Tag Archives: Medical care

Women’s History ~ Lillien J Martin

Martin--Stanfordprofile

Dr Lillien J Martin

 

Lillien Jane Martin, psychologist, educator, school administrator, gerontologist and feminist, was born in Olean, New York, on July 7, 1851. She graduated from Vasser in 1880 and earned a doctorate in psychology from the University of Gottingen in Germany in 1898. In 1899, Dr Martin received a telegram from David Starr Jordan, then President of Stanford University, inviting her to join Professor Frank Angell in the psychology faculty at Stanford. She taught at Stanford from 1899 to 1916, quickly gaining a reputation as an extraordinary teacher, very conscientious and personally concerned over the development of her students. Her excellent administrative skills and her well-developed organizational ability led Professor Angell to entrust administrative tasks to her and when Angell made periodic pilgrimages to Germany, Dr Martin was appointed acting head of the department, the first woman to be appointed a department head at Stanford. At her retirement from teaching she went into private practice. At age 78 Dr Martin traveled alone to Russia, later learned to drive and at age 81 made a coast to coast drive across the United States by automobile. She made a six month tour of South America at age 87. Dr Martin died in San Francisco, California, on March 26, 1943.

Martingravestone2

Dr Martin authored a large number of articles and several books. On her life and work, see: Psychologist Unretired: the Life Pattern of Lillien J Martin (1948) by Miriam Allen De Ford; and see generally: Models of Achievement: Reflections of Eminent Women in Psychology (1983) edited by Agnes N O’Connell and Nancy Felipe Russo; Untold Lives: the First Generation of American Women Psychologists (1987) by Elizabeth Scarborough and Laurel Furumoto.

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Womens History~ Dr Sarah Stevenson

Sarah_Stevenson_1893

Dr Sarah Ann Hackett Stevenson

 

Sarah Ann Hackett Stevenson, physician, educator, author, school administrator, temperance advocate and activist in the Methodist church and Chicago area women’s clubs, was born on February 2, 1841 in Buffalo Grove, Illinois. She graduated from the State Normal University of Illinois in 1863 and taught school for several years as well as serving as a school principal, Later Ms Stevenson spent a year in London, England, studying under Thomas Huxley. In 1874 she graduated from the Woman’s Hospital Medical College of Chicago with her MD, the valedictorian of her class. Dr Stevenson became the first woman to be a member of the American Medical Association (AMA) in 1876. She helped to found the Illinois Training School for Nurses in 1880 and in 1893 Governor John Altgeld appointed her to the Illinois State Board of Health, the first woman to serve on that Board. For many years Dr Stevenson was a close friend of the English woman’s rights activist Emily Faithful. She died in Chicago on August 14, 1909.

Her published works include: Boys and Girls in Biology (1875); The Physiology of Women (1880); Wife and Mother: Or, Information for Every Woman (1888).

V0047593 A female doctor takes the pulse of a male patient

V0047593 A female doctor takes the pulse of a male patient Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org A cartoon showing a lady physician attending to a young man in an armchair. The caption suggests he has purposefully caught a cold in order to be seen by the young pretty doctor. Engraving 1865 By: George Du MaurierPublished: 23 December 1865. Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

A good biographical profile can be found at “Monstrous Productions or the Best of Womanhood? Progressive-Era Women in Medicine” by Brigid Lusk in Chicago History vol 28 #2 (Fall 1999) pp 4-19; see generally Distinguished Physicians and Surgeons of Chicago (1904); History of Medicine and Surgery and Physicians and Surgeons of Chicago (1922); Medicine in Chicago, 1850–1950 (1957); Send us a Lady Physician: Women Doctors in America, 1835–1920 (1985); Doctors Wanted: No Women Need Apply (1977).

Aiding Soldiers ~ March 1865 ~ 30th to 31st

Aiding Soldiers

black preacher

black preacher

It seems that slaves are not as happy and satisfied as their masters claimed. They are escaping in droves to Union lines, helping Confederate soldiers to desert and Yankees escaping from Southern prisons back to Federal positions. A modicum of Southern social life continues yet many from each side feel that the end draws near.

March 30– Thursday– Richmond, Virginia– “Alexander, slave of William B. Randolph, of Henrico county, was sent to the city yesterday by General Longstreet, and committed to Castle Thunder, upon the charge of aiding soldiers to desert to the enemy from the Confederate services.” ~ Richmond Sentinel

March 30– Thursday– outside Petersburg, Virginia– “I have endured this life for nearly four years and I sometimes think that I enjoy it. Great events are to happen in a few days and I want to be there to see the end. The end of the war will be the end of slavery and then our land will be the ‘Land of the free.’” ~ Diary of Elisha Hunt Rhodes.

Elisha Hunt Rhodes

Elisha Hunt Rhodes

March 30– Thursday– City Point, Virginia– “I begin to feel that I ought to be at home and yet I dislike to leave without seeing nearer to the end of General Grant’s present movement. He has now been out since yesterday morning and although he has not been diverted from his program no considerable effort has yet been produced so far as we know here. Last night at 10.15 P. M. when it was dark as a rainy night without a moon could be, a furious cannonade soon joined in by a heavy musketry fire opened near Petersburg and lasted about two hours. The sound was very distinct here as also were the flashes of the guns up the clouds. It seemed to me a great battle, but the older hands here scarcely noticed it and sure enough this morning it was found that very little had been done.” ~ Telegram from President Lincoln to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton.

March 30– Thursday– Macon, Georgia– The state legislature has authorized the use of militia on horseback to stop the escape of slaves to Union lines.

March 30– Thursday– Presov, Austrian Empire [now in Slovakia]– Oleksandr Dukhnovych, priest, writer, educator and social activist, dies at age 61.

Oleksandr Dukhnovich

Oleksandr Dukhnovich

March 31– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– “The Negroes would always assist the fugitives [Union soldiers escaping from Confederate prisons]; give them food, and pilot them to the best routes. They said that their masters generally offered them $25 reward to betray a Yankee. In spite of this tempting reward, they acted the part of the Good Samaritan in all cases. ‘They are,’ say the officers, ‘as true as steel in all cases.’ Captain Timpson says, while waiting at the banks of the Saluda River, pursued by a pack of hounds, the chivalry mounted on horseback, to the number of fifteen or twenty, armed with shot-guns, pursuing them, the slaves on the opposite shore hearing the baying of the hounds, one of them pushed into a boat, and rowed rapidly across. He knew from the sound of the dogs that they were in pursuit of some Yankee fugitives. The barking of the hounds grew louder and nearer, and the officers feared they would be overtaken and devoured before the boat could reach the shore. The faithful Negro pulled for dear life, took the officers into this boat, and bore them in safety beyond the reach of the men-hunters and their natural allies the bloodhounds, at the risk of his own life. He piloted the officers around the pickets, who were lying in wait for them, by which means they escaped. The slaves said: ‘Our masters curse you all the day, but we pray for you every night.’” ~ The Liberator.

1850_Liberator_HammattBillings_design

March 31– Friday– New York City– “Sherman’s officers say that their campaign was made possible by the order of the rebel government that corn be planted instead of cotton. . . . They marched through a land of groaning corn cribs and granaries, and their men and their animals entered Savannah in better flesh than when they left Atlanta.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

March 31– Friday– Richmond, Virginia– “Raining; rained all night. My health improving, but prudence requires me to still keep within the house. The reports of terrific fighting near Petersburg on Wednesday evening have not been confirmed. Although General Lee’s dispatch shows they were not quite without foundation, I have no doubt there was a false alarm on both sides, and a large amount of ammunition vainly expended. . . .We are sinking our gun-boats at Chaffin’s Bluff, to obstruct the passage of the enemy’s fleet, expected soon to advance.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

March 31– Friday– Albany, Georgia– “Mrs. Callaway gave a large dining, and I wore a pretty new style of head dress Cousin Bessie told me how to make, that was very becoming. It is a small square, about as big as my two hands, made of a piece of black and white lace that ran the blockade, and nobody else has anything like it. One point comes over the forehead, just where the hair is parted, and the opposite one rests on top of the chignon behind, with a bow and ends of white illusion. It has the effect of a Queen of Scots cap, and is very stylish. The dining was rather pleasant. Kate Callaway’s father, Mr. Furlow, was there, with his youngest daughter, Nellie, who is lovely. As we were coming home we passed by a place where the woods were on fire, and were nearly suffocated by the smoke. It was so dense that we could not see across the road. On coming round to the windward of the conflagration it was grand. The smoke and cinders were blown away from us, but we felt the heat of the flames and heard their roaring in the distance. The volumes of red-hot smoke that went up were of every hue, according to the materials burning and the light reflected on them. Some were lurid yellow, orange, red, some a beautiful violet, others lilac, pink, purple or gray, while the very fat lightwood sent up columns of jet-black. The figures of the Negroes, as they flitted about piling up brush heaps and watching the fire on the outskirts of the clearing, reminded me of old-fashioned pictures of the lower regions.” ~ Journal of Eliza Frances Andrews.

Dr Anandi Gopal Joshi

Dr Anandi Gopal Joshi

March 31– Friday– Kalyan, India– Birth of Anandi Gopal Joshi, who will become in March, 1886, the first South Asian woman to earn a degree as a physician of Western style medicine and probably the first Hindu woman to come to the United States. [Dies February 26, 1887, shortly after her return to India.]

Extreme Peril At This Moment ~ March 1865 ~ 26th to 28th

Extreme Peril at this Moment

petersburg siege images

Civilians and soldiers alike express great concern for the Confederacy. President Lincoln orders a special salute as the Stars and Stripes once again flies over Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. He meets with his two best generals to plan a quick conclusion to the war. George Templeton Strong mocks England for “playing nice” now that it appears the Union shall prevail.

March 26– Sunday– City Point, Virginia– In a public display of temper, Mary Lincoln, who has accompanied her husband on the trip, loudly criticizes her husband for his courtesy to Julia Grant, wife of General Ulysses Grant, and to Mary Ord, wife of General Edward Ord. [John Hay and John Nicolay, President Lincoln’s secretaries, consistently refer privately to Mary Lincoln as “the Hellcat.”]

Mary Todd Lincoln

Mary Todd Lincoln

March 26– Sunday– Goldsborough, North Carolina– “I have the honor to submit a brief report of the operations of the medical department . . . during the campaign commencing with the departure of the army from Pocotaligo and ending in the occupation of the town of Goldsborough. It was not without anxiety that I looked forward to the development of this campaign. The season of the year, the character of the country, and the personal hostility of the citizens all rendered it extremely probable that sickness and large losses would test to the utmost the resources of the medical department of the army. The result of the campaign and the comparatively small loss of life from disease or the efforts of the enemy is a source of gratification. The army left Pocotaligo unencumbered with sick or wounded, all such cases being left in the U.S. general hospitals at Savannah and Beaufort. Full supplies were drawn and were replenished at Columbia, S.C. Notwithstanding the bad weather, bad roads, and the necessary exposure of the campaign, the ratio per 1,000 of men unfit for duty during the campaign has been but 49.26. At no time have we been seriously pressed for accommodation for our sick and wounded. After the affair at Rivers’ Bridge, S. C., we were enabled to send to the rear many of the sick and wounded on hand, and again at Fayetteville, N. C., 150 were sent by transports to Wilmington, N. C. The country has furnished a large abundance of nutritious food, and the appearance of the men does not indicate suffering on that account. The hardships of the march have wearied them, and a period of rest is imperatively needed. The heaviest engagement of the campaign fortunately occurred so near the termination of the march as to give us no inconvenience in the removal of the wounded. Our loss in wounded on that occasion was 263. Provision has been made for the sick and wounded in this town until such time as they can be safely removed to general hospitals. . . . It is unnecessary for me to say more for the medical staff of the army than that all duties pertaining to it have been discharged with the usual promptitude, cheerfulness, and fidelity.” ~ Report from Union Dr. D. L. Huntington, Acting Medical Director, to General William Tecumseh Sherman.

field hospital

field hospital

March 26– Sunday– along the Atlantic coast, heading to City Point, Virginia–”The railroad was finished yesterday into Goldsboro and I came down to Newbern and Morehead City and am now in a fleet blockade runner on my way to meet General Grant at City Point to confer on some points, when I shall forthwith go back to Goldsboro and get ready for another campaign. There is no doubt we have got the Rebels in a tight place and must not let them have time to make new plans. They abandoned all their cities to get men enough to whip me but did not succeed. They may unite Johnston and Lee, when if they make the further mistake of holding on to Richmond, I can easily take Raleigh and the Roanoke, when Richmond will be of little use to them. If Lee lets go of Richmond the people of Virginia will give up.” ~ Letter from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to his wife Ellen.

March 27– Monday– New York City– “Poor, mean, shabby, fallen, old England restores us the tribute of her shop-keeper’s civility and compliments the moment she discerns that we may win our unpromising lawsuit after al.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

George Templeton Strong

George Templeton Strong

March 27– Monday– Washington, D.C.– “Ordered, first. That at the hour of noon on the 14th day of April, 1865, General Anderson will raise and plant upon the ruins of Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, the same United States flag which floated over the battlements of that fort during the rebel assault, and which was lowered and saluted by him and the small force of his command when the works were evacuated on the 14th day of April, 1861. Second. That the flag, when raised, be saluted by one hundred guns from Fort Sumter and by a national salute from every fort and rebel battery that fired upon Fort Sumter. Third. That suitable ceremonies be had upon the occasion, under the direction of General William T. Sherman, whose military operations compelled the rebels to evacuate Charleston, or, in his absence, under the charge of General Q. A. Gillmore, commanding the department. Among the ceremonies will be the delivery of a public address by the Reverend Henry Ward Beecher. Fourth. That the naval forces at Charleston and their commander on that station be invited to participate in the ceremonies of the occasion.” ~ Executive order from President Lincoln.

March 27– Monday– Richmond, Virginia– “About 10 or twelve days ago I was taken quite sick with severe cold and fever, and one of the hardest chills on 19th instant I ever had in my life. On 20th our Regiment received marching orders and the Surgeon sent me here. I had no more chills and am nearly well now. I shall return to my Regiment tomorrow. I do not know where they are but suppose they are not far from Petersburg. The war news is highly encouraging, and our troops are in the best of spirits. Johnson has checked Sherman in his wild career, twice, and Lee captured a few days ago a considerable portion of the Yankee works in front of Petersburg with a large number of prisoners. The Negro troops have been called out. I have seen two companies. I hope it will work well. I will close up. Tell Henry [his son] I have his cup yet, and that I want to see him mighty bad. May God bless you all. Pray for me.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier Marion Hill Fitzpatrick to his wife Amanda.

a salute to fallen comrades

a salute to fallen comrades

March 27– Monday– Headquarters, Army of Northern Virginia, Virginia– “I deeply regret to announce the death of Another beloved Brother [Barrington Simeral King] in this cruel war. I enclose you the telegram. It has been some time in reaching me in Consequence of the [telegraph] wires being down. I wrote Bessie [Barrington’s widow] immediately on Seeing the two reports both official, one reporting that he was Killed. & the other wounded hoping that the latter would prove the correct news in the end, but alas, it is not so. & the Sad and Severe stroke has fallen upon us again. I write you to get you to See poor Bessy and break the Sad, Sad, news to her. I have felt for her much in her anxiety and suspense, but more, far more, in her sad bereavement. May our Heavenly Father support her in this dark hour.” ~ Letter from one of the King brothers to his uncle in Roswell, Georgia.

March 27– Monday– City Point, Virginia– President Lincoln meets with General Grant, General Sherman and Admiral Porter aboard the River Queen.

the River Queen

the River Queen

March 27– Monday– Albany, Georgia– “Went to call on the Callaways, Mallarys, and Dahlgrens. The general and his wife were just starting out to make calls when we drove up, so we went along together. The roads are so perfectly abominable that it is no pleasure to go anywhere. At one place the water was half a foot deep in the bottom of the carriage, and we had to ride with our feet cocked up on the seats to keep them dry. Some of the ponds were so deep as almost to swim the mules, and others were boggy. We stopped at the post office on our way home and found a letter from Mec urging us to come over to Cuthbert right away.” ~ Journal of Eliza Frances Andrews.

March 28– Tuesday– Headquarters First Army Corps, Virginia– “Your telegram asking if we can spare General Pickett’s division as a supporting force to our cavalry is received. I suggested that it should be sent on that service because I was apprehensive that our railroad would be in danger of being broken up behind us, leaving us without supplies sufficient to hold Richmond until our communications south could be re-established, or in case Sheridan went to North Carolina, his mounted force would be too formidable for that of General Johnston’s, and that General Johnston would be in great danger if we shall not reinforce him. I do not think that we can well spare the division. But I think that we would choose a lesser risk by sparing it in case Sheridan’s cavalry makes either of these moves contemplated than we would by holding him here to await the result of these operations. The enemy seems now to count upon taking Richmond by raiding upon our lines of communication, and not by attacking our lines of work. I think, therefore, we should endeavor to put a force in the field that can contend against that of the enemy. If Grant sends off his cavalry, he can hardly intend to make any general move of his main army until its return. In every aspect of affairs, so far as I am advised, I think that the greater danger is from keeping too close within our trenches. If we can remain where we are independently of the railroad, and if General Johnston would be safe with such a force as Sheridan’s operating against him, in addition to Sherman’s, we had better keep the division here. You know much more about all those points than I do, and are much better able to decide upon them. My supply train is in from Northern Neck, and starts back to-morrow for other provisions. If there is any impropriety in sending it back, please telegraph me as soon as you receive this, that I may recall it. We have about one hundred thousand pounds of meat near Dublin and eighteen thousand at New Boston. The C. S. complains that the railroad agents will not ship the meat unless it is boxed. This cannot always be done. If you can in any way aid us in this matter, we shall do very well for some time to come.” ~ Message from Confederate General James Longstreet to General Robert E Lee.

March 28– Tuesday– Richmond, Virginia– “Cloudy and sunshine; but little wind. Too ill to go to the department, and I get nothing new except what I read in the papers. Some of the editorials are very equivocal, and have a squint toward reconstruction. The President, and one of his Aids, Colonel Lubbock, ex-Governor of Texas, rode by my house, going toward Camp Lee. If driven from this side the Mississippi, no doubt the President would retire into Texas. And Lee must gain a victory soon, or his communications will be likely to be interrupted. Richmond and Virginia are probably in extreme peril at this moment.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

Reorganize as Protection Societies ~ March 1865 ~ 7th to 8th

Reorganize as Protection Societies

words of a prophet

words of a prophet

Lydia Maria Child, radical reformer, speaks with a prophet’s voice about the future and calls for action. An admirer writes to Whitman. While some citizens worry about another rebel threat from bases in Canada, Lincoln sees the threat diminished. Sherman’s troops push into North Carolina. Some in Canada oppose the idea of Confederation. While Child praises Lincoln’s inaugural address, a rebel clerk mocks it.

youthful Lydia Maria Child

youthful Lydia Maria Child

March 7– Tuesday– Wayland, Massachusetts– “It seems as if the end of this physical warfare was rapidly approaching; but we must all remember that the cessation of military hostilities is but the beginning of the great moral work that is to be accomplished. The disappointed and malignant slaveholders will doubtless enact the part of Cain, as they did in Jamaica. They will do all they possibly can to discourage and harass the emancipated laborers. They will exert all their power and all their cunning to make the system of free labor work badly, and then they will cry exultingly, ‘Behold the effects of emancipation!’ Mattie Griffith, who is now in Georgetown, D.C., writes to me that the colored people are shamefully treated by their former owners. It is well that the anti-slavery societies should disband as soon as their work is completed; but they ought to reorganize as protection societies. The newly-emancipated will need vigilant watchmen on the towers for one generation more, at least. Yet what a wonderful change has been wrought! Though everybody says it, I cannot help repeating, What a wonderful change! If you would measure the progress, read Abraham Lincoln’s first inaugural and his last. How concise and significant, how full of wisdom and moral power, is that last brief address to the people! I have found a great deal of fault with President Lincoln, but, I must say, he has continually grown upon my respect and confidence. He is evidently a sensible, an honest, and a kindhearted man. I regard it as one of the best auguries for the American people that they has the good sense to stand by him at this important crisis. . . . How impressive is that portion of the President’s inaugural, where he says that every drop of blood drawn by the lash has been repaid by drops drawn by the sword! During the progress of the war, I have often been struck with the fact, that the same measure we have meted out has been measured unto us. The poor slaves had their children shot down, whipped to death, and torn from them to die afar off, and we heard of it with languid indifference, or has no execrations to bestow, except upon those who told of such deeds. They died by slow starvation, and we heeded it not. They were torn by bloodhounds, and we would not believe that Southern gentlemen could train ferocious brutes for such a purpose. And lo! we learn it all now, in the terrible school of experience. Slavery tears our children from us, to die far away from us; she starves them to skeletons; she tracks their flight with fierce bloodhounds. And, to complete the lesson, the poor, abused Negro, whom we have helped to abuse, hides them, and feeds them, and guides them to their friends. It seems to me that never, in human history, was the Divine Hand so plainly visible.” ~ Letter from Lydia Maria Child to Theodore Tilton. [Massachusetts-born Lydia Maria Francis Child, 1802– 1880, is a force of nature – abolitionist, feminist, author, editor, educator, anti-imperialist and all around reformer. See, The First Woman in the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Maria Child by Carolyn L Karcher (1994).]

Lydia Maria Child, c.1870

Lydia Maria Child, c.1870

March 7– Tuesday– Troy, New York– “Your last letter from Washington in the paper lying on my lap. Your book in the hands of my friend Lucy who sits there by the window reading it in the morning sunshine. She looks up suddenly and says ‘I think this is the soul I am waiting for, is Walt Whitman married?’ I cannot answer the question, but will you? I am not interested to know if you are married, but I would like to look in your face. How many years did you live ere you could look into the depths of all hearts. Through what experiences did you learn that lore? Remember, if ever the opportunity comes I will look in your face. It should say all that is in your book and something more. I want that something more.” ~ Letter from Celia M. Burr to Walt Whitman.

March 7– Tuesday– New York City– “The citizens of Oswego [New York] held a meeting yesterday, at which the Mayor presided, for the purpose of adopting measures for the better defense of the city from the anticipated rebel raid from Canada. A sufficient force had been detailed from Fort Ontario to patrol the streets at night.” ~ New York Herald.

March 7– Tuesday– Washington, D.C.– “The meeting at the Cabinet was interesting, the topics miscellaneous. Vice-President Johnson’s infirmity was mentioned. Seward’s tone and opinions were much changed since Saturday. He seems to have given up Johnson now, but no one appears to have been aware of any failing. I trust and am inclined to believe it a temporary ailment, which may, if rightly treated, be overcome.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

March 7– Tuesday– Richmond, Virginia– “Bright and frosty. Yesterday we had no certain accounts of the movements of Sheridan. His force was said to be near Charlottesville– at Keswich. Fitz Lee’s cavalry and Pickett’s infantry were sent in that direction. Not a word has yet appeared in the Richmond papers concerning this movement from the Valley– the papers being read daily in the enemy’s camp below. We hear of no corresponding movement on the part of Grant; and perhaps there was none. Preparations to evacuate the city are still being made with due diligence. If these indications do not suffice to bring the speculators into the ranks to defend their own property (they have no honor, of course), the city and the State are lost; and the property owners will deserve their fate. The extortioners ought to be hung, besides losing their property. This would be a very popular act on the part of the conquerors. . . . The packing up of the archives goes on, with directions to be as quiet as possible, so as ‘not to alarm the people.’ A large per cent of the population would behold the exodus with pleasure!” ~ Diary of John Jones.

first-main-cavalry

March 7– Tuesday– Rockingham, North Carolina– Federal troops enter the state here and at other points, skirmishing with Confederate soldiers. It appears that General Sherman’s forces are headed for Fayetteville.

March 7– Tuesday– Nashville, Tennessee– “I have here in arrest two noted rebel women, Mrs. Dolly Battle and Miss Sallie Battle, who reside ten miles from Nashville, but came all the way to Wartrace, on horseback, two days ago, to re-coffin and bury the body of Trummel, alias Van Houghton, who was killed at that place on the night of the 21st ultimo, while engaged, with nine other guerrillas, in robbing the telegraph office and stores. The daguerreotypes of these two she-rebels were found on the body of this robber thief after he was killed, with letters from them showing great intimacy. They boast that they are rebels and have never taken the [loyalty] oath. Their father is an officer in the rebel army; their brother Bob is a guerrilla. This family have been spies and harborers of rebels and guerrillas since the beginning of the war. Their mother, as I was well informed last summer, boasts that they have done more good for the Confederate cause than a regiment of soldiers. I respectfully ask permission to send these two south of our lines.” ~ Letter from Union General Robert Milroy to General George Thomas.

March 7– Tuesday– Fredericton, New Brunswick– The provincial government rejects the proposal for Canadian Confederation.

Lincoln family-ZA9R12VL

March 8– Wednesday– Washington, D.C.– “Whereas, pursuant to the order of the President of the United States, directions were issued from this Department, under date of the 17th of December, 1864, requiring passports from all travelers entering the United States, except immigrant passengers directly entering an American port from a foreign country; but whereas information has recently been received which affords reasonable grounds to expect that Her Britannic Majesty’s Government and the executive and legislative branches of the government of Canada have taken and will continue to take such steps as may be looked for from a friendly neighbor and will be effectual toward preventing hostile incursions from Canadian territory into the United States, the President directs that from and after this date the order above referred to requiring passports shall be modified, and so much thereof as relates to persons entering this country from Canada shall be rescinded, saving and reserving the order in all other respects in full force.” ~ Executive Order from President Lincoln.

March 8– Wednesday– Richmond, Virginia– “Damp and foggy. . . . President Lincoln’s short inaugural message, or homily, or sermon, has been received. It is filled with texts from the Bible. He says both sides pray to the same God for aid– one upholding and the other destroying African slavery. If slavery be an offense,– and woe shall fall upon those by whom offenses come,– perhaps not only all the slaves will be lost, but all the accumulated products of their labor be swept away. In short, he ‘quotes Scripture for the deed’ quite as fluently as our President; and since both Presidents resort to religious justification, it may be feared the war is about to assume a more sanguinary aspect and a more cruel nature than ever before. God help us! The history of man, even in the Bible, is but a series of bloody wars. It must be thus to make us appreciate the blessings of peace, and to bow in humble adoration of the great Father of all. The Garden of Eden could not yield contentment to man, nor heaven satisfy all the angels.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

March 8– Wednesday– Bloomington, Illinois– Birth of Frederic W Goudy, designer of numerous typefaces. [Dies May 11, 1947.]

Frederick W Goudy, circa 1924

Frederick W Goudy, circa 1924

March 8– Wednesday– Bolivar, Tennessee– “Nothing from Lettie [a house slave] yet. Yesterday morning Sister Mary sent her to Mrs. Grey’s, and upon finding at the expiration of three of four hours, she failed to return, sent for her, but she had left there some time before, I suppose for Yankeedom. Joy go with her. Sister and myself cleaned up our rooms this morning alone and before the Negroes had risen. (So much for Southern cruelty). She made the fire. I made up my bed and did various other things as cheerfully as any one. Had the rooms cleaned, breakfast over and baby washed and dressed before nine. When Lettie was here the rooms were generally done about eleven. Ha! Ha! Ha! I’m very glad she’s gone. The rest [of the slaves] will follow her example. The nuisances! Two women, one man and four children, all save one able to work, can’t get ready for business until ten or eleven o’clock in the morning. Isn’t it perfectly ridiculous! O Yankees, Yankees, what mistakes you have made in your attempt at sympathy and kindness.” ~ Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.

March 8– Wednesday– Macon, Georgia– “The Senate took up the report of the committee upon the bill to be entitled an act to make an appropriation of two millions of dollars, in addition to the appropriation already made for the support of indigent families of Soldiers, who are in the public service, and for the support of indigent soldiers who have been or may be hereafter disabled by wounds or disease in the Confederate or State service, for the year 1865, and for other purposes.” ~ record of the Georgia state legislature.

chitchat among ladies-EA3C19FA75C61EA882_5730

March 8– Wednesday– Gopher Hill, Georgia– “I went up to Americus [Georgia] yesterday, with Flora and Captain Rust, to see Cousin Bolling about my eyes, expecting to return to Gopher Hill on the afternoon train, but Cousin Bessie insisted that we should stay to dinner, and her attempt to have it served early was so unsuccessful that Captain Rust and I got to the station just in time to see the train moving off without us. Flora had another engagement, that caused her to decline Mrs. Pope’s invitation, so she made the train, but the captain and I had nothing for it but to spend the night in Americus and kill the night as best we could. I was repaid for the annoyance of getting left by the favorable report Cousin Bolling gave of my eyes. He says it is nothing but the effects of measles that ails them, and they are almost well. I occupied Flora’s room that night. Cousin Bessie lent me one of her fine embroidered linen nightgowns, and I was so overpowered at having on a decent piece of underclothing after the coarse Macon Mills homespun I have been wearing for the last two years, that I could hardly go to sleep. I stood before the glass and looked at myself after I was undressed just to see how nice it was to have on a respectable undergarment once more. I can stand patched-up dresses, and even take a pride in wearing Confederate homespun, where it is done open and above board, but I can’t help feeling vulgar and common in coarse underclothes. Cousin Bessie has brought quantities of beautiful things from beyond the blockade, that make us poor Rebs look like ragamuffins beside her. She has crossed the lines by special permit, and will be obliged to return to Memphis by the 2nd of April, when her pass will be out. It seems funny for a white woman to have to get a pass to see her husband, just like the Negro men here do when their wives live on another plantation. The times have brought about some strange up-turnings. Cousin Bolling is awfully blue about the war, and it does begin to look as if our poor little Confederacy was about on its last legs, but I am so accustomed to all sorts of vicissitudes that I try not to let thoughts of the inevitable disturb me. The time to be blue was five years ago, before we went into it. . . . Captain Rust was so afraid of being left again that he would not wait for the omnibus, but trotted me off on foot an hour ahead of time, although it was raining. We met Mr. Wheatley and Major Daniel on our way to the depot, and they told us that a dispatch had just been received stating that the Yanks have landed at St. Mark’s [Florida] and are marching on Tallahassee. We first heard they were 4,000 strong, but before we reached the depot, their numbers had swelled to 15,000.” ~ Journal of Eliza Frances Andrews.

Abolitionism, Fanaticism & Vandalism ~ January, 1865 ~ 13th to 15th

Abolitionism, Fanaticism and Vandalism ~ Charleston Mercury

abolitionist image used in letters, flyers & newspapers

abolitionist image used in letters, flyers & newspapers

A Charleston newspaper rants about the Northern agenda while the major abolitionist newspaper in the North supports a pioneering work in medicine for women. Federal forces assault the fort guarding Wilmington, North Carolina, thereby closing the last open Southern port city. Tennessee abolishes slavery within the state. General Sherman advises his wife of his intent to launch a new campaign. Politics simmers, North and South.

Dr Maria E Zakrzewska, founder of New England Hospital for Women and Children

Dr Maria E Zakrzewska, founder of New England Hospital for Women and Children

January 13– Friday– Boston, Massachusetts– “The New England Hospital for Women and Children in now established at No. 14 Warren Street, Boston. Its object is to furnish to the women of New England the ministration of their own sex, and such and peculiar care as are, in many cases, essential to successful treatment. The opinions of some of our physicians, and the fact that patients are often sent to us from the Massachusetts General Hospital, prove the need for a Hospital for the separate treatment of women. It is no longer a question whether women can become successful physicians; and public sentiment demands that women who desire it shall have the advise of their own sex. The commodious house, No. 14 Warren Street, and three smaller houses on Planet Street connected therewith, have recently been purchased for the sum of $20,000, of which $13,500 have been already raised. This is a valuable property, admirably adapted to our need, and has already enabled us greatly to extend the benefits of the Hospital. We still owe upon the properly $6,500, and we need about $4,000 to finish and fit the buildings for use. We therefore appeal, with confidence to a generous community for the sum of $10,000. During the last year, 127 patients have been admitted to the Hospital, 120 have been visited at their own homes, and 1977 have been treated in the Dispensary. About one-half the patients in the Hospital were from the various towns in New England. It is, therefore, not to Boston alone that we look for the means of carrying on the work, but to the kind-hearted throughout New England. Thousands of women in our cities and large towns have no homes in which to find refuge in sickness. Thousands of the abject poor live in damp cellars, or unfurnished, crowded, attics. Unfit habitations in health, what must they be in sickness? The wives of brave men, who have nobly laid down their lives in battle, appeal to us. Gladly we do for the soldier– shall we no also provide for those dearer to him than his own life? Give us, then, a portion of the abundance with which God has blessed you, to be used for the comfort of the suffering and the needy; and accept the assurance that whatever you may entrust to us small be dispensed with the most rigid economy.” ~ The Liberator.

New England Hospital for Women & Children

New England Hospital for Women & Children

January 13– Friday– Washington, D.C.– “Yours asking leave to come to Washington is received. You have been summoned by the Committee on the Conduct of the War to attend here, which, of course, you will do.” ~ Telegram from President Lincoln to Union General Ben Butler.

January 13– Friday– Richmond, Virginia– “Mr. Hill, of Georgia, offered a resolution, which was agreed to, that the Finance Committee be instructed to inquire what legislation is necessary for therelief of tax-payers residing in districts occupied or overrun by the enemy; and what legislation may be expedient for the relief of agriculturists who have been unable to comply with their bonds, required by the act of February 17, 1864, by reason of the depredations of the enemy, or by reason of the subsequent exaction of military service by the State or Confederate authorities since the execution of their bonds.” ~ Richmond Times Dispatch.

January 13– Friday– Fort Fisher, North Carolina– A Federal fleet of 59 vessels with 627 guns, commended by Admiral Porter, begins bombardment of the fort at the mouth of the Cape Fear River. While the cannonading goes on, small boats land 8,000 Union troops between the fort and the city of Wilmington.

January 13– Friday– Nashville, Tennessee– “The [Tennessee state constitutional] convention composed of more than 500 delegates from all parts of he State have unanimously adopted an amendment to the constitution forever abolishing slavery in this State and denying the power of the Legislature passing new law creating property in man. Thank God that the tyrant’s rod has been broken. This amendment is to be submitted to the people for ratification on the birthday of the Father of his Country [George Washington, February 22nd], when, without some reverse of arms, the State will be redeemed and the foul blot of slavery erased from her escutcheon. I hope that Tennessee will not be included in the bill now before Congress and be made an exception if the bill passes. All is now working well, and if Tennessee is now let alone will soon resume all functions of a State according to the genius and theory of the Government.” ~ Message from Andrew Johnson, Military Governor and Vice President-elect, to President Lincoln.

Andrew Johnson

Andrew Johnson

January 13– Friday– near Albany, Georgia– “The newspapers bring accounts of terrible floods all over the country. Three bridges are washed away on the Montgomery & West Point R.R., so that settles the question of going to Montgomery for the present. Our fears about the Yankees are quieted, too, there being none this side of the Altamaha, and the swamps impassable.” ~ Journal of Eliza Frances Andrews.

January 14– Saturday– Washington, D.C.– “The week has been one of interesting incidents, incessant occupation. Admiral Farragut came a week since and called on me. After half an hour or more of conversation on affairs connected with his command, the capture of Mobile, and matters generally, I went with him to the President. In the evening, he, with Mrs. Farragut and Captain Drayton, spent the evening with us. . . . [Secretary of State] Seward fears him [General Ben Butler]. There is no love between them, and yet Seward would prefer to avoid a conflict. Butler has the reckless audacity attributed to the worst revolutionists of France, in the worst of times, but is deficient in personal courage. He is a suitable idol for Greeley, a profound philanthropist, being the opposite of Greeley in almost everything except love of notoriety. ” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

Ben Butler, 1870

Ben Butler, 1870

January 14– Saturday– Richmond, Virginia– “Cloudy and cool. The news that Goldsborough, North Carolina, had been taken is not confirmed. Nor have we intelligence of the renewal of the assault on Fort Fisher– but no one doubts it. . . . If Richmond be relinquished, it ought to be by convention and capitulation, getting the best possible terms for the citizens; and not by evacuation, leaving them at the mercy of the invaders. Will our authorities think of this? Doubtful.” ~ Diary of John Jones.

January 14– Saturday– Charleston, South Carolina– “The Wilmington Journal asks our people, all of them, to watch closely the insidious course of the enemy in towns which fall under the power of his arms. In Savannah he walks as softly as the tiger creeping on his prey. He shows only the velvet paw. The cruel claws are hidden, presently, however, to be revealed. In a few days or a few weeks, adds the Journal, orders will be issued, commanding all, even women and children, to take an oath – not simply of neutrality, not a parol not to fight against the United States, but an oath of allegiance, not alone to the Constitution of the United States, but to the unconstitutional laws which have been passed by an abolition Congress, and to the very proclamations in delegation of all law, which have been promulgated by the sovereign will and pleasure of Abraham Lincoln, or leave within a specified time, naked and destitute. If any do forswear themselves by taking an oath to support and approve abolitionism, fanaticism and vandalism, they will find themselves required, if able-bodied, to submit to the Lincoln draft – to fight against their country – their principles – their people, and their God. Let none be fooled by specious promises – let none be lulled by the siren songs of the foe, who only seeks to deceive that they may the sooner and the more surely trample upon his victims, who will find themselves despised by the very foes who have deceived them – haunted by their own consciences, and cut off from honorable association with those who have endured to the end.” ~ Charleston Mercury.

January 14– Saturday– near Albany, Georgia– Father keeps on writing for us to come home [to Washington, Georgia.]. Brother Troup says he can send us across the country from Macon in a government wagon, with Mr. Forline for an escort, if the rains will ever cease; but we can’t go now on account of the bad roads and the floods up the country. Bridges are washed away in every direction, and the water courses impassable.” ~ Journal of Eliza Frances Andrews.

January 15– Sunday– Washington, D.C.– “Yours announcing ordinance of emancipation received. Thanks to the convention and to you. When do you expect to be here? Would be glad to have your suggestion as to supplying your place of military governor.” ~ Telegram from President Lincoln to Andrew Johnson.

capture of Fort Fisher

capture of Fort Fisher

January 15– Sunday– outside Wilmington, North Carolina– Federal forces launch a two-pronged assault on Confederate Fort Fisher which falls into Union hands by late evening. The victory ends Wilmington’s usefulness as a port. The Federals do not bother to assault the city, satisfied with leaving the Confederacy without any major seaport to receive blockade runners or foreign vessels.

January 15– Sunday– near Albany, Georgia– “Went to church at Mt. Enon with Albert Bacon, and saw everybody. It was pleasant to meet old friends, but I could not help thinking of poor Annie Chiles’s grave at the church door. One missing in a quiet country neighborhood like this makes a great gap. This was the Sunday for Dr. Hillyer to preach to the Negroes and administer the communion to them. They kept awake and looked very much edified while the singing was going on, but most of them slept through the sermon. The women were decked out in all their Sunday finery and looked so picturesque and happy. It is a pity that this glorious old plantation life should ever have to come to an end. Albert Bacon dined with us and we spent the afternoon planning for a picnic at Mrs. Henry Bacon’s lake on Tuesday or Wednesday. The dear old lake! I want to see it again before its shores are desecrated by Yankee feet. I wish sister would hurry home, on account of the servants. We can’t take control over them, and they won’t do anything except just what they please. As soon as she had gone, Mr. Ballou, the overseer, took himself off and only returned late this evening. Harriet, Mrs. Green Butler’s maid, is the most trifling of the lot, but I can stand anything from her because she refused to go off with the Yankees when Mrs. Butler had her in Marietta last summer. Her mother went, and tried to persuade Harriet to go, too, but she said: ‘I loves Miss Julia a heap better n I do you’ and remained faithful. Sister keeps her here because Mrs. Butler is a refugee and without a home herself.” ~ Journal of Eliza Frances Andrews.

January 15– Sunday– Savannah, Georgia– “I will surely be off in the course of this week, and you will hear of me only through Richmond [newspapers] for two months. You have got used to it now and will not be concerned though I think the chances of getting killed on this trip about even. If South Carolina lets me pass across without desperate fighting, her fame is gone forever. . . .I would not be surprised if I would involve our government with England. I have taken all the cotton as prize of war, thirty thousand bales, equal to thirteen millions of dollars, much of which is claimed by English merchants. I disregard their consular certificates on the ground that this cotton has been notoriously employed to buy cartridges and arms and piratical ships, and was collected here for that very purpose. Our own merchants are equally culpable. They buy cotton in advance and take the chances of capture.” ~ Letter from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman to his wife Ellen.

Ellen Sherman

Ellen Sherman

January 15– Sunday– near Asker, Norway– Birth of Finn Blakstad, farmer and politician. [Dies January 24, 1941.]

Finn Blakstad, 1922

Finn Blakstad, 1922

Brilliant Victory Achieved~November 1864~the 12th to 14th

Brilliant Victory Achieved ~ President Lincoln

Lincoln receives the resignation of George McClellan and promotes Phil Sheridan. Nervous officials in Richmond arrest the suspected disloyal, both female and male. According to sources in Wheeling, refugees from the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia include men seeking to avoid conscription in the Confederate army. In Georgia, Sherman’s troops begin to move in the next campaign. People are still talking about the Confederate raid upon St Alban’s.

Union soldiers in Atlanta

Union soldiers in Atlanta

November 12– Saturday– New York City– “We devote a large space, this week, to illustrations of the recent rebel raid upon St. Alban’s, Vermont. . . . The raid was made upon it on the afternoon of Wednesday, the 19th [of] October. . . . Their leader, one Bennet H. Young, pretends to be an officer in the rebel army. We shall publish a portrait of him, together with additional sketches, illustrative of the raid, in our next paper. The raiders were promptly pursued by a party of armed citizens of St. Albans, under Captain Conger. The pursuit lay in the direction of Sheldon Creek, at which point the flying robbers set fire to the bridge, in order to protect their retreat. They were, however, followed into Canada, where a number of them– 14 at latest accounts– have been captured. They are claimed by the United States, under the extradition treaty, as murderers and burglars. Their examination was commenced at St. Johns, but will probably be completed at Montreal. The Canadian Government has behaved in the most prompt and just manner in this business, and there is no doubt that the miscreants who perpetrated a series of foul murders and robberies at St. Albans will be brought to justice and punished according to their deserts. They are defended at present before the Canadian court by George N. Sanders. If they prove indeed to be Confederate soldiers their case will not be improved, seeing that Canada will exact reparation for violation of a neutral soil. The greater part of the stolen money has been recovered. The frontier is under arms, and no apprehension need be entertained of any more rebel raids from Canada.” ~ Frank Leslie’s Weekly.

November 12– Saturday– Augusta County, Virginia– “I received yours of the ninth yesterday – was glad to hear that you were getting along so well. I just returned from Aunt Sallie’s yesterday evening – we had quite a nice visit – they all wished you could have been along; none of the girls were at home but Harriet Mattie is down at Moscow with her sister – her husband is dead, died at Lynchburg took gangrene in his wound . . . . Ma said to tell you she did not send you any thing, as you requested not – she would like to send you some apples if she knew where to send them Pa has not got all of his apples gathered yet he is busy working with his potatoes & corn – he thinks he will have about 75 bushels potatoes. There are some men here now gathering the corn out field for the Artillery horses. I heard last Thursday that Jim Hanger was killed. I do now know whether it is true or not – he went to see Miss Paxton in Rockbridge several times when he was at home last summer, when she heard he was killed she said to his sister ‘I told you he would keep a bullet from killing some good man.’ I believe I have no interesting news to write this time. Aunt Sallie’s said to give their best respects to you. The family all send their love to you. Sister is going to Greenville and I will have to close as I have to send the letter over there. I hope you will get home soon – nothing more, but remain your affectionate Wife until death.” ~ Letter from Ginnie Ott to her husband Enos.

CW graves-3

November 12– Saturday– Richmond, Virginia– “Miss Mary Jane Bayne, a young woman of fascinating appearance, was committee to Castle Thunder this morning as a suspicious character. She claims to be a native of North Carolina, but says that for a year or so back she has possessed as her paramour a certain Yankee lieutenant, who sojourned in Knoxville, Tennessee.” ~ Richmond Whig.

November 12– Saturday– Atlanta, Georgia– General Sherman sends a message to General Thomas in Nashville, Tennessee as prepares to launch his “march to the Sea.” He will be out of communication with the North until December 13.

November 12– Saturday– Allatoona, Georgia– “Up at 2 A.M. had breakfast at 3 AM, were under way at the appointed time, our Brigade having the advance. Reached Cassville by daylight. The place was burned by our troops last Summer and presented nothing but a mass of ruins. Only two houses are standing and they are churches. Reached Cartersville at 10 AM where we halted several hours. Everything at Cartersville has been destroyed today. Quite a number of wagons were burned and enough medical supplies to last a Division 3 months. Some of the brave heroes who fell at Allatoona were buried here. Colonel Bedfield, Captain Agors etc. We passed through the famous Allatoona pass this afternoon. If Sherman had attempted to reach Atlanta through this pass he certainly would have been defeated. Reached Allatoona at 3 P.M. Passed over the battle ground of October 4th and 5th which still presents many evident signs of a hard fought battle.” ~ Diary of Cornelius C. Platter.

November 12– Saturday– Newton, Virginia; Cedar Creek, Virginia; Nineveh, Virginia; Centreville, Missouri– Skirmishing.

November 13– Saturday– Salisbury, Maryland– Birth of James Canon, Jr, temperance activist, minister and leader in the Methodist Episcopal Church South. [He will be tainted by political and personal scandal in his last decade of life. Dies September 6, 1944.]

James Canon Jr

James Canon Jr

November 13– Sunday– Marietta, Georgia– “In Marietta by 11 or 12 PM. Entering square, saw our men with fire engine front of Court House, pumping hard, and man inside with hose. Fires appear sundry places, and again in Court House, and at last this breaks out, and fairly burning. All our staff, and all other officers I heard, regret and condemn. Inquired– Nobody knew how set on fire: but had three times put it out and tried hard to save it – twas no use. This soon blazed furiously, and this set other buildings on fire, across the street, and opposite hotel. Elsewhere on Square large stores, etc. begun to burn, and spread. Large buildings opposite left of hotel showed smoke. This was put out by Major McCoy of our staff, and was saved. Found that up to this morning there were guards around these buildings, but they had gone on with column, and thus in unguarded interval fire was set without orders.” ~ Diary of Henry Hitchcock.

November 14– Monday– Wheeling, West Virginia– “Another lot of about twenty refugees from different portions of Old Virginia arrived in the city on Saturday. During their stay they were quartered in the Union Campaign Club Room. The most of them are shrewd intelligent men, and a few were original secessionists. They inform us that in order to escape the rebel pickets, they traveled through the mountains for more than a hundred miles without striking a road. They came in through Greenland Gap, about five thousand men having preceded them on the same route. Some of the men with whom we conversed are from the southern part of the State and others from the eastern part, from neither of which sections are the means of escape so easy. Those who desire to come North have therefore to employ a little strategy, the employment of which is not necessary in the Valley. The last call of the rebel authorities, made about a month ago, was for the men who had been previously detailed to gather crops and carry on indispensable manufactories. They were ordered to report at different places and were allowed to choose a regiment in which to serve. These men selected regiments doing duty in the Valley, knowing that their chances of escape would be better. These men say that [Confederate General] Early does not hope to occupy the valley much longer. All the government stores are being removed to Lynchburg. Two of the refugees of whom we speak, assured us that they had heard hundreds of rebel soldiers say they would desert if Lincoln was elected – that it was no use fighting any longer and that they would not do it.” ~ Wheeling Daily Intelligencer.

refugees

refugees

November 14– Monday– New Market, Virginia– “We had our battle of the 19th of October when we had the greatest victory of the war in the morning and one of the greatest losses in the evening – and needlessly, Our men giving way from a panic; then the General sent me to Richmond with dispatches and I was gone several days, but was only home from midnight until 4 o’clock one night – that consumed some days – then I had to make maps of the battle of the 19th for a report; then we have just gotten back from another expedition down the Valley in which we went to Newtown – went down to see what Sheridan was doing – found him fortified there and fixing to spend the Winter near Charles Town. . . . I expect I shall be able to spend the winter in Staunton, not far from home and I hope to take a furlough early in the season and come over to see you. How are you off for forage? Do you have any hay or grass. I should like to put one of my horses somewhere for the winter to live on hay and be well cared for. What is the state of things with you? I shall be greatly obliged for a barrel or keg of sorghum molasses; provisions are scarce and dear and everything helps. Did your sweet potato crop do anything? I wish you had a snug place in the Valley but I fear you would find it hard to buy one now, unless you could get one of the abandoned farms in Rockingham, left by men that went off with Sheridan. . . . Sara gets along finely managing and keeps up her spirits admirably. Is full of energy and hope. The children are growing rapidly. I should enjoy a visit to you very much and if I come have you any way to come to Rockfish after me and shall I bring along the whole family and have a visitation? Hope Harriet has gotten well.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Jedediah Hotchkiss to his brother Nelson.

November 14–Monday– Washington, D.C.– “Ordered by the President: I. That the resignation of George B. McClellan as major-general in the United States Army, dated November 8 and received by the Adjutant-General on the 10th instant, be accepted as of the 8th of November. II. That for the personal gallantry, military skill, and just confidence in the courage and patriotism of his troops displayed by Philip H. Sheridan on the 19th day of October at Cedar Run, whereby, under the blessing of Providence, his routed army was reorganized, a great national disaster averted, and a brilliant victory achieved over the rebels for the third time in pitched battle within thirty days. Philip H. Sheridan is appointed major-general in the United States Army, to rank as such from the 8th day of November, 1864.” ~ Executive order of President Lincoln.

Abraham_Lincoln

November 14– Monday– Richmond, Virginia– “Lazarus Long, Elijah Person, and J. Phillips, workmen at the Tredegar Iron Works, were arrested on Saturday, while trying to escape to the enemy’s lines. They were committed to Castle Thunder, that common receptacle of the vicious, the disloyal and the suspected.” ~ Richmond Sentinel.

November 14– Monday– Jonesboro, Tennessee– Birth of Claribel Cone, the fifth of the thirteen children of Herman and Helen Cone. She will graduate first in her class from the Woman’s Medical College of Baltimore and have a distinguished career as a pathologist. The fortune she will inherit will enable her and her younger sister Etta to become art collectors of artists including Matisse, Manet, Degas, Renoir, Cezanne and Picasso. [Dies September 20, 1929]

Dr  Claribel Cone

Dr Claribel Cone

The Consequences of This Measure~September 1864~the 11th & 12th

The Consequences of this Measure~ the mayor of Atlanta.

Mayor Calhoun and members of city council ask General Sherman to reconsider his decision to force people to leave Atlanta while Hood and Sherman continue their heated exchange of letters. A Southern soldier writes about overcoming his sadness. A Northern widow learns more about her husband’s service and death. Business is literally booming in Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania oil wells of the period

Pennsylvania oil wells of the period

September 11– Sunday– Winchester, Virginia– “Yours of the 27th . . . came safely to hand Yesterday, and I Will reply at once. You can only imagine how greedily I devoured its contents. And indeed it was a rich Treat to me. It gave me a great deal of pleasure to peruse it line by line; Every Word was Interesting and cheering to me, For I must confess, it arrived in a very good time, for I was very much down in the mouth about The fall of Atlanta. Just before, I had been raised to the very highest pinnacle that imagination could place a man, on the peace question. With the hopes that, Atlanta could hold out This campaign, but alas! all my bright visions of peace was blasted. My hopes of the pleasure of meeting my old Friends as a Freeman and enjoying my self as of years gone by, in their company. Then, to give up all, I admit it was too much for me, but your cheerful letter [caused] me to brighten up again, and bring back the old cheerful smile on my pug. I Soon banished all despondency, and now, I am Just as hopeful as Ever.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier James H. Blakemore to Mary Anna Sibert.

September 11– Sunday– Atlanta, Georgia– “We, the undersigned, mayor and two of the council for the city of Atlanta, for the time being the only legal organ of the people of the said city to express their wants and wishes, ask leave most earnestly, but respectfully, to petition you to reconsider the order requiring them to leave Atlanta. . . . As you advanced the people north of this fell back, and before your arrival here a large portion of the people had retired south, so that the country south of this is already crowded and without houses enough to accommodate the people, and we are informed that many are now staying in churches and other outbuildings. This being so, how is it possible for the people still here (mostly women and children) to find any shelter? And how can they live through the winter in the woods? No shelter or subsistence, in the midst of strangers who know them not, and without the power to assist them much, if they were willing to do so. This is but a feeble picture of the consequences of this measure. You know the woe, the horrors and the suffering cannot be described by words; imagination can only conceive of it, and we ask you to take these things into consideration. We know your mind and time are constantly occupied with the duties of your command, which almost deters us from asking your attention to this matter, but thought it might be that you had not considered this subject in all of its awful consequences, and that on more reflection you, we hope, would not make this people an exception to all mankind, for we know of no such instance ever having occurred; surely none such in the United States, and what has this helpless people done, that they should be driven from their homes to wander strangers and outcasts and exiles, and to subsist on charity? We do not know as yet the number of people still here; of those who are here, we are satisfied a respectable number, if allowed to remain at home, could subsist for several months without assistance, and a respectable number for a much longer time, and who might not need assistance at any time. In conclusion, we most earnestly and solemnly petition you to reconsider this order, or modify it, and suffer this unfortunate people to remain at home and enjoy what little means they have.” ~ Letter from Mayor James M. Calhoun along with E. E. Rawson and S.C. Wells, members of City Council, to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.

damaged Atlanta rail yard

damaged Atlanta rail yard

September 11– Sunday– Atlanta, Georgia– Atlanta families begin registering with Federal authorities for their removal from the city, under orders from Union General William Tecumseh Sherman, who intends to use Atlanta as his military base while his army rests, recovers and is re-supplied after the Atlanta campaign. [Over the next nine days, 446 families along with their furniture and household goods will be loaded into Union Army covered wagons and moved southward to the town of Rough and Ready. There, the refugees will be met by Confederate forces who will transport them to Lovejoy’s Station, where they will board trains to Macon, Georgia, and other locations. A total of 79 slaves accompany their masters, though most slaves decide to stay with the Union Army.]

September 11– Sunday– Gornji Milanoval, Serbia– Birth of Dragina Milicevic Lunjevica. [She will become Queen Consort when she marries King Alexander I on August 5, 1900. The royal couple will be assassinated by a group of army officers on June 11, 1903.]

Dragvina when Queen Consort

Dragvina when Queen Consort

September 12– Monday– New York City– “A table giving a list of one hundred and two Oil Companies, with a capital stock, the number of sharps, the prices asked and bid and the dividends declared, is published in the Philadelphia Commercial List and Price Current. The nominal capital of these companies exceeds $52,000,000! Of the whole number of companies only twenty-four have declared dividends. The Commercial List, which has devoted much attention to oil matters and is good authority on the subject, also gives a list of the off refineries in Pittsburgh, their capacity and owners’ names; likewise a list of all the oil companies of Philadelphia, location of office end name of President and Secretary, similar in style to the table of Mining Companies given some time since in the Commercial Bulletin. The Commercial List also gives a description of a few of the companies who peremptorily refuse to inform the public of what their assets consist. and are therefore set down as worthless. The excitement in these stocks lately, so well as the sales, have been unprecedented. The excitement runs high all through the oil region, parcels of real estates frequently changing hands at a high valuation; but in the estimation of those concerned all this is only a faint premonition of what is to come. The preserve production of oil is estimated at 6,000 barrels per day, and from present appearances the large number of new wells going into operation will enhance materially this aggregate.” ~ New York Times. [The $52 billion would equal $795 billion today, using the Consumer Price Index. On the Pennsylvania oil boom see, Oil on the Brain: The Discovery of Oil and the Excitement of the Boom in North Western Pennsylvania by Gary S McKinney, Chicora, Pennsylvania, 2008; Titusville of Yesterday, by Thomas O. Cartney, Richard Foy, and Alice Morrison, Oil City, Pennsylvania, 1984.]

workers in Pennsylvania oil fields

workers in Pennsylvania oil fields

September 12– Monday– outside Petersburg, Virginia– “I suppose you have already learned of the death of your husband. I have just been officially notified that Dr. S.M. Potter died at U.S. General Hospital, Point Lookout, Maryland, on the 6th instant at 1 A.M. of chronic Diarrhoea. I saw the Dr. at Cavalry Corps Hospital, City Point, Virginia, a short time before he was removed to Point Lookout. He thought & so did I that it might better his condition to be transferred to Point Lookout Hospital. I made every effort to get him sent to Washington City or Philadelphia but the boats were receiving none but wounded men for those points. The Dr. was a faithful Steward. He stood high in the estimation of every officer & man in the Regiment. We miss him very much. . . . The Doctor too had all the elements of a good soldier. He shrank from no danger or hardship when duty called. I have his pipe which I shall take care of and such other effect of his as I can find. His accounts with the Government will be properly arranged as soon as possible, when by application you can secure what may be due him. I think he has back pay due since February 29, 1864, at the rate of $430 per month. I can’t think he has been paid since then. . . . If you determine on the removal of his remains home I will lend any assistance or furnish any information I can. Had he died here I should have had his body embalmed & sent to you. . . . God’s ways are not our ways nor his thoughts our thoughts. May His Grace temper this sad affliction to your stricken heart. and may we all be reminded mortality & be prepared as the Dr. gave ample assurance that he was, for the great change that awaits us all, whether at Home or abroad, whether surrounded by friends or among strangers at Home or in the Army. Any inquiries you may wish to make concerning the deceased or his effects or accounts with the government address me & I will reply promptly.” ~ Letter from Union officer J. R. Loyd to Cynthia Potter, confirming the death of her husband Samuel Potter. [Disease caused more deaths among soldiers during the Civil War than did gunfire. Typhoid, malaria, smallpox, diarrhea, dysentery and pneumonia often ravaged the ranks on both sides. Poor medical care and/or an outbreak of disease frequently killed wounded soldiers. It is estimated that in the Union Army 2 out of every 27 soldiers died of disease. See, Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, 1861-1865 by William F Fox (1889); Doctors in Blue: the Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War by George W Adams (1952) and Bleeding Blue and Grey: Civil War Surgery and the Evolution of American Medicine by Ira M Rutkow (2005).The $430 would equal $6580 in today’s dollars, using the Consumer Price Index.]

typical dresses worn by widows

typical dresses worn by widows

September 12– Monday– near Lovejoy’s Station, Georgia– “The residue of your letter is rather discussion. It opens a wide field for the discussion of questions which I do not feel are committed to me. I am only a general of one of the armies of the Confederate States, charged with military operations in the field, under the direction of my superior officers, and I am not called upon to discuss with you the causes of the present war, or the political questions which led to or resulted from it. These grave and important questions have been committed to far abler hands than mine, and I shall only refer to them so far as to repel any unjust conclusion which might be drawn from my silence. . . . And because I characterized what you call a kindness as being real cruelty you presume to sit in judgment between me and my God and you decide that my earnest prayer to the Almighty Father to save our women and children from what you call kindness is a ‘sacrilegious, hypocritical appeal.’ You came into our country with your army avowedly for the purpose of subjugating free white men, women, and children, and not only intend to rule over them, but you make Negroes your allies and desire to place over us an inferior race, which we have raised from barbarism to its present position, which is the highest ever attained by that race in any country in all time. I must, therefore, decline to accept your statements in reference to your kindness toward the people of Atlanta, and your willingness to sacrifice everything for the peace and honor of the South, and refuse to be governed by your decision in regard to matters between myself, my country, and my God. You say, ‘let us fight it out like men.’ To this my reply is, for myself, and, I believe, for all the true men, aye, and women and children, in my country, we will fight you to the death. Better die a thousand deaths than submit to live under you or your Government and your Negro allies.” ~ Letter from Confederate General John Bell Hood to Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.

Bad Nights & Bad Days Too ~ June 1864~17th to 20th

Bad Nights & Bad Days Too ~ Walt Whitman

Whitman feels such anguish that he is close to going home for rest and recuperation. On the battlefields soldiers have bad nights and days: new atrocities against black Union soldiers, seeing friends wounded or killed, suffering sickness, hard marching, bitter fighting, bad weather. Good news comes to the Union with the sinking of the C. S. S. Alabama off the coast of France.

battle between the Alabama and the Kersage

battle between the Alabama and the Kersage

June 17– Friday– Washington, D. C.– “This place & the hospitals seem to have got the better of me. I do not feel so badly this forenoon but I have bad nights & bad days too, some of the spells are pretty bad– still I am up some & around every day– the doctors have told me for a fortnight I must leave, that I need an entire change of air, &c. I think I shall come home for a short time, & pretty soon. I will try it two or three days yet, though, & if I find my illness goes over, I will stay here yet awhile.” ~ Letter from Walt Whitman to his mother Louisa.

Walt Whitman

Walt Whitman

June 17– Friday– Memphis, Tennessee– “From statements that have been made to me by colored soldiers who were eye-witnesses, it would seem that the massacre of Fort Pillow had been reproduced at the late affair at Brice’s Cross-Roads. . . . If true and not disavowed they must lead to consequences hereafter fearful to contemplate. . . . If it is contemplated by the Confederate Government to murder all colored troops that may by the chance of war fall into their hands, as was the case at Fort Pillow, it is but fair that it should be freely and frankly avowed. Within the last six weeks I have on two occasions sent colored troops into the field from this point. In the expectation that the Confederate Government would disavow the action of the commanding general at the Fort Pillow massacre I have forborne to issue any instructions to the colored troops as to the course they should pursue toward Confederate soldiers that might fall into their hands; but seeing no disavowal on the part of the Confederate Government, but on the contrary laudations from the entire Southern press of the perpetrators of the massacre, I may safely presume that indiscriminate slaughter is to be the fate of colored troops that fall into your hands; but I am not willing to leave a matter of such grave import and involving consequences so fearful to inference, and I have therefore thought it proper to address you this, believing that you will be able to indicate the policy that the Confederate Government intends to pursue hereafter on this question. . . . Up to this time no troops have fought more gallantly and none have conducted themselves with greater propriety. They have fully vindicated their right (so long denied) to be treated as men. . . . For the government of the colored troops under my command I would thank you to inform me, with as little delay as possible, if it is your intention or the intention of the Confederate Government to murder colored soldiers that may fall into your hands, or treat them as prisoners of war and subject to be exchanged as other prisoners.” ~ Letter from Union General Cadwaller Colden Washburn to Confederate General Stephen Dill Lee.

cold-harbor

June 17– Friday– near Marietta, Georgia– “We advanced two miles day before yesterday, fighting our way; our brigade was in reserve and, towards evening, for about half an hour, was subjected to the sharpest artillery fire that I have experienced since Gettysburg. The noise of whizzing and exploding of shells, especially in the woods, is terrific, but compared to infantry its destructiveness is slight. I had two men wounded. The regiment having taken position near the enemy’s works, our troops put up breastworks; yesterday as the lines were pretty close together, there was a good deal of firing between the pickets and our artillery threw shells, but the dense woods in front prevented an accurate aim. . . . At daylight this morning, our pickets reported the rebels gone. I have just been over to the position they occupied; it is very strongly fortified. I conjecture that some movement upon the enemy’s right flank caused the evacuation. A portion of our army seems to be following up and we will doubtless move soon.” ~ Letter from Union officer Fredrick C. Winkler to his wife.

June 18– Saturday– outside Petersburg, Virginia– “We arrived here day before yesterday and found the fight going on and it has been kept up ever since (sometimes very sharp and then again it dies away) ever since we arrived here. So far the fighting along the front of our Corps has been altogether in our favor and we have been steadily driving the rebs ever since we came here, and now as I write there is a very savage fight going on in our front, and I think by the firing that our boys are pushing the enemy back and unless the rebs can make a firmer stand than they have made here yet it will not be long before the long coveted City of Petersburg will be in our possession. I notice by the papers that our Corps is very little spoken of, but for all that they have done some splendid fighting, although we seem to be, rather outsiders here in the Army of the Potomac.” ~ Letter from Union soldier George Whitman to his mother Louisa.

 chesterfield-bridge

June 18– Saturday– Richmond, Virginia– “No blessing from heaven ever came more opportunely than the abundant crop of pure, delicious ice, which was gathered last winter by the Government, and stored in the Government ice-houses for the use of the hospitals the present sultry summer. As we urged the gathering of a large supply then, events have proved that the bulk of it will be needed in the alleviating of the sufferings of the many thousand wounded in the hospitals in Richmond and elsewhere. Hundreds of valuable lives have been saved to the cause and country, that otherwise would have been lost. . . . The hospitals are now abundantly supplied, and the surgeons inform us that the absence of gangrene and other malignant forms of disease accompanying wounds, is attributable to the plentiful application of ice. The average number of deaths among the same number of wounded is something over fifty per cent less this season than it was in the summer of 1862.” ~ Richmond Examiner.

June 18– Saturday– Henrico County, Virginia– “I am sorry to say to you that I am sick at this time, and have been for several days. On 9th I was taken with diarrhea, and it soon ran into bloody flux which made me very weak and almost past traveling. I staid on duty till 13th when we had orders to move. I reported to the Doctor, and he put me in an ambulance and carried me till we stopped that evening, which was not far from the old battle field of Frazier’s Farm and Malvern Hill. I staid there at the Brigade Hospital in the woods till 16th when I was sent in our ambulance to this place, with many others that were sick. I am better now. My operations are not bloody now, and by getting some good sleep and rest I hope to recover soon and return to the field, though I am quite weak. This is a very good Hospital. I get plenty to eat for a sick man at least.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier Marion Hill Fitzpatrick to his wife Amanda.

 June 19– Sunday– near Petersburg, Virginia– “I heard a thud and saw Lieutenant Smith falling. I caught him in my arms and called for a stretcher. He was shot through the back, the bullet, penetrating his lung. I sent him to the hospital and we fear he will die. He is a fine fellow and a brave man and is to me like my own brother. I pray God that his life may be spared. . . . A division of colored soldiers charged . . . but were driven back. They fought well and left many dead on the field. . . . yesterday’s work convinced me that they will fight. So Hurrah for the colored troops.” ~ Diary of Elisha Hunt Rhodes.

 spotsylvania-battle

June 19– Sunday– near Berryville, Virginia– “I wrote you a few days ago from near Leesburg – after we had crossed back to Virginia– Sunday we came on across the Blue Ridge – there was not flour enough in Loudoun County to supply our wants, but Clarke & Jefferson have an abundance in them – our commissary having 100000 bushels of wheat at his command. The Yankee cavalry found a portion of our train exposed to attack as we came across the Blue Ridge & they fell on it & captured & destroyed some 30 or 40 wagons but our infantry got up & punished them, capturing in turn a piece of artillery from the Yankees – the wagons captured all belonged to the cavalry . . . . I am riding over this county mapping it – am very busy & tired at night – so do excuse this. Love & kisses & blessings for you all. Write often.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Jedediah Hotchkiss to his wife Sara.

June 19– Sunday– near Marietta, Georgia– “I have been in the rain day and night and been exposed and treated worse than any dumb brute ought to be, but I most consider it is in war time. Frances, I have no good news to write. The fight is still going on. It gets worse every day. They fought very hard on our left yesterday, killed and wounded [a] great many of our men. The enemy loss is unknown. This war is a terrible one. It seems to me that [it] is carried on to slaughter up the poor class of people and get them out of the way. I don’t call it fights. I call it a perfect slaughter.” ~ Letter from a Confederate soldier to his sweetheart.

June 19– Sunday– Camden County, Georgia– “After so long a time they send to us from Charleston that we cannot leave here unless we run the blockade. So we have permission to remain here until the war closes. We are getting very destitute of clothing, but it is useless to fear for the future. We may suffer, but many are already suffering. It is doubtless better for us to remain here at present under trying circumstances. We will hope for the best. Bailey returned last week on furlough to Kate’s great happiness. A seven days rain has kept us from going over.” ~ Diary of Julia Johnson Fisher.

June 19– Sunday– Off the coast of Cherbourg, France–During a battle in international waters, the U S. S. Kearsage sinks the C. S. S. Alabama. However, an English yacht, Deerhound, rescues the captain of the Alabama, causing the U S Minister Charles Francis Adams to file a protest with Her Majesty’s Government. A large crowd on the shore watches the hour long battle.

the Alabama sinking

the Alabama sinking

June 20– Monday– New York City– Outside Petersburg, Virginia, “we did . . . storm a difficult line of fieldworks, capturing prisoners, and sixteen guns [canon]. Ethiopia [black soldiers] . . . took six of the sixteen and came up to the scratch in the best style.” ~ Diary of George Templeton Strong.

June 20– Monday– Washington, D.C.– “We get no good army news from Petersburg. Our troops have suffered much and accomplished but little, so far as I can learn. But there is disinclination to communicate army intelligence, as usual. Were the news favorable, it would be otherwise. The President in his intense anxiety has made up his mind to visit General Grant at his headquarters, and left this p.m. at five. Mr. Fox has gone with him, and not un-likely favored and encouraged the President in this step, which I do not approve. It has been my policy to discourage these Presidential excursions. Some of the Cabinet favored them. Stanton and Chase, I think, have given them countenance heretofore. He can do no good. It can hardly be otherwise than harmful, even if no accident befalls him. Better for him and the country that he should remain at his post here. It would be advantageous if he remained away from the War Department and required his Cabinet to come to him.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

Minute Mass of Proof~April 1864~21st to 23rd

Minute Mass of Proof ~New York Times

More and more becomes known about the Fort Pillow massacre. The Sanitary Fair in New York City raises a small fortune for the work of the Commission. Walt Whitman continues to receive support for his work with the sick and wounded. A Yankee woman serving as a doctor causes a stir in Richmond because– gasp!– she wears pants just like a man! A young Southern woman is threatened with arrest for aiding the rebels. The United States signs a treaty with some Native Americans but will never keep the promises. Soldiers write home. The world continues turning.

seal of Sanitary commission

April 21– Thursday– Salem, Massachusetts– “I have been very much interested in your hospital work, of which I have heard through my brother, Dr. Russell of Boston. I inclose seventy-five dollars, which I have collected among a few friends in Salem, and which I hope may be of some little service to our brave boys, who surely should not suffer while we have the power to help them. You have our warmest sympathy in your generous work, and though sad to witness so much suffering, it is indeed a privilege to be able to do something to alleviate it. I hope to be able to send you an addition to this contribution, and thought of waiting for a larger sum, but I see that you are having numbers of sick sent in to Washington daily, so you will be in immediate want of money.” ~ Letter from Lucia Jane Russell Briggs, the wife of the pastor of the First Parish Church, to Walt Whitman. [Her $75 would equal $1150 in today’s money, using the Consumer Price Index.]

April 21– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– “There was a pleasant party at our house last evening, with an attendance of about three hundred. All passed off pleasantly, and all who expressed themselves seemed much gratified, as we were. It is spoken of as one of the most agreeable parties of the season.” ~ Diary of Gideon Welles.

April 21– Thursday– Washington, D.C.– The Senate ratifies a treaty between the United States and Red Lake and Pembina bands of Chippewa Indians. In key parts the treaty provides that in return for the ceding of valuable lands in Minnesota and in lieu of previously agreed annuities, the “United States will also expend annually, for the period of fifteen years, for the Red Lake band of Chippewas, for the purpose of supplying them with gilling-twine, cotton mater, calico, linsey, blankets, sheeting, flannels, provisions, farming-tools, and for such other useful articles, and for such other useful purposes as may be deemed for their best interests, the sum of eight thousand dollars: and will expend in like manner, and for a like period, and for like purposes, for the Pembina band of Chippewas, the sum of four thousand dollars. . . . [and] to furnish said bands of Indians, for the period of fifteen years, one blacksmith, one physician, one miller, and one farmer; and will also furnish them annually, during the same period, with fifteen hundred dollars worth of iron, steel, and other articles for blacksmithing purposes, and one thousand dollars for carpentering, and other purposes.” [The United States will default on all of these provisions.]

April 21– Thursday– Morton Hall, Virginia– “Every thing seems to work well this & by God’s blessing I think it will be to us the most successful year of the war – Every thing here is very quiet but the storm may come at any time. I think we are ready for it & that we shall succeed. Everything here is as quiet as the country away from the army – we only see the soldiers now & then as they go to or return from picket. The General intends to go into camp in a day or so, so that we may get used to it. The grass is very nice & green here & our horses are doing well – if we can stay here a short time they will improve much. The Chief Commissary sent us some fine fish today – I wish I could send mine up to you – they issue good rations to our troops, better than ever before – but corn meal is the only bread stuff they issue now.” ~ Letter from Confederate officer Jedediah Hotchkiss to his wife, Sara.

April 21– Thursday– Memphis, Tennessee– “I went round according to appointment, met Captain Woodward at 11 o’clock. Colonel Patterson went with me. Captain Woodward had not seen the Provost Marshall, he went as soon as I left, came round to Mrs. Facklen’s after dinner, and brought bad news. . . . he could not treat me as the order read– it was issued from old [Union General] Hurlbut, I was to be arrested and carried to Alton [Ohio] on first Boat that passed– for carrying letters through the lines, and smuggling, and aiding the Rebellion in every way in my power– he sent me word I must not think of attending Jennie Eave’s wedding, or go out of doors at all, he would be compelled to arrest me if it came to him Officially, but as my Father was a Royal Arch Mason, and [he] a Mason, he would take no steps, if I would be quiet.” ~ Diary of Belle Edmondson.

April 21– Thursday– Camden County, Georgia– “Mrs Linn and baby thrive well. She has nothing to live on but corn meal and rice; but she is very uncomplaining and bears all patiently. We are making inquiries of all we see if there is anything in the shape of edibles to be found in the county; but nobody knows of anything– not a point! The pickets are living on field peas and rice, and the animals are suffering. There is money enough and nothing to buy.” ~ Diary of Julia Johnson Fisher.

April 21– Thursday– off the coast of Velasco, Texas– The British ship Laura, trying to run the blockade, is seized by a Union warship.

April 21– Thursday– Tunica Bend, Louisiana; Cotton Plant, Arkansas; Harrison’s Gap, Alabama; Masonborough Inlet, North Carolina; Cane Patch, South Carolina– Hit-and-run fights, raids and bloody affairs.

April 21–Thursday– Erfurt, Germany– Birth of Max Weber, sociologist, philosopher and political economist. [Dies June 14, 1920.]

 

Max Weber at age 30

Max Weber at age 30

April 22– Friday– New York City– “The massacre stands without a parallel – words can give no adequate idea of the blood and destruction. Evermore the place will be held in horror and known as the spot where the blackest deed of the war recorded itself.” ~ New York Times comments about Fort Pillow.

April 22– Friday– Dayton, Ohio– John Dobbins, a deserter from the Union Army, is hanged for murdering a Mr Lindenwood during a drunken brawl in February of 1863. “One of the clergymen present then offered up a prayer, after which Dobbins arose and repeated some original lines of poetry, commencing ‘Adieu to all, of high or low degree,’ when the Sheriff adjusted the noose about his neck. He was perfectly calm; he assisted the Sheriff in the adjustment of the rope by moving his head, so as to accommodate the noose; and he several times cautioned the officers to ‘be sure that the rope was fixed right, so as to do the deed quickly.’ These were his last words, and he shook hands with the Sheriff, who stepped from the fatal platform. The next instant, at precisely 10 1/2 o’clock, the trap sunk, and Dobbins passed into eternity. The dreadful work had been done most thoroughly.” ~ as reported in the New York Times on April 24.

April 22– Friday– Richmond, Virginia– “The female Yankee surgeon captured by our pickets a short time since, in the neighborhood of the army of Tennessee, was received in this city yesterday evening, and sent to the Castle in charge of a detective. Her appearance on the street in full male costume, with the exception of a gypsy hat, created quite an excitement amongst the idle Negroes and boys who followed and surrounded her. She gave her name as Dr. Mary E. Walker, and declared that she had been captured on neutral ground. She was dressed in black pants and black or dark talma or paletot. She was consigned to the female ward of Castle Thunder, there being no accommodations at the Libby for prisoners of her sex. We must not omit to add that she is ugly and skinny, and apparently above thirty years of age.” ~ Richmond Sentinel. [Walker (1832-1919), a trained and advanced thinking physician, wore a modified officer’s uniform because of the demands of traveling with soldiers and working in field hospitals, but kept her hair long so that people would know she was a woman. She carried two pistols at all times and occasionally smoked a cigar as did Generals Grant and Sherman. Upon their recommendation she will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. See Dr Mary Walker: The Little Lady in Pants by Charles McCool Snyder (1962).]

 

Dr Mary E Walker wearing her Medal of Honor

Dr Mary E Walker wearing her Medal of Honor

April 22– Friday– Orange County, Virginia– “Mag, you’ve spoiled me writing to me so often, and if you don’t continue I am afraid I will go craving you to please write to me oftener, for awhile, at least until the coming campaign commences. I wish I could write you an entire letter without a single reference to military affairs; but being directly in the war, how can I do otherwise? The day appointed by President Davis and recommended by our beloved commander, General Lee, for fasting and prayer, was, I am proud to say, properly observed in our brigade. Prayer meeting was held twice, and two excellent sermons delivered on that day. Since that time I have seen Mr. Hyman, a Baptist minister of Thomas Georgia Brigade, baptize and receive into the Baptist church, nine of our best soldiers. On the night of the same day, quite a number were sprinkled into the Methodist Church. We were to be reinforced from some point. Subsequent events have proven that we were right in our conjectures. From all accounts Longstreet’s corps is undoubtedly at Charlottesville, about twenty-five miles from this place. There is no doubt now that our brigade will in a few days be reinforced by the addition of the sixty third Georgia Regiment, for some time stationed in Savannah, and the tenth Georgia Battalion.” ~ Letter from Confederate soldier Alva Benjamin Spencer to his fiancee.

April 22– Friday– Camden County, Georgia– “There is a better state of things today. Kate has sent us a nice piece of beef and Mrs. Linn a piece also. The cows are now coming in and we shall fare very well with milk.” ~ Diary of Julia Johnson Fisher.

 April 22– Friday– Wortley, England– Birth of Phil May, one of the finest cartoonist and caricature artists of the nineteenth century. [Dies August 5, 1903.]

 

Phil May~self portrait

Phil May~self portrait

April 23– Saturday– New York City– “There is now an overwhelming and painfully minute mass of proof of the truth of the first reports of the rebel massacre of our troops, black and white, at Fort Pillow. We have had, and have given, the evidence of eye-witnesses, the evidence of victims offered in their last moments, the evidence of persons who visited the scene of the butchery immediately after it, and we have had other evidence not less conclusive, such as the arrival at Cairo of some of the bodies, which bore upon them marks of the worst barbarities charged against the rebels. It now only requires the official statement of the officers appointed to investigate the matter, to furnish irrefragable proof for history. It was super-serviceable labor on the part of any one to deny the massacre, in behalf of the rebels. Jeff Davis officially proclaimed this to be his policy, and he was backed up in his ferocious proclamation by the whole rebel press. To deny that the rebels would carry out their measure is preposterous to the perception of all of us who know that, atrocious as rebel threats have been, their deeds have always been more bloody than their threats.” ~ New York Times.

 

activity at the New York Sanitary Fair

activity at the New York Sanitary Fair

April 23– Saturday– New York City– The Sanitary Fair closes today, bringing in close to $1,000,000 for the work of the U S Sanitary Commission.