas

 

June 23– Monday– New York City– “Fremont promises to run pretty well. Fillmore in town; nobody cares much.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong. [Millard Fillmore is the former president who was nominated by the American Party back in February. The Whig Party to which Fillmore belonged at his election in 1848 has basically dissolved.]

June 25– Wednesday– New York City– “Ten years hence there will be some Fremont who can make it worth one’s while to hurrah for him, but you my unknown vociferous friends and fellow-citizens, are premature. You don’t perceive that ‘the Republican party’ is a mere squirm and wriggle of the insulted North, a brief spasm of pain under pressure and nothing more.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

June 26– Thursday– New York City– “Fremont meeting last night very imposing in character and numbers. The new Republican Party calls out many who have long eschewed politics. It will probably sweep this state and nearly all the Northern states.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

June 27– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts–”A large and highly respectable meeting of the colored citizens of Buffalo was held at the East Presbyterian Church, in that city, on Sunday evening, . . . and the following resolutions, after the delivery of several spirited speeches, were unanimously adopted: Resolved, That we the colored citizens of the city of Buffalo, in view of the enormous wrongs and outrages which are continually being heaped upon us, and the continued aggression of the Slave Power upon our rights, feel called upon to unite our efforts for the overthrow of slavery, as far as possible, where it now exists, and also for the purpose of resisting its further spread into Territory now free. Resolved, That we owe allegiance to no party, but now, as heretofore, declare in favor of principle in preference to party, and as such in the coming political campaign we feel bound to support such men as we shall honestly believe to be the exponents of such principles as shall vouchsafe to every man, irrespective of color or condition, his God-given and inalienable rights.” ~ The Liberator.

June 30– Monday– Washington, D.C.– Export records reveal that the last twelve months have established new highs for the exportation of American raw cotton, 1.351 billion pounds valued at $128,000,000 or 9.4 cents per pound. [The value in today’s dollars would be $3,690,000,000 using the Consumer Price Index.]

May~Election Year 1876

3334091662_46ee00f1a5

President Ulysses Grant would like to serve another term but his administration is wracked with scandal and the economy still suffers from the depression of 1873. Politicians debate about changes to the currency while workers look for help in emerging labor unions and third party movements. Neither major party seems to have a “big name” candidate in contention and critics find little differences between the two parties. The country begins the national celebration of one hundred years of independence as the Centennial Exposition opens in Philadelphia. The U S 7th Cavalry sets out upon a meeting with destiny

May 6– Saturday– New York City– “The schemers of the Republican Party take small heed of innoxious and ineffectual reformers in whose bosoms a deep-rooted prejudice against the Democratic opposition is stronger than the hatred of Republican corruption. The attitude in which these Republican protestants have placed themselves is of commanding significance only as a sign of the evil times upon which we have fallen. Whether they shall have strength and wisdom enough to rise to the height of the political emergencies thrust upon the country, will remain to be seen in the results of their deliberations.” ~ Frank Leslies Weekly

May 6– Saturday– Batak, Bulgaria– Irregular Ottoman soldiers complete several days of pillaging, burning and massacring local Christians, killing about 4100 or more people.

May 7– Sunday– Flushing, New York– Reverend William Buell Sprague, Presbyterian clergyman and author of the 9 volume Annals of the American Pulpit, dies at 80 years of age.

caroline_chapman

Caroline Chapman

 

May 8– Monday– San Francisco, California– Caroline Chapman, a prominent stage actress during the 1840’s and 1850’s, dies at 58 years of age.

May 9– Tuesday– Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania– An editorial in today’s Pittsburgh Press declares that “The Molly McGuires [sic] represented the spirit of French Communism . . . [they desired] to dictate the operation of labor.” [The Molly Maguires functioned as a secret or semi-secret fraternal organization and labor union among Irish coal miners in eastern Pennsylvania. The extent of their violence against mine owners, mine management and local authorities remains in dispute as Pinkerton detectives hired by the mine owners infiltrated the group and most likely fabricated some evidence against them. The last trial of the alleged ring leaders concluded a month ago (April, 1876) and next spring six of these men will hang. On the debated history, see: The Molly Maguires (1932) by Anthony Bimba; Labor Disturbances in Pennsylvania, 1850-1880 (1936) by J Walter Coleman; From the Molly Maguires to the United Mine Workers; the Social Ecology of an Industrial Union, 1869-1897 (1971) by Harold W Aurand; The Labor Wars: from the Molly Maguires to the Sitdowns (1973) by Sidney Lens; Making Sense of the Molly Maguires (1998) by Kevin Kenny; A Molly Maguire on Trial– the Thomas Munley Story (2002) by H T Crown; The Sons of Molly Maguire: the Irish Roots of America’s First Labor War (2015) by Mark Bulik.

May 10– Wednesday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– The Centennial Exposition, celebrating the 100th anniversary of the founding of the United States, opens today. [It will run until November 10, 1876 and draw 9,910,966 visitors.] [For more information, see, Philadelphia’s 1876 Centennial Exhibition (2005) by Linda P Gross and Theresa R Snyder and Culture as Curriculum: Education and the International Expositions– 1876-1904 (2012) by Eugene F Provenzo, Jr.]

Centennial_Exhibition,_Opening_Day

Opening Day of the Centennial Exposition

 

May 13– Saturday– New York City– “The scheme now before Congress to drive out the gold coins and replace them with silver dollars proposes a more important change in the money of the country than has been made since the issue of the legal-tender notes. There are so many conclusive objections to this rapacious and dishonest project, that we cannot even enumerate them here. It may be said, in the first place, that there is no good reason for any legislation at all on the subject of silver at this time. It is true that the inflationists on one side and the impracticable hard-money men on the other are clamoring for something to be done with the currency, but it is impossible to find any half-dozen men of either faction who agree as to the precise things they would do if they could have things their own way. The conclusion at which we arrived long ago was, that in the present state of business and of popular intelligence on the currency question the only safety consisted in letting things alone. Not that a statesmanlike measure could not be devised for assisting the nation out of its troubles, but that with Congress constituted as it is, such a measure was not to be hoped for. We think this silver-dollar scheme, which is not at all unlikely to become a law, fully justifies us in having advocated a policy of inaction.” ~ Frank Leslies Weekly

May 16– Tuesday– Indianapolis, Indiana– The National Convention of the Greenback Party opens with 239 delegates from 17 states in attendance.

May 16–Tuesday– Matamoros, Mexico–American sailors and marines land to protect American interests.

May 17– Wednesday– Indianapolis, Indiana– The National Convention of the Greenback Party concludes. The party’s platform declares “It is the paramount duty of the government, in all its legislation, to keep in view the full development of all legitimate business– agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and commercial. . . . We most earnestly protest against any further issue of gold bonds for sale in foreign markets, by which we would be made for a long period ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water’ to foreigners, especially as the American people would gladly and promptly take at par all bonds the government may need to sell, providing they are made payable at the option of the holder, and bearing interest at 3.65 per cent per annum, or even a lower rate. . . . We further protest against the sale of government bonds for the purpose of purchasing silver to be used as a substitute for our more convenient and less fractional currency, which, although well calculated to enrich owners of silver mines, yet in operation it will still further oppress, in taxation, an already overburdened people.”

May 17– Wednesday– Fort Abraham Lincoln, Dakota Territory [now North Dakota]– Elements of the 7th U S Cavalry leave the fort headed for General Alfred Terry’s command along the Powder River with the aim of forcing the Lakota and Cheyenne people back onto reservations.

soldiers of 7th cavalry

soldiers of the 7th Cavalry

 

May 20– Saturday– New York City– “The event to which the whole nation has been looking forward with eager expectation passed off with all the éclat and splendor that the most ardent lover of his country could desire. For the last few days the busy hum of preparation has been heard from early morning until late at night, and so much remained to be done, that only by dint of superhuman exertion could the buildings be put in any suitable order for the inaugural ceremonies. The exhibitors, aided by the Commissioners, showed themselves equal to the occasion, and by nine o’clock on the 10th of May everything was in as great a state of forwardness as was witnessed on the first day in Paris or Vienna. Long before the hour appointed for the opening the entrances were besieged by a crowd of people who were prepared to pay the exact charge required for admission, and who were anxious to secure good positions for witnessing the ceremonies, and for gazing at the distinguished guests who were to occupy the seats of honor on the platform. The multitude was free to march through the Park, but the buildings were closed to them until the Exhibition had been declared open by the President of the United States.” ~ Frank Leslies Weekly

MainBuilding

Main Building of the Exposition

 

May 20– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– President Grant orders that “the several Departments of the Government will be closed on Tuesday, the 30th instant, to enable the employees to participate in the decoration of the graves of the soldiers who fell during the rebellion.”

May 27– Saturday– New York City– “Happily, the Centennial Exhibition comes just in the right time to mitigate the ferocity of our Presidential contest this year, as there is no knowing what might happen if there were no sideshow to divide the exasperation and energies of journalistic writers and political spouters. The Centennial serves as a tub for the whale. There is no lack of good, strong political objurgations, it must be confessed, but it must also be admitted that, in the general skirmishing preliminary to the great work of making the nominations for the Presidency, there is less bitterness of feeling exhibited than has ever been known before. This is not wholly owing to the diversion of popular sympathies and attention by the Centennial, but a good deal is owing to this cause beyond a question, and this is an additional reason for entertaining a jubilant feeling in this year of our great jubilee. The chief cause, however, of the moderate tone of the contest between the two great contending parties is that there is really so little difference between them, so far as any essential principle is involved, the contest being narrowed down to a choice of men rather than to an assertion of principles. And even in the choice of men there is so little to contend for that there is a widespread opinion entertained that the two leaders under whose banners the fight is to be conducted are both Great Unknowns; and there will hardly be time, after the nominations shall have been made, to get up much enthusiasm on either side. Certainly neither of the distinguished citizens whose names are now publicly discussed in connection with the nominations to be made are men calculated to create much popular enthusiasm.” ~ Frank Leslies Weekly

Machinery hall

Machinery Hall at the Exposition

 

May 28– Sunday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– Birth of Katharine Blunt, educator, home economist, nutritionist and author who will serve as president of Connecticut College from 1929 to 1943. [Dies July 29, 1954.]

May 29– Monday– Somerville, Massachusetts– Birth of Helen Woodard, home economist, researcher, author, and journal editor who will serve in the U S Department of Agriculture from 1909 to 1923 as well as on a number of committees relating to food, health, children and women. [Dies June 26, 1947.]

helen woodard-7df3

Helen Woodard

 

May 30– Tuesday– Constantinople, Turkey– Sultan Abdulaziz, age 46, ruler of the Ottoman Empire since June, 1861, is deposed by a group of his ministers.

May ~ Election Year 1916

lady-lib

The world is in turmoil as the United States prepares to elect a president. Incumbent Woodrow Wilson faces challenges within his party, from Republicans and from several third parties. Most of Europe is being consumed by the Great War. Yet all is not quiet in Western Hemisphere as the United States sends troops into Mexico and the Dominican Republic. Americans express concern for peace and want to avoid involvement in the war. Britain quells rebellion in Ireland and executes Irish leaders.

Dublin-GPO

Dublin’s General Post Office after the fighting

 

May 1– Monday– Dublin, Ireland–The Easter Rising collapses as Irish fighters, out-gunned by British forces either surrender or go into hiding. Sir John Maxwell, Commander-in-Chief of the British forces announces that all involved in the insurrection have surrendered. The dead include 82 Irish fighters, 126 British soldiers, 17 Irish police officers and 260 civilians.

May 1– Monday– The Hague, Netherlands– The German Counsel recruits a Dutch dancer and courtesan who uses the stage name Mata Hari, to serve as a spy for Germany. She has lived and worked in Paris since 1905 and has numerous friends and clients among French officials and officers.

May 3– Wednesday– New York City– The Socialist Labor Party of America concludes it five day national convention, having nominated Arthur Reimer, a Massachusetts lawyer, age 34 for president and issues its platform which calls upon working people to assume control of “industrial production.”

Arthur_Elmer_Reimer_(1882–1969)_circa_1916

May 3– Wednesday– Verdun, France– The Germans begin an intense artillery bombardment of the French position known as Cote 304.

May 4– Thursday– Dublin, Ireland– British authorities execute Ned Daly, Willie Pearse, Michael O’Hanrahan and Joseph Plunkett for their roles in the Easter Rising.

May 5– Friday– Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic– Two companies of U S Marines land from the U.S.S. Prairie to protect the U.S. Legation and the U.S. Consulate, and to occupy Fort San Geronimo. Within hours, the Marines are reinforced with seven additional companies.

May 5– Friday– Berlin, Germany– In response to American protests, the German government pledges not to sink any more merchant ships without warning and to allow time for crew and passengers to abandon ship.

May 5– Friday– Verdun, France– German troops begin an assault against Cote 304.

French_87th_Regiment_Cote_34_Verdun_1916

tired French troops on Cote 304

 

May 7– Sunday– Waterbury, Connecticut– Mrs Ethel O’Neill and her sister Mrs Bedelia Griffen head to Washington, D.C., to call upon the State Department to have the British release their brother James Mark Sullivan whom the British government has charged with involvement in the Easter rising. [Sullivan, age 43, a lawyer born in Ireland, is a naturalized American citizen, was visiting family in Ireland and had a reputation for making anti-British public statements. He will be released by the British. He dies in Florida on August 15, 1935.]

May 8– Monday– Marathon, Texas– Units of United States cavalry set out to pursue Mexican raiders who attacked Texas towns.

May 8– Monday– Dublin, Ireland– British authorities execute Eamon Kent, Michael Mallin, Con Colbert and Sean Houston for their roles in the Easter Rising.

800px-Cárcel_de_Kilmainham03

location where Irish prisoners were executed

 

May 8– Monday– Verdun, France– After three days of fierce fighting German troops capture Cote 304.

May 9– Tuesday– Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania– About 15,000 workers at Westinghouse Electric plants who went out on strike April 22, return to work without winning any improvements in wages and working conditions as the company threatens to fire them all. However, the union reports that about 2,000 machinists have left the region to find work elsewhere.

May 9– Tuesday– New Haven, Connecticut– Homer S Cummings, a member of the Democratic National Committee, declares that Republican critics of President Wilson place party ahead of the best interests of the country and while attacking the current administration have offered “no definite policy indicating what alternative course the Administration could have pursued which would have more completely accorded with the dignity and traditions of America.”

May 11– Thursday– London, England– During a debate in Parliament on the Irish crisis, John Dillon of the Irish Parliamentary Party calls on the British government to end the executions of the Easter Rising leaders.

May 13– Saturday– New Hartford, Connecticut– Clara Louise Kellogg, dramatic soprano who was a popular performer in both the United States and Europe from 1863 through 1881, dies from cancer at 73 years of age.

Clara_Louise_Kellogg_-_NARA_-_527882restoredh

Clara Louise Kellogg

 

May 13– Saturday– London, England– The government orders the call-up of married men between the ages of 36 and 41 for military service.

May 13– Saturday– Luxeuil-les-Bains, France– The Escadrille Americaine, a/k/a the Lafayette Escadrille, American pilots fighting for the French, fly their first patrol.

Lafayette_Escadrille_pilots

pilots of the Lafayette Escadrille

 

May 14– Sunday– New York City– In today’s New York Times Dr Abbott Lawrence Lowell, president of Harvard, presents a lengthy article calling for educators to join others in building an international body of the League to Enforce Peace by utilizing arbitration, economic sanctions and an international tribunal to discourage nations from going to war. [Lowell, age 59, has been Harvard’s president since 1909. He is one of 7 children and his sisters are the poet Amy Lowell and the advocate of pre-natal care Elizabeth Lowell Putnam. He dies on January 6, 1943, ten years after leaving Harvard. On Lowell’s life and work, see Lawrence Lowell and His Revolution (1980) by Nathan M. Pusey. On the League to Enforce Peace, see Blocking New Wars (1918) by Herbert S Houston; The League to Enforce Peace (1944) by Ruhl J Bartlett; Development of the League of Nations Idea: Documents and Correspondence of Theodore Marburg (2003) edited by John H Latane.]

May 15– Monday– Waco, Texas– Jesse Washington, a teenaged black farmhand, is brutally lynched by a crowd of nearly 10,000 white people, for allegedly murdering his employer’s wife. He is mutilated, then hung and burned while photographs are taken and sold as souvenirs.

May 15– Monday– Trentino, Province, Italy– The Austrians launch a major offensive with a heavy artillery barrage which does severe damage to Italian positions.

May 16– Tuesday– Washington, D.C.– Speaking at the National Press Club President Wilson declares that the United States must remain out of the war in Europe so that it can, with other neutral nations, help build an impartial peace.

May 17– Wednesday– Limerick, Ireland– Thomas O’Dwyer, Roman Catholic Bishop, refuses a request to discipline two of his priests who expressed sympathies for the establishment of an Irish republic. He reminds British General Maxwell that the general has shown no mercy to those fighters who surrendered.

May 17– Wednesday– Rome, Italy– Sir Henry Howard, British Minister to the Vatican, reports that Pope Benedict XV has urged Germany to abandon submarine warfare.

May 18– Thursday– London, England– The Royal Commission established to inquire into the Easter Rising in Dublin, Ireland, begins hearings today.

May 19– Friday– Washington, D.C.– President Wilson and his wife, Edith Bolling Wilson, head by train to North Carolina to visit several towns and cities, including Salisbury, Greensboro and Charlotte.

May 20– Saturday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– This issue of the Saturday Evening Post uses the first cover with a painting by a young artist named Norman Rockwell, age 22. The picture is entitled “Boy with Baby Carriage.”

May 20– Saturday– Charlotte, North Carolina– In a speech here President Wilson says that as the United States has learned and continues to learn “that it is made up out of all the nations of the world”, it can teach other countries how “this great cataclysm of European war” may “be turned into a coordination and cooperation of elements” which will make for “peace . . . accommodation and righteous judgment.”

wilson speaks from the back of a train-WGj

President Wilson prepares to speak from the back of a train

 

May 23– Tuesday– New York City– The sixth annual convention of the National Council of Settlements closes. Speaking at the luncheon Lillian D Wald warns against the rising spirit of militarism which threatens peace and can derail the social work of settlement houses. [On settlement houses generally, see Settlement Houses: Improving the Social Welfare of America’s Immigrants (2006) by Michael Friedman & Brett Friedman; American Settlement Houses and Progressive Social Reform: an Encyclopedia of the American Settlement Movement (1999) by Domenica M Barbuto; Settlement Houses and the Great Depression (1975) by Judith Ann Trolander; Children of the Settlement Houses (1998) by Caroline Arnold.

May 23– Tuesday– Vienna, Austria– The Austrian government is reviewing President Wilson’s speech of May 20th.

May 27– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “If it should ever be our privilege to suggest or initiate a movement for peace among the nations now at war, I am sure that the people of the United States would wish their Government to move along these lines: First, such a settlement with regard to their own immediate interests as the belligerents may agree upon. We have nothing material of any kind to ask for ourselves, and are quite aware that we are in no sense or degree parties to the present quarrel. Our interest is only in peace and its future guarantees. Second, an universal association of the nations to maintain the inviolate security of the highway of the seas for the common and unhindered use of all the nations of the world, and to prevent any war begun either contrary to treaty covenants or without warning and full submission of the causes to the opinion of the world,—a virtual guarantee of territorial integrity and political independence. But I did not come here, let me repeat, to discuss a program. I came only to avow a creed and give expression to the confidence I feel that the world is even now upon the eve of a great consummation, when some common force will be brought into existence which shall safeguard right as the first and most fundamental interest of all peoples and all governments, when coercion shall be summoned not to the service of political ambition or selfish hostility, but to the service of a common order, a common justice, and a common peace. God grant that the dawn of that day of frank dealing and of settled peace, concord, and cooperation may be near at hand!” ~ President Woodrow Wilson speaking to the First National Assembly of the League to Enforce Peace

May 30– Tuesday– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania– Giving a Memorial Day speech at G. A. R Post #1, John Wanamaker, age 78, businessman, civic and political figure, asserts that the United States, as a friend to all nations, is called to emancipate the world from the scourge of war.

John_Wanamaker

John Wanamaker

 

May 30– Tuesday– Washington, D.C.– “I therefore suggest and request that throughout the nation and if possible in every community the fourteenth day of June be observed as FLAG DAY with special patriotic exercises, at which means shall be taken to give significant expression to our thoughtful love of America, our comprehension of the great mission of liberty and justice to which we have devoted ourselves as a people, our pride in the history and our enthusiasm for the political program of the nation, our determination to make it greater and purer with each generation, and our resolution to demonstrate to all the world its, vital union in sentiment and purpose, accepting only those as true compatriots who feel as we do the compulsion of this supreme allegiance. Let us on that day rededicate ourselves to the nation, ‘one and inseparable’ from which every thought that is not worthy of our fathers’ first vows in independence, liberty, and right shall be excluded and in which we shall stand with united hearts, for an America which no man can corrupt, no influence draw away from its ideals, no force divide against itself,-a nation signally distinguished among all the nations of mankind for its clear, individual conception alike of its duties and its privileges, its obligations and its rights.” ~ Proclamation by President Woodrow Wilson.

May 31– Wednesday– London, England– In a letter to the Times of London, Lord Cromer asserts that the British government has no confidence in President Wilson’s ability to broker peace. “It is more than doubtful in spite of the very friendly feelings entertained toward America and Americans generally that the people of this country would under any circumstances welcome the idea that President Wilson should assume the role of mediator.”

May 31– Wednesday– North Sea, near the Jutland Peninsula of Denmark– British naval forces of 111 warships commence the first day of a two day battle with 99 warships of the German navy.